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6 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: López Romero, Sonia
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Resumen en: Inglés |
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Background: Results-based aid (RBA) is increasingly used to incentivize action in health. In Mesoamerica, the region consisting of southern Mexico and Central America, the RBA project known as the Salud Mesoamearica Initiative (SMI) was designed to target disparities in maternal and child health, focusing on the poorest 20% of the population across the region. Methods and findings: Data were first collected in 365 intervention health facilities to establish a baseline of indicators. For the first follow-up measure, 18 to 24 months later, 368 facilities were evaluated in these same areas. At both stages, we measured a near-identical set of supply-side performance indicators in line with country-specific priorities in maternal and child health. All countries showed progress in performance indicators, although with different levels. El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama reached their 18-month targets, while the State of Chiapas in Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize did not. A second follow-up measurement in Chiapas and Guatemala showed continued progress, as they achieved previously missed targets nine to 12 months later, after implementing a performance improvement plan. Conclusions: Our findings show an initial success in the supply-side indicators of SMI. Our data suggest that the RBA approach can be a motivator to improve availability of drugs and services in poor areas. Moreover, our innovative monitoring and evaluation framework will allow health officials with limited resources to identify and target areas of greatest need.


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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Background: Health has improved markedly in Mesoamerica, the region consisting of southern Mexico and Central America, over the past decade. Despite this progress, there remain substantial inequalities in health outcomes, access, and quality of medical care between and within countries. Poor, indigenous, and rural populations have considerably worse health indicators than national or regional averages. In an effort to address these health inequalities, the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 Initiative (SM2015), a results-based financing initiative, was established. Methods: For each of the eight participating countries, health targets were set to measure the progress of improvements in maternal and child health produced by the Initiative. To establish a baseline, we conducted censuses of 90,000 households, completed 20,225 household interviews, and surveyed 479 health facilities in the poorest areas of Mesoamerica. Pairing health facility and household surveys allows us to link barriers to care and health outcomes with health system infrastructure components and quality of health services. Results: Indicators varied significantly within and between countries. Anemia was most prevalent in Panama and least prevalent in Honduras. Anemia varied by age, with the highest levels observed among children aged 0 to 11 months in all settings. Belize had the highest proportion of institutional deliveries (99%), while Guatemala had the lowest (24%). The proportion of women with four antenatal care visits with a skilled attendant was highest in El Salvador (90%) and the lowest in Guatemala (20%). Availability of contraceptives also varied. The availability of condoms ranged from 83% in Nicaragua to 97% in Honduras. Oral contraceptive pills and injectable contraceptives were available in just 75% of facilities in Panama. IUDs were observed in only 21.5% of facilities surveyed in El Salvador.

Conclusions: These data provide a baseline of much-needed information for evidence-based action on health throughout Mesoamerica. Our baseline estimates reflect large disparities in health indicators within and between countries and will facilitate the evaluation of interventions and investments deployed in the region over the next three to five years. SM2015’s innovative monitoring and evaluation framework will allow health officials with limited resources to identify and target areas of greatest need. Keywords: Results-based financing, Salud Mesoamerica 2015, Vaccination, Contraceptives, Skilled birth attendance, Antenatal care, Anemia, Wasting, Health facilities


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Libro
Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

La magnitud de los problemas que en la actualidad enfrenta el mundo requiere de la cooperación internacional como una estrategia indispensable para encontrar soluciones ante desafíos que trascienden las fronteras y territorios nacionales. México reconoce la relevancia de la ciencia, la tecnología y la innovación como un motor en la transformación económica, social, política y cultural y como una herramienta para elevar las condiciones de vida de la sociedad. Sin embargo, el país no cuenta con una política articulada de cooperación internacional en materia de ciencia y tecnología que permita aprovechar al máximo el potencial y las capacidades desarrolladas en México. Esta situación requiere ser modificada si aceptamos que en la era de las tecnologías de la información, el conocimiento se convierte en el factor clave para la creación de valor y en la principal fuerza propulsora del desarrollo económico y del progreso social de los países. ¿Cuáles son las dificultades y oportunidades que enfrentan los diversos actores de la academia, gobierno, iniciativa privada y organizaciones de la sociedad civil para llevar a cabo acciones internacionales de cooperación en ciencia, tecnología e innovación?, ¿cuáles son las capacidades científicas, tecnológicas e institucionales que México ha generado y que tienen amplio potencial para la cooperación internacional? Este libro da cuenta de una investigación realizada a petición del CONACYT, que busca dar respuesta a estas preguntas. Su aporte principal lo constituye una serie de propuestas y lineamientos que debieran ser considerados para la formulación de una política pública de cooperación internacional en la materia.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

En este trabajo se determinó el patrón de uso y selección temporal y espacial de asociaciones vegetales de la liebre de Tehuantepec (Lepus flavigularis), especie endémica y en peligro de extinción. Los datos se obtuvieron con base en la densidad de liebres por conteo de excretas y registros directos en distintas asociaciones vegetales y la disponibilidad (área) de cada una, y se comparó entre estaciones seca y lluviosa en Montecillo Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, México. Se determinaron cuatro asociaciones vegetales: 1) sabana-morro, 2) sabana-nanchal, 3) matorral espinoso, y 4) bosque de galería. La sabana-nanchal fue seleccionada por la liebre utilizando las densidades con el conteo de excretas (c2 = 202.35, P = 0.05), y la sabana-morro fue seleccionada en la noche de acuerdo a los registros de liebres observadas (c2 = 6.98, P = 0.05). La selección de asociaciones vegetales no difiere entre la época seca y lluviosa. La liebre de Tehuantepec probablemente selecciona áreas abiertas con una baja densidad de arbustos. Al conocer las asociaciones vegetales seleccionadas por la liebre de Tehuantepec, será posible identificar sitios prioritarios para su conservación.

Resumen en inglés

In this work was determined the pattern of use and selection temporal and spatial of vegetal associations of the Tehuantepec jackrabbit (Lepus flavigularis), endemic species, and in risk of extinction. The data were obtained by the density by count of pellets and direct records of jackrabbits in different vegetal associations and the availability (area) of each one, and it was compared between dry and rainy seasons in Montecillo Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico. Four types of vegetal associations were determined: 1) savannahmorro, 2) savannah-nanchal, 3) thorny scrub, and 4) gallery forest. The savannah-nanchal was selected by the jackrabbit using the densities with the count of pellets (c2 = 202.35, P = 0.05), and the savannah-morro was selected at night according to the records of jackrabbits observed (c2 = 6.98, P = 0.05). The selection of vegetal associations does not differ between the dry and rainy seasons. The Tehuantepec jackrabbit probably selects opened areas with a low density of shrubs. When knowing the vegetal associations selected by the Tehuantepec jackrabbit, it will be possible to identify high-priority sites for its conservation.


5.
Libro
Los mamíferos silvestres de México / Gerardo Ceballos y Gisselle Oliva (coordinadores)
Ceballos, Gerardo (coordinador) ; Oliva, Gisselle (coordinadora) ;
Distrito Federal, México : Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad :: Fondo de Cultura Económica , 2005
Clasificación: 599.0972 / M5
Bibliotecas: Campeche , San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040003175 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010012031 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1