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13 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Lira Saade, Rafael
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1.
Artículo
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Premise: Domestication usually involves local adaptation to environmental conditions. Cucurbita species are a promising model for studying these processes. Cucurbita moschata is the third major crop in the genus because of its economic value and because it displays high landrace diversity, but research about its genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogeography is limited. We aimed at understanding how geography and elevation shape the distribution of genetic diversity in C. moschata landraces in Mexico. Methods: We sampled fruits from 24 localities throughout Mexico. We assessed 11 nuclear microsatellite loci, one mtDNA region, and three cpDNA regions but found no variation in cpDNA. We explored genetic structure with cluster analysis, and phylogeographic relationships with haplotype network analysis. Results: Mitochondrial genetic diversity was high, and nuclear genetic differentiation among localities was intermediate compared to other domesticated Cucurbita. We found high levels of inbreeding. We recovered two mitochondrial lineages: highland (associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt) and lowland. Nuclear microsatellites show that localities from the Yucatan Peninsula constitute a well-differentiated group. Conclusions: Mexico is an area of high diversity for C. moschata, and these landraces represent important plant genetic resources. In Mexico this species is characterized by divergence processes linked to an elevational gradient, which could be related to adaptation and may be of value for applications in agriculture. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec may be a partial barrier to gene flow. Morphological variation, agricultural management, and cultural differences may be related to this pattern of genetic structure, but further studies are needed.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Twenty-nine DNA regions of plastid origin have been previously identified in the mitochondrial genome of Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin; Cucurbitaceae). Four of these regions harbor homolog sequences of rbcL, matK, rpl20–rps12 and trnL–trnF, which are widely used as molecular markers for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. We extracted the mitochondrial copies of these regions based on the mitochondrial genome of C. pepo and, along with published sequences for these plastome markers from 13 Cucurbita taxa, we performed phylogenetic molecular analyses to identify inter-organellar transfer events in the Cucurbita phylogeny and changes in their nucleotide substitution rates. Phylogenetic reconstruction and tree selection tests suggest that rpl20 and rbcL mitochondrial paralogs arose before Cucurbita diversification whereas the mitochondrial matK and trnL–trnF paralogs emerged most probably later, in the mesophytic Cucurbita clade. Nucleotide substitution rates increased one order of magnitude in all the mitochondrial paralogs compared to their original plastid sequences. Additionally, mitochondrial trnL–trnF sequences obtained by PCR from nine Cucurbita taxa revealed higher nucleotide diversity in the mitochondrial than in the plastid copies, likely related to the higher nucleotide substitution rates in the mitochondrial region and loss of functional constraints in its tRNA genes.


3.
Artículo
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Tracing back the origin of pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo L.) in Mexico
Castellanos Morales, Gabriela (autora) ; Ruiz Mondragón, Karen Y. (autora) ; Hernández Rosales, Helena S. (autora) ; Sánchez de la Vega, Guillermo (autor) ; Gámez Tamariz, Niza (autora) ; Aguirre Planter, Erika (autora) ; Montes Hernández, Salvador (autor) ; Lira Saade, Rafael (autor) ; Eguiarte Fruns, Luis Enrique (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Volumen 286, número 1908 (July 2019), p. 1-9 ISSN: 1471-2954
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Cucurbita pepois an economically important crop, which consists of cultivated C. pepo ssp. pepo, and two wild taxa (C. pepo ssp. fraterna and C. pepo ssp. ovifera). We aimed at understanding the domestication and thediversity of C. pepo in Mexico. We used two chloroplast regions and nine nuclear microsatellite loci to assess the levels of genetic variation and structure for C. pepo ssp. pepo’s landraces sampled in 13 locations in Mexico, five improved varieties, one C. pepo ssp. fraterna population and ornamental C. pepo ssp. ovifera. We tested four hypotheses regarding the origin of C. pepo ssp. pepo’s ancestor through approximate Bayesian computation: C. pepo ssp. ovifera as the ancestor; C. pepo ssp. fraternaas the ancestor; an unknown extinct lineage as the ancestor; and C. pepo ssp. pepo as hybrid from C. pepo ssp. ovifera and C. pepo ssp. fraterna ancestors. Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo showed high genetic variation and low genetic differentiation. Cucurbita pepo ssp. fraterna and C. pepo ssp. pepo shared two chloroplast haplotypes. The three subspecies were well differentiated for microsatellite loci. Cucurbita pepo ssp. fraterna was probably C. pepo ssp. pepo’s wild ancestor, but subsequent hybridization between taxa complicate defining C. pepo ssp. pepo’s ancestor.


PDF
Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

La domesticación de plantas y animales permite estudiar diferentes procesos evolutivos, como la selección, adaptación y especiación. En este artículo se describen avances recientes en el estudio de las calabazas, las cuales constituyen el género Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) siendo un grupo de plantas herbáceas americanas que incluyen entre 12 y 15 especies. Cucurbita ha tenido seis eventos de domesticación, de los cuales cuatro sucedieron en México. Este es un género relativamente reciente, que surgió en Norte América hace 16 millones de años y sus especies cultivadas mantienen una alta variación genética; Cucurbita pepo es la especie que presenta mayor variación genética,variación asociada a dos domesticaciones independientes, una en el norte de México, y otra en el Sureste de los Estados Unidos. En otra especie, Cucurbita argyrosperma, sus poblaciones de la Península de Yucatán, representan una poza genética diferenciada del resto de la especie. El estudio del genoma de C. argyrosperma y taxa cercanos ha revelado las regiones de su genoma asociadas a la domesticación. Las poblaciones de las especies de este género representan una fuente de importantes recursos genéticos frente al cambio climático y constituyen un buen sistema para el estudio de la domesticación y de diferentes procesos evolutivos.

Resumen en inglés

The domestication of plants and animals allows the study of different evolutionary processes, including selection, adaptation and speciation. Here we describe recent advances in the study of pumpkins and squashes, which constitute the genus Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae), being a group of herbaceous plants from the Americas that include between 12 and 15 species. Cucurbita has had six domestication events, four of them occurred in Mexico. This is a relatively recent genus that originated in North America 16 million years ago and its cultivated species maintain high levels of genetic variation. Cucurbita pepo is the species with the highest genetic diversity, diversity associated to two independent domestications, one in Northern Mexico and the other in Southern United States. In another species, Cucurbita argyrosperma, the populations from Yucatan Peninsula represents a genetic pool differentiated from the rest of the species. The study of the genome of C. argyrosperma and related taxa has revealed the regions of its genome associated with domestication. The populations of the species of this genus represent a source of important genetic resources in the face of climate change and constitute a good system for the study of domestication and of different evolutionary processes.


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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Analyses of genetic variation allow understanding the origin, diversification and genetic resources of cultivated plants. Domesticated taxa and their wild relatives are ideal systems for studying genetic processes of plant domestication and their joint is important to evaluate the distribution of their genetic resources. Such is the case of the domesticated subspecies C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma, known in Mexico as calabaza pipiana, and its wild relative C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia. The main aim of this study was to use molecular data (microsatellites) to assess the levels of genetic variation and genetic differentiation within and among populations of domesticated argyrosperma across its distribution in Mexico in comparison to its wild relative, sororia, and to identify environmental suitability in previously proposed centers of domestication. We analyzed nine unlinked nuclear microsatellite loci to assess levels of diversity and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations in 440 individuals from 19 populations of cultivated landraces of argyrosperma and from six wild populations of sororia, in order to conduct a first systematic analysis of their genetic resources. We also used species distribution models (SDMs) for sororia to identify changes in this wild subspecies’ distribution from the Holocene ( 6,000 years ago) to the present, and to assess the presence of suitable environmental conditions in previously proposed domestication sites. Genetic variation was similar among subspecies (HE = 0.428 in sororia, and HE = 0.410 in argyrosperma). Nine argyrosperma populations showed significant levels of inbreeding. Both subspecies are well differentiated, and genetic differentiation (FST) among populations within each subspecies ranged from 0.152 to 0.652.

Within argyrosperma we found three genetic groups (Northern Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, including Michoacan and Veracruz, and Pacific coast plus Durango). We detected low levels of gene flow among populations at a regional scale (<0.01), except for the Yucatan Peninsula, and the northern portion of the Pacific Coast. Our analyses suggested that the Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an effective barrier isolating southern populations. Our SDM results indicate that environmental characteristics in the Balsas- Jalisco region, a potential center of domestication, were suitable for the presence of sororia during the Holocene.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Knowledge of the role of geographical and ecological events associated to the divergence process of wild progenitors is important to understand the process of domestication. We analysed the temporal, spatial and ecological patterns of the diversification of Cucurbita, an American genus of worldwide economic importance. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on six chloroplast regions (5907 bp) to estimate diversification rates and dates of divergence between taxa. This is the first phylogenetic study to include C. radicans, a wild species that is endemic to the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. We performed analysis of ancestral area reconstruction and paleoreconstructions of species distribution models to understand shifts in wild species ranges. We used principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to evaluate the environmental differentiation among taxa within each clade. The phylogenetic analyses showed good support for at least six independent domestication events in Cucurbita. The genus Cucurbita showed a time of divergence of 11.24 Ma (6.88–17 Ma 95% HDP), and the dates of divergence between taxa within each group ranged from 0.35 to 6.58 Ma, being the divergence between C. lundelliana and C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii the most recent. The diversification rate of the genus was constant through time.

The diversification of most wild taxa occurred during the Pleistocene, and its date of divergence is concordant with the dates of divergence reported for specialized bees of the genera Xenoglossa and Peponapis, suggesting a process of coevolution between Cucurbita and their main pollinators that should be further investigated. Tests of environmental differentiation together with ancestral area reconstruction and species distribution models past projections suggest that divergence was promoted by the onset of geographic barriers and secondary range contraction and by expansion related to glacial-interglacial cycles.


7.
Libro
Ethnobotany of Mexico: interactions of people and plants in Mesoamerica / Rafael Lira, Alejandro Casas, José Blancas, editors
Disponible en línea: Ethnobotany of Mexico: interactions of people and plants in Mesoamerica.
Lira Saade, Rafael (editor) ; Casas Fernández, Alejandro (editor) ; Blancas, José (editor) ;
New York, New York, United States : Springer Science+Business Media , c2016
Clasificación: 581.610972 / E8
Bibliotecas: Villahermosa
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
ECO050006320 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

This book reviews the history, current state of knowledge, and different research approaches and techniques of studies on the interactions between humans and plants in an important area of agriculture and ongoing plant domestication: Mesoamerica. Leading scholars and key research groups in Mexico discuss essential topics as well as contributions from international research groups that have conducted studies on ethnobotany and domestication of plants in the region. Such a convocation will produce an interesting discussion about future investigation and conservation of regional human cultures, genetic resources, and cultural and ecological processes that are critical for global sustainability.

Índice

1 Mexican Ethnobotany: Interactions of People and Plants in Mesoamerica
2 Ethnobotany in Mexico: History, Development, and Perspectives
3 Ethnobotany and Ethnohistorical Sources of Mesoamerica
4 Pre-Columbian Food System in West Mesoamerica
5 Biodiversity and Edible Plants of Mexico
6 Contemporary Maya Food System in the Lowlands of Northern Yucatan
7 Traditional Markets in Mesoamerica: A Mosaic of History and Traditions
8 Ethnobotany for Sustainable Ecosystem Management: A Regional Perspective in the Tehuacán Valley
9 Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica: An Archaeological Review with Some Ethnobotanical Interpretations
10 Cultural Motives of Plant Management and Domestication
11 Evolutionary Ethnobotanical Studies of Incipient Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica
12 Ethnobotany of Mexican Weeds
13 Phylogeographical Approaches to the Study of Plant Domestication, with Special Emphasis on Perennial Plants
14 Your Beans of the Last Harvest and the Possible Adoption of Bright Ideas
15 Homo sapiens-Cucurbita interaction in Mesoamerica: Domestication, Dissemination and Diversification
16 Genetics and Ecology of Wild and Cultivated Maize: Domestication and Introgression
17 Chile Peppers (Capsicum spp.)
18 Cotton: Traditional and Modern Uses
19 An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Loss of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in the Tehuantepec Isthmus, Oaxaca
20 Ethnobotany and Ex situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources in México
21 Biosafety and Environmental Releases of GM Crops in Mesoamerica: Context Does Matter
22 A Human Rights Perspective on the Plant Genetic Resources of Mesoamerica: Heritage, Plant Breeder’s Rights, and Geographical Indications
Index


8.
Capítulo de libro
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Homo sapiens – Cucurbita interaction in Mesoamerica: domestication, dissemination and diversification
Lira Saade, Rafael (autor) ; Eguiarte Fruns, Luis Enrique (autor) ; Salazar, Carmen (autora) ; Montes, Salvador (autor) ; Zizumbo Villarreal, Daniel (autor) ; Colunga García Marín, Silvia Patricia (autora) ; Quesada, Mauricio (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Ethnobotany of Mexico: interactions of people and plants in Mesoamerica / Rafael Lira, Alejandro Casas, José Blancas, editors New York, New York, United States : Springer Science+Business Media, 2016 páginas 389-401 ISBN:978-1-4614-6669-7
Bibliotecas: Villahermosa
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
38203-40 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Cucurbita are monoecious and creeping plants including 20 taxa and 15 species. In Mesoamerica, four species were domesticated or diversified after domestication in other geographic areas: C. argyrosperma C. pepo, C. moschata, and C. ficifolia. The earliest evidences of the domestication of Cucurbita date 9000 BP from Southwestern Mesoamerica and 10,000 BP from Southwestern Ecuador. The main targets of human selection were the seeds contained in larger and less bitter and toxic fruits (due to cucurbitacins), without vine detachment. C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia from México to Central America warm-humid and subhumid climates is considered the wild ancestor of the domesticated C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma. For C. pepo, the proposed ancestor of the domesticated populations of México is C. pepo ssp. fraterna from northeastern Mexico, while the putative progenitor of the cultivars from in North America is C. pepo ssp. texana from eastern United States. For C moschata, there are two hypotheses as to its domestication region: southern Mesoamerica, or from the lowlands of Colombia and southern Ecuador. Cultivated C. ficifolia is found from the Mexican highlands south to Chile and Argentina, its center of domestication is either Central America or southern Mexico/Central America, as supported by linguistic evidence, or the Andes, as indicated by archaeological evidences from Peru dated at 3000 BC. Humans spread cultivated Cucurbita inside and out of Mesoamerica, structuring a complex agricultural system along with corn (Zea mays), and different species of beans (Phaseolus spp.) called “milpa,” that were established in a wide range of environments.


9.
Libro
Cucurbitáceas de la Península de Yucatán (taxonomía, florística y etnobotánica) / Rafael Lira Saade ; traducción: Rita Vermont Ricalde
Lira Saade, Rafael ; Vermont Ricalde, Rita Minelia (tr.) ;
Mérida, Yucatán, México : Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Dirección General de Desarrollo Académico. Subdirección de Extensión. Departamento Editorial , 2004
Clasificación: Y/581.61 / E8/22
Bibliotecas: Campeche
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040006568 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1

10.
Libro
Cucurbitaceae A. L. Juss / Rafael Lira, Isela Rodríguez Arévalo
Lira Saade, Rafael ; Rodríguez Arévalo, Isela (coaut.) ;
México : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Biología, Departamento de Botánica , 1999
Clasificación: F/581.97248 / F5/22
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010007354 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1