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27 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Fernando Casanova Lugo
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1.
Artículo
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Fine root density and vertical distribution of Leucaena leucocephala and grasses in silvopastoral systems under two harvest intervals
Montejo Martínez, David (autor) ; Díaz Echeverria, Víctor Francisco (autor) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Canul Solís, Jorge Rodolfo (autor) ; Escobedo Mex, José Guadalupe (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Agroforest Syst Volumen 94, número 3 (June 2020), páginas 843-855 ISSN: 1572-9680
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Understanding belowground morphological mechanisms of trees and grasses is a complicated task but can help in the design and management of silvopastoral systems. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the harvest intervals (i.e. 30 and 50 days) of aboveground biomass on the fine root density and vertical distribution in two silvopastoral systems (SPS): one comprising Leucaena leucocephala (legume tree) and Cynodon plectostachyus (grass) and the other L. leucocephala and Panicum maximum. We used a completely randomized design with four repetitions. We sampled fine roots by using a metal cylinder (8 cm diameter and 50 cm length) 7 days after each harvest. We washed the samples with pressurized water to separate them from the soil. The roots were digitalized at a resolution of 600 dpi to determine the diameter and specific root length by using IJ Rhizo Ò software. Samples were subsequently dried to quantify fine root mass. We found that the greater percentages of fine roots were between 0.4 and 0.8 mm for the legume and between 0.2 and 0.4 mm for grasses. The fine root length and mass density of P. maximum was higher (P\0.001) compared to C. plectostachyus in both harvest intervals. However, the fine root density of L. leucocephala did not vary between SPS (P> 0.05). The effect of harvest interval was significant only in some soil layers in both SPS (P> 0.05). Most of the pasture roots were found in the upper soil layer (0–20 cm), while L. leucocephala roots were present to deeper soil layers. We conclude that P. maximum has a greater rooting capacity and amore rapid recovery than C. plectostachyus, which has greater diameters and lower root density. However, L. leucocephala presented deeper and thicker fine rootsin both SPS, which is a good indication of its belowground recovery capacity to aboveground disturbances.


2.
Artículo
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of tropical tree foliage on intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance in sheep fed with a diet based on fresh chopped Pennisetum purpureum. Four male Pelibuey sheep were used, with an average live weight of 22 ± 1.5 kg, distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square design. Treatments were P. purpureum (T1), P. purpureum + Brosimum alicastrum (T2), P. purpureum + Guazuma ulmifolia (T3), and P. purpureum + Piscidia piscipula (T4). Tree foliage was incorporated into the ration at a proportion rate of 300 g/kg of dry matter (DM). Intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance were measured during 24 h periods for 7 days. DM intake, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) intakes were not affected (P > 0.05) by including tree foliage (an average of 892.7, 784.2, and 88.9 g/day, respectively). OM and CP digestibility was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, digestibility of DM and NDF was lower (P < 0.05) in T2 and T4 than in T1 (DM = 570, 560, and 662.5 g/kg; NDF = 687.0, 650.9, and 772.1 g/kg, respectively). We conclude that providing 30% of the ration in DM of foliage of B. alicastrum, G. ulmifolia, and P. piscipula improves CP intake and reduces NDF intake, thereby improving digestibility of OM, CP in sheep, which indicates that the foliage of these tree species may be used as a protein supplement during the dry season in tropical regions.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Carbon storage in a silvopastoral system compared to that in a deciduous dry forest in Michoacán, Mexico
López Santiago, José Germain (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Díaz Echeverria, Víctor Francisco (autor) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Martínez Zurimendi, Pablo (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ; Chay Canul, Alfonso Juventino (autor) ;
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Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 93, no. 1 (Fabruary 2019), p. 199-211 ISSN: 0167-4366
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Livestock production in the tropics contributes significantly to global greenhouse gas emissions, so better understanding the role of silvopastoral systems (SPS) in mitigating such emissions is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amounts of carbon stored in the biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) components of a Leucaena leucocephala cum Panicum maximum silvopasture system (SPS) compared to a deciduous tropical forest (DTF), and a grass monoculture (GM) in Michoacán, Mexico. The above- and below-ground biomass were measured by destructive sampling in the SPS and GM, while previously reported allometric equations were used to quantify biomass stocks in the DTF. The SOC concentration up to 30 cm was determined by dry combustion method. The SPS and DTF contained more aboveground biomass (41.8 ± 3.30 and 36.7 ± 5.72 Mg DM ha−¹) compared to GM (8.0 ± 0.76 Mg DM ha−¹). However, the SPS exhibited greater belowground biomass (16.4 ± 1.95 Mg DM ha−¹) than the other systems. The DTF had the highest SOC fraction in all depth classes with values ranging from 3.1 ± 0.07% to 3.7 ± 0.06%, respectively, compared to the other systems. The total carbon stocks in SPS was similar to DTF (120.7 ± 10.97 vs. 120.9 ± 6.38 Mg C ha−¹) but was significantly higher than GM (78.2 ± 8.41 Mg C ha−¹). In dry tropical conditions, SPS displays enormous potential for increasing biomass and soil carbon stocks compared to the GM and can thus be used as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in livestock production systems.


4.
Artículo
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Macro-invertebrate diversity in silvopastoral systems of Southern Quintana Roo, Mexico. The diversity of macro-invertebrates is related to the state of disturbance of the soil, caused mainly by the land-use change for agricultural activities. A strategy for the conservation of these organisms is the implementation of diversified production systems such as silvopastoral systems. However, in the Southeast of Mexico, information is still limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the richness, abundance and composition of macro-invertebrates in four contrasting agro-ecosystems: two silvopastoral systems made of Leucaena leucocephala and associated pastures (i.e. Panicum maximum cv mombaza and Cynodon plectostachyus ), a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha with scattered trees in low density and, a medium-statured tropical dry forest. In each system, an area of one hectare was delimited and a transect of 50 m in length was established in which five pit-fall traps were placed every 10 m. The sampling was carried out in February and May of 2018 and in each month five collections were made with five-day intervals. A total of 1 737 organisms belonging to 10 orders of the class Insecta and one of the class Gastropoda were collected.

The medium-statured tropical dry forest (923 individuals) and the silvopastoral systems of L. leucocephala with C. Plectostachyus (354 individuals) show the highest abundance of macro-invertebrates. The most abundant genera were: Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Aracninae and Orthoptera. The higher macro-invertebrate diversity was found in the silvopastoral systems of L. leucocephala with P. maximum (H ‘= 1.58) and L. leucocephala with C. plectostachyus (H’ = 1.44). The results show that livestock systems managed with woody components (trees or shrubs) are home of an important abundance and richness of macro-invertebrates, compared to tropical forests. This diversity of macro-invertebrates may contribute to the integrity and functionality of the agro-ecosystems.


5.
Artículo
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Diversity of soil macro-arthropods correlates to the richness of plant species in traditional agroforestry systems in the humid tropics of Mexico
Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Lara Pérez, Luis A. (autor) ; Oros Ortega, Iván (autor) ; Ramírez Barajas, Pablo Jesús (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Ramos Reyes, Rodimiro (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ;
Contenido en: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Vol. 286, no. 106658 (2019), p. 1-7 ISSN: 0167-8809
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

A change in land use from forest to livestock and agriculture is generally linked to a potentially devastating effect on communities offlora and fauna. Tabasco is a state with the highest deforestation rate in the humid tropics of Mexico; more than 66% of its territory is currently occupied by livestock farming. Here, we evaluated the diversity of soil macro-arthropods and plant species richness in eight different, traditional agroforestry systems (AFS): family garden (FG), shade trees in plantations (ShTP), scattered trees in pastures (ScTP), living fences(LF), alley farming (AF), taungya systems (TG), slash and burn agriculture (SBA) and grazing plantations (GP). First, we recorded the biophysical information of the AFS, age and management of the system, richness of the plant community, and other general characteristics. Then, we collected of macro-arthropods in 49 plots of land in five sub-regions of Tabasco. We established ten pitfall traps in each plot during the dry season (March–May 2009).

To compare the diversity of soil macro-arthropods among the AFS, we computed the species accumu-lation curves and calculated the diversity indexes. We found that the total plant richness varied among the AFSand ordered as FG (108), ShTP (106), ScTP (32), LF (38), AF (30), TG (16), SBA (0) and GP (2). We collected42,269 individuals of arthropods, belonging to 15 orders in the eight AFS. The most abundant orders wereHymenoptera and Coleoptera, while the least abundant was Dermaptera. The SBA, FG, ShTP, and ScTP systemspresented the higher diversity of macro-arthropods as shown by Shannon-Wiener index (H’) values. We alsofound a significant positive correlation (rs= 0.84) between macro-arthropod order diversity (H’) and plantspecies richness in the most common AFS. The study showed that the AFS with greater plant species richness areimportant agricultural production strategies that increase the diversity and conservation of soil macro-ar-thropods.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Traditional uses of dispersed trees in the pastures of the mountainous region of Tabasco, Mexico
Villanueva Partida, Carlos R. ; Fernando Casanova Lugo (coaut.) ; González Valdivia, Noel Antonio (coaut.) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (coaut.) ; Oros Ortega, Iván (coaut.) ; Cetzal Ix, William Rolando ; Kumar Basu, Saikat (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 93, no. 2 (April 2019), p. 383-394 ISSN: 0167-4366
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The rapid deforestation in the state of Tabasco due to extensive livestock farming has resulted in the decrease of the original forest cover. Only 4% of the original vegetation remains and that vegetation is concentrated in the mountainous regions of the state. This destructive process continues due to support by the current government livestock policies. Under these circumstances, the traditional silvopastoral systems of dispersed trees can present an option for reversing and mitigating deforestation practices. The objective of this study was to generate information on the tree species common to silvopastoral systems of dispersed trees in the pastures for two mountainous areas in Tabasco. In the study, 64 tree species, representing 26 plant families were identified. All species were characterized as multipurpose, with at least three reported uses and a maximum of seven for each species. In total, nine categories of local uses were identified for the trees. The main category of use was fuel (firewood), followed by timber and shade for the livestock. Although leguminous species (Fabaceae) were dominant, these species were utilized for uses other than the provision of fodder. Since 12 of the total species identified were recognized as sources of food for animals; the assumption that livestock farmers do not recognize the utility of these species for improving production yields is apparent. The results suggest that there is potential need to expand research and offer further education on the subject in Tabasco.


7.
Capítulo de libro
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Árboles y arbustos tropicales y su contribución en la alimentación de rumiantes
Pérez Can, G. E. (autor) ; Uc Zapata, W. G. (autor) ; Uicab Chim, D. E. (autor) ; Sanginés García, José Roberto (autor) ; Aguilar Urquizo, Edgar (autor) ; Chay Canul, Alfonso Juventino (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Canul Solís, Jorge Rodolfo (autor) ; Jiménez Ferrer, Guillermo (autor) ; Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (autor) ; Piñeiro Vázquez, Ángel Trinidad (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Agroecosistemas tropicales: conservación de recursos naturales y seguridad alimentaria / William Cetzal Ix, Fernando Casanova Lugo, Alfonso J. Chay Canul, Jesús F. Martínez Puc, editores Ciudad de México, México : Tecnológico Nacional de México. Instituto Tecnológico de Chiná. Instituto Tecnológico de la Zona Maya, 2019 páginas 408-415 ISBN:978-607-96575-8-1
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Resumen en español

El objetivo de esta revisión de literatura tiene como objetivo conocer el potencial de los follajes y frutos de árboles y arbustos de las regiones tropicales los cuales pueden ser una estrategia de suplementación en las épocas de secas. Las arbóreas tropicales pueden reducir el costo por concepto de alimentación ya que algunos frutos como el Enterolobium cyclocarpum que contienen hasta 17% de proteína cruda (PC) y puede llegar a ser incorporado en la ración de ovinos de pelo hasta en un 40% sin reducir el consumo voluntario y la digestibilidad. Los follajes de las arbóreas tropicales tienen un contenido de PC entre el 10 y 24% superior al de los pastos tropicales durante las secas (<7%) estos follajes pueden ser incorporados hasta en un 30% de la MS ofrecida, sin observar reducción del consumo y digestibilidad. En el cuadro 3 y 4 se observa que el incremento de la inclusión del follaje de las arbóreas tropicales mejora el consumo y la digestibilidad de la PC lo cual puede estar influenciado por la baja cantidad de compuestos estructurales que los hace más susceptibles a la fermentación microbiana. Además, estos recursos locales contienen metabolitos secundarios como saponinas y taninos que modifican los consorcios microbianos y la fermentación ruminal siendo aliados naturales para la mitigación de las emisiones de metano. Se concluye que el follaje y frutos de árboles y arbustos representan una fuente de proteína y energía para la alimentación de rumiantes en las épocas de secas.


8.
Tesis - Maestría
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Índice | Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

El presente estudio se realizó en la Sierra del municipio de Tacotalpa, Tabasco, de enero a octubre de 2017, con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial del sistema ganadero con árboles dispersos en potreros (ADP) conformados por árboles de Cordia alliadora, Cedrela odorata, Spondias mombin y Zanthoxylum kellermanii para almacenar carbono en la biomasa (aérea y subterránea) y en el suelo, así como cuantificar los flujos de dióxido de carbono del suelo, con relación a un sistema ganadero convencional basado en el monocultivo de pasto (MP) de Brachiaria decumbens, en condiciones del trópico húmedo. Adicionalmente, se analizaron algunas propiedades del suelo en dichos sistemas. Se seleccionaron cinco parcelas aleatoriamente por sistema ganadero. Los resultados sobre el almacenamiento de carbono en los reservorios (biomasa arbórea y pastos) para el sistema ganadero con ADP fue de 38.68 y 9.29 Mg de C ha-¹. Mientras que para el sistema ganadero en MP el pasto almacenó 10.33 Mg de C ha-¹. Con relación al almacenamiento de carbono en el suelo, los resultados muestran una diferencia estadística entre los sistemas, el sistema con ADP almacenó 230.10 Mg C ha-¹, y el sistema ganadero en MP 142.14 Mg C ha-¹. En ambos sistemas el reservorio suelo almacenó aproximadamente más del 70% del total del sistema. Además, el comportamiento de los flujos de CO² del suelo, fue estadísticamente diferente entre los sistemas, el sistema ganadero con ADP emitió 4.30 μmol /m²/s y 6.72 μmol /m²/s el sistema ganadero en MP respectivamente. Se concluye que el sistema ganadero con ADP es una buena alternativa para almacenar carbono atmosférico y retenerlo en el componente arbóreo e incorporarlo al suelo a mayor profundidad, además, de regular los flujos de CO2 volviéndolos más estables con relación al sistema ganadero en MP.

Índice

Resumen
Capítulo 1. Introducción
Emisiones de CO2
Almacenamiento de Carbono
Los sistemas silvopastoriles y el almacenamiento de carbono
Preguntas de investigación
Hipótesis
Objetivo general
Objetivos específicos
Literatura Citada
Capítulo 2. Variaciones Diurnas y Estacionales de los Flujos de CO2 del Suelo en Sistemas Ganaderos Con Árboles Dispersos en Potreros en el Trópico Húmedo de México
Resumen
Introducción
Materiales y Métodos
Descripción del sitio de estudio
Sistemas ganaderos
Diseño experimental
Medición de los flujos de CO2 en el suelo
Análisis estadístico
Resultados y Discusión
Flujos de CO2, humedad y temperatura del suelo en sistemas ganaderos
Variación estacional de flujos de CO2, humedad y temperatura del suelo
Variación diurna de flujos de CO2, humedad y temperatura del suelo
Conclusiones
Agradecimientos
Literatura Citada
Capítulo 3. Almacenamiento de Carbono Orgánico en la Biomasa (Aérea y Subterránea) y en el Suelo en un Sistema Ganadero Con Árboles Dispersos en Potreros, Con Relación A un Sistema Ganadero en Monocultivo de Pasto
Introducción
Materiales y Métodos
Sitio de estudio
Descripción de los sistemas
Diseño experimental
Muestreo de biomasa arbórea
Muestreo de biomasa herbácea
Muestreo del suelo
Análisis de laboratorio
Estimación de biomasa arbórea y herbácea
Cuantificación del C en la biomasa arbórea y herbácea
Cuantificación del carbono orgánico del suelo
Almacenamiento de C en el sistema
Análisis estadísticos
Resultados
Biomasa arbórea y contenido de carbono
Biomasa de pastos y almacenamiento de carbono
Contenido de carbono orgánico del suelo
Carbón orgánico almacenado en el suelo
Discusión
Biomasa arbórea y contenido de carbono
Biomasa de pastos y contenido de carbono
Carbón orgánico almacenado en el suelo
Conclusiones
Literatura Citada

Capítulo 4. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones Generales
Almacenamiento de C en los sistemas ganaderos de estudio
Flujos de CO2 en los sistemas ganaderos de estudio


9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Carbon stocks in biomass and soils of woody species fodder banks in the dry tropics of Mexico
Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Petit Aldana, Judith (autora) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (autor) ; Ward, Sheila Emily (autora) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Soil Use and Management Vol. 34, no. 4 (December 2018), p. 500-509 ISSN: 2007-4476
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Understanding carbon (C) dynamics of the silvopastoral systems can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the C concentration and storage in above- and belowground tree biomass as well as in the soils of fodder banks of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia (Lam.) or a combination of the both species. The above- and belowground biomass was quantified by the destructive sampling. We also obtained samples from soil pits, 20-cm deep, and determined bulk density and organic carbon concentration. The mixed species banks produced more foliage dry matter (DM) (6.3 t DM/ha) than the pure fodder banks. The total living biomass stocks ranged from 31.5 to 33.5 t DM/ha and did not differ between fodder bank types. The tissue C concentration was greater in stems (45.1%) and roots (44.9%) compared to the foliage component (43.4%). Total soil carbon (TSC) in the 5–10 cm layer was greater in the fodder banks with legumes alone than in mixed species banks (35.7 vs. 30.8 t C/ha). TSC storage in the 15–20 cm layer was greater in the nonlegume fodder bank than in the legume fodder bank (39.8 vs. 34.5 t C/ha). However, to the 0–20 cm layer, TSC was similar for all fodder banks. Thus, the three types of fodder banks had similar total C storage in plant biomass and soil, but the production of foliage biomass was higher in the mixed species banks.


10.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
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Efecto de la inclusión de taninos condensados de quebracho sobre el patrón de fermentación y producción de metano en novillas alimentadas con Pennisetum purpureum
Piñeiro Vázquez, Ángel Trinidad ; Chay Canul, Alfonso Juventino (coaut.) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (coaut.) ; Sanginés García, José Roberto (coaut.) ; Aguilar Urquizo, Edgar (coaut.) ; Canul Solís, Jorge Rodolfo (coaut.) ; Jiménez Ferrer, Guillermo (coaut.) ; Ku Vera, Juan Carlos (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Avances de la investigación sobre producción animal y seguridad alimentaria en México Morelia, Michoacán, México : Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, 2018 p. 725-730
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Resumen en español

El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de los taninos condensados de quebracho (TCQ) sobre el consumo de alimento, la digestibilidad de la materia seca (MS) y las emisiones de metano (CH4) en novillas alimentadas con pasto Pennisetum purpureum de baja calidad. Cinco vaquillas (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) con un peso vivo promedio (PV) de 295 ± 19 kg se asignaron a cinco tratamientos (0, 1, 2, 3 y 4% TCQ/kg DM) en un diseño en cuadrado latino de 5 x 5. El consumo, la digestibilidad y las emisiones de metano (L/día) se registraron durante períodos de 23 h, cuando se encontraban dentro de las cámaras de respiración de circuito abierto. El consumo de materia seca (CMS); consumo de materia orgánica (CMO); la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS); y la digestibilidad de la materia orgánica (DMO) fue diferente entre tratamientos con 0 y 4% de TCQ/kg de MS (P <0.05). La proporción molar de propionato aumentó linealmente (P<0.01) para tratamientos con TCQ de 3 y 4%. disminuyó linealmente (P<0.01) cuando TCQ aumentó en la dieta, particularmente con en concentración de 3 y 4%. Se concluye que la adición de TCQ en 2 o 3% en la ración puede disminuir la producción de metano de 29 a 41% respectivamente, sin comprometer significativamente el consumo de alimento y la digestibilidad de los nutrientes.

Resumen en inglés

The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of quebracho tannins condensed (QTC) on feed intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility and methane (CH4) emissions in cattle fed low-quality Pennisetum purpureum grass. Five heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with an average live weight (LW) of 295 ± 19 kg were allotted to five treatments (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % QTC /kg DM) in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Intake, digestibility and methane emissions (L/day) were recorded for periods of 23 h when cattle were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Dry matter intake (DMI); organic matter intake (OMI); dry matter digestibility (DMD); and organic matter digestibility (OMD) was different between treatments with 0 and 4% of QTC /kg DM (P<0.05). The molar proportion of propionate increased linearly (P<0.01) for treatments with 3 and 4 % QTC. Total CH4 production decreased linearly (P<0.01) as QTC increased in the diet, particularly with 3 and 4 % concentration. It is concluded that the addition of QTC in 2 or 3% in the ration can decrease the production of methane from 29 to 41% respectively, without significantly compromising the intake of food and the digestibility of nutrients.