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7 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Fiorenza, Micheli
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1.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
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From fishing fish to fishing data: the role of artisanal fishers in conservation and resource management in Mexico
Fulton, Stuart (autor) ; Hernández Velasco, Arturo (autor) ; Suarez Castillo, Alvin (autor) ; Fernández Rivera Melo, Francisco (autor) ; Rojo, Mario (autor) ; Sáenz Arroyo de los Cobos, María Andrea (autora) (1971-) ; Hudson Weaver, Amy (coaut.) ; Cudney Bueno, Richard (autor) ; Micheli, Fiorenza (autora) ; Torre, Jorge (autor) ;
Contenido en: Viability and sustainability of small-scale fisheries in Latin America and the Caribbean / Silvia Salas, María José Barragán Paladines Ratana Chuenpagdee, editors Cham, Switzerland : Springer International Publishing : Springer Nature, 2019 p. 151-175 ISBN:978-3-319-76077-3
Bibliotecas: Campeche
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SIBE Campeche
59533-10 (Disponible)
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Although, the involvement of artisanal fishing communities in conservation and management is now commonplace, their participation rarely goes beyond providing local and traditional knowledge to visiting scientists and managers. Communities are often excluded from ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and decision-making, even though these measures can have tremendous impacts on their liveli-hoods. For the past 17 years, we have designed, tested, and implemented a community-based monitoring model in three key marine ecosystems in Mexico: the kelp forests of Pacific Baja California, the rocky reefs of the Gulf of California, and the coral reefs of the Mesoamerican Reef System. This model is intended to engage local fishers in data collection by fulfilling two principal objectives: (1) to achieve science-based conservation and management decisions and (2) to improve liveli-hoods through access to knowledge and temporary employment. To achieve these goals, over 400 artisanal fishers and community members have participated in a nationwide marine reserve program. Of these, 222 fishers, including 30 women, have been trained to conduct an underwater visual census using SCUBA gear, and, to date, over 12,000 transects have been completed. Independent scientists periodically evaluate the training process and standards, and the data contribute to international monitoring efforts. This successful model is now being adopted by both civil society and government for use in different parts of Mexico and neighbouring countries. Empowering community members to collect scientific data creates responsibility, pride, and a deeper understanding of the ecosystem in which they live and work, providing both social and ecological benefits to the community and marine ecosystem.


2.
Artículo - Restringido
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Climate change is warming, deoxygenating, and acidifying the ocean at an unprecedented rate. However, responses to large-scale forcing are variable at relatively small spatial scales, creating marine microclimates. Marine microclimates can providespatial refuges (safe spaces) or local adaptation that may be harnessed to improve marine conservation and management. We analyze multiyear data sets within two fishing cooperatives in Baja California, Mexico, to quantify small-scale ocean variability, describe the degree to which this variability affects the abundance of species, and discuss the potential for marine microclimates to improve conservation and management efforts. We find that variation in ocean conditions and species abundances at scales of a few kilometers is striking and robust to large-scale climate forcing. We posit that incorporation of marine microclimates into fisheries management and conservation efforts can improve ecosystem sustainability by allowing localadaptation and maintenance of spatial refuges in the face of climate change.


3.
Artículo
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Local response to global uncertainty: insights from experimental economics in small-scale fisheries
Finkbeiner, Elena M. (autora) ; Micheli, Fiorenza (autora) ; Sáenz Arroyo de los Cobos, María Andrea (autora) (1971-) ; Vázquez Vera, Leonardo (autor) ; Perafan, C. A. (coaut.) ; Cárdenas, Juan Camilo (autor) ;
Contenido en: Global Environmental Change Vol. 48 (January 2018), p. 151-157 ISSN: 0959-3780
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Resumen en: Inglés |
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Global change has systematically increased uncertainty for people balancing short-term needs with long-term resource sustainability. Here, we aim to understand how uncertainty drives changes in human behavior and the underlying mechanisms mediating use of behavioral strategies. We utilize a novel behavioral approach – dynamic common-pool resource economic experiments in the field – and apply it to small-scale fisheries as a system that is particularly vulnerable to global change. Contrary to previous research, we find that when faced with higher uncertainty, resource users are choosing to reduce harvest to compensate for potential future declines. Correlates of this behavior include the capacity for social learning, previous exposure to uncertainty, and strong local institutions. These findings have important implications for any local system facing increased uncertainty from global change. Given adequate access to resources and rights, local communities can be active agents of change, capable of addressing and mitigating impacts of processes generated by higher scales.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Exploring the role of gender in common-pool resource extraction: evidence from laboratory and field experiments in fisheries
Revollo Fernández, Daniel Alfredo (autor) ; Aguilar Ibarra, Alonso (autor) ; Micheli, Fiorenza (autora) ; Sáenz Arroyo de los Cobos, María Andrea (autor) (1971-) ;
Contenido en: Applied Economics Letters Vol. 23, no. 13 (2016), p. 912-920 ISSN: 1466-4291
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

There is active debate on gender issues in natural resource management. For example, it is proposed that women are more cooperative than men when dealing with natural resources decisions; however, few scientific studies have directly addressed this hypothesis. We provide evidence for a greater cooperative attitude in women compared to men in both college students and coastal fishing communities of Baja California, Mexico, by means of game theory experiments. In both laboratory and field experiments, women changed their behaviour towards lower extraction compared to men, when regulations, sanctions or social scolding were introduced in the games. These results suggest that raising the role of women in decision-making, along with an adequate institutional framework, may lead to a more sustainable use of natural resources.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Marine reserves help preserve genetic diversity after impacts derived from climate variability: lessons from the pink abalone in Baja California
Munguía Vega, Adrián (autor) ; Sáenz Arroyo de los Cobos, María Andrea (autora) (1971-) ; Greenley, Ashley P. (coaut.) ; Espinoza Montes, José Antonio (autor) ; Palumbi, Stephen R. (coaut.) ; Rossetto, Marisa (autora) ; Micheli, Fiorenza (autora) ;
Contenido en: Global Ecology and Conservation Vol. 4 (July 2015), p. 264–276 ISSN: 2351-9894
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Genetic diversity is crucial for the adaptation of exploited species like the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata), faced with threats from climate change, overfishing and impacts associated with aquaculture production. While marine reserves are commonly used to mitigate risks to marine populations, the duration, size, location and larval connectivity needed for a reserve to help conserve genetic resources is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of fishing, reserves, and restocking on the genetic diversity of 10 populations from central Baja California, Mexico, and Southern California, USA. We demonstrate that each population shows characteristic genetic signatures according to recent management decisions. We found high allelic diversity, particularly rare alleles, a larger effective population size and a lack of a recent genetic bottleneck in pink abalones within a small (0.8 km2), recently established (5 years) reserve in Baja California, compared to other fished sites after a climatic bottleneck. Higher diversity may result from the presence of older animals in the reserve. Due to its location, the reserve may also act as an important hub connecting distant populations via larval dispersal. In contrast, a population from California showed genetic isolation, loss of allelic diversity and high relatedness, consistent with the collapse of fisheries in the 1990s and their lack of recovery thereafter. In addition, a fished area in Baja California with a history of restocking for over a decade showed an increase in frequency of related individuals and high genetic differentiation from nearby sites that were consistent with the production of larvae from a few adults in the laboratory. A network of strategically placed small marine reserves that considers ocean circulation patterns could help to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity of exploited populations.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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No-take marine reserves can enhance population persistence and support the fishery of abalone
Rossetto, Marisa (autora) ; Micheli, Fiorenza (autora) ; Sáenz Arroyo de los Cobos, María Andrea (autora) (1971-) ; Espinoza Montes, José Antonio (autor) ; Alessandro de Leo, Giulio (autor) ;
Contenido en: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol. 72, no. 10 (October 2015), p. 1503-1517 ISSN: 0706-652X
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Resumen en: Inglés | Frances |
Resumen en inglés

A critical aspect in the design of a marine reserve (MR) network is its spatial configuration (i.e., the number, size, and spacing of the individual reserves), particularly how these features influence the effect on fisheries. Here, we derived a sizebased, spatially explicit, stochastic demographic model to explore how different spatial configurations of MR networks can affect abundance and commercial yield of the green abalone (Haliotis fulgens), taking as a reference case the abalone fishery of Isla Natividad in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Our analysis suggests that a network of MRs can have a positive effect on abalone population abundance and a slightly negative effect on fishery output with respect to traditional maximum sustainable yield (MSY; i.e., with no reserves). Simulations show that maximum catches achievable with MRs are, under the best configuration, 2%–14% lower than traditional MSY depending on the total fraction of the fishing grounds protected. In the case of overexploitation, long-term yields can increase following the implementation of MRs. In addition, in the presence of MRs, abundances and yields are much less sensitive to systematic errors in the enforcement of the optimal harvesting rate compared with situations in which MRs are not present. Given the limited dispersal ability of the species, the best outcomes in terms of fishery output would be achieved with very small reserves—around 100 m wide—so to maximize larval export in the fishable areas. Our results indicate appropriately designed MR networks are an effective strategy for meeting both conservation and economic goals under uncertainty. While the size of the existing reserves in Isla Natividad seems adequate to protect the abalone stock, smaller reserves could maximize fishery benefits, although this poses challenges for enforcement.

Resumen en frances

Un aspect clé de la conception d’un réseau de réserves marines (RM) est sa configuration spatiale, soit le nombre, la taille et l’espacement des différentes réserves, en particulier l’influence de ces caractéristiques sur l’incidence du réseau sur les pêches. Nous avons mis au point un modèle démographique stochastique spatialement explicite et basé sur la taille pour explorer l’incidence de diverses configurations spatiales de réseaux de RM sur l’abondance et le rendement commercial de l’haliotide verte (Haliotis fulgens), en utilisant comme scénario de référence la pêche aux haliotides d’Isla Navidad, en Basse- Californie du Sud (Mexique). Notre analyse donne à penser qu’un réseau de RM peut avoir un effet positif sur l’abondance de la population d’haliotides et un effet légèrement négatif sur la production de la pêche par rapport au MSY traditionnel (c.-à-d., sans réserve). Les simulations montrent que les prises maximums possibles en présence de MR sont, dans la meilleure configuration, d’environ 2 % à 14 % inférieures au MSY traditionnel, tout dépendant de la proportion cumulative protégée des zones de pêche. Dans le scénario de surexploitation, les rendements long terme peuvent augmenter après la mise en place des RM. De plus, en présence de RM, les abondances et rendements sont beaucoup moins sensibles aux erreurs systématiques dans l’application du taux de prises optimal par rapport aux situations desquelles les RM sont absentes. Étant donné la faible capacité de dispersion de l’espèce, les meilleurs résultats en termes de production de la pêche pourraient être obtenus avec de très petites réserves — d’environ 100mde largeur—afin de maximiser l’exportation de larves vers les zones ouvertes a` la pêche.

Nos résultats indiquent que des réseaux de RM bien conçus constituent une stratégie efficace pour atteindre des objectifs économiques et de conservation dans un contexte d’incertitude. Si la taille des réserves existantes a` Isla Navidad semble adéquate pour protéger le stock d’haliotides, de plus petites réserves pourraient maximiser les bénéfices pour la pêche, mais poseraient toutefois des défis en ce qui concerne leur application.


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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Environmental certification and consumer awareness programs are designed to create market incentives for implementing fisheries and aquaculture practices that are more sustainable. Typically focused on particular species and activities, such programs have so far triggered few changes to improve seafood sustainability. Here, we present a conceptual, system-wide fisheries and aquaculture certification program designed to recognize and promote change toward more sustainable and resilient seafood production systems. In contrast to previous efforts, this program concentrates on both ecosystems and various human stakeholders, relies on an adaptive management approach (termed “continual improvement”) to enhance outcomes, and considers socioeconomic factors. The goal of this program is to support the restoration and maintenance of healthy ecosystem states and thriving human communities as well as the improvement of whole social–ecological systems.