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3 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Mújica, Ernesto
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- Artículo con arbitraje
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Spatio-temporal dynamics of the invasive orchid Oeceoclades maculata (Orchidaceae), in four different habitats in southeast Chiapas, Mexico
Riverón Giró, Frander Brian (autor) ; Raventós, José (autor) ; Damon, Anne Asbhy (autora) ; García González, Alfredo (autor) ; Mújica, Ernesto (autor) ;
Contenido en: Biological Invasions Vol. 21, no. 6 (June 2019), p. 1905–1919 ISSN: 1387-3547
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The expansion of invasive species is a global concern. Within the Orchidaceae there are a number of invasive species. One of the most widely distributed invasive orchids in Mexico is Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. By examining the population dynamic variations of an invasive species in its range of expansion, we can identify the factors that have contributed to that variation. Life Table Response Experiments (LTRE) were used to describe the dynamic of four populations of O. maculata in different ecosystems in south Chiapas, Mexico. Our goals were to quantify the contributions of differences between years and sites, and their interactions, to overall differences in population growth rate (λ), and to underlying vital rates. Fertility, survival and growth made the largest contributions, both positive and negative, to annual differences in λ. Spatial variations in λ were also found. The largest plants (S3 and S4) made the contributions of greatest magnitude each year and in each site. In seven of eight cases, the inclusion of the interaction term gave a better estimate of the population growth rate. This investigation highlights the need for taking into account life-history variations at different scales when the research goal is to study expansion of an invasive species in a heterogeneous landscape. The usefulness of LTRE studies was also demonstrated to better understand the natural history of the species and thus lay the groundwork for planning efficient management strategies, either for the conservation of rare, endangered species, or for the control of invasive species.


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Resumen en: Inglés |
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Background: Results-based aid (RBA) is increasingly used to incentivize action in health. In Mesoamerica, the region consisting of southern Mexico and Central America, the RBA project known as the Salud Mesoamearica Initiative (SMI) was designed to target disparities in maternal and child health, focusing on the poorest 20% of the population across the region. Methods and findings: Data were first collected in 365 intervention health facilities to establish a baseline of indicators. For the first follow-up measure, 18 to 24 months later, 368 facilities were evaluated in these same areas. At both stages, we measured a near-identical set of supply-side performance indicators in line with country-specific priorities in maternal and child health. All countries showed progress in performance indicators, although with different levels. El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama reached their 18-month targets, while the State of Chiapas in Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize did not. A second follow-up measurement in Chiapas and Guatemala showed continued progress, as they achieved previously missed targets nine to 12 months later, after implementing a performance improvement plan. Conclusions: Our findings show an initial success in the supply-side indicators of SMI. Our data suggest that the RBA approach can be a motivator to improve availability of drugs and services in poor areas. Moreover, our innovative monitoring and evaluation framework will allow health officials with limited resources to identify and target areas of greatest need.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Background: Understanding the effect of perturbation, be it natural or anthropogenic, on the demography and dynamics of the plant populations can help conservation management planning. Aims: We assessed the impacts of management of a shade coffee plantation on a population of Oncidium poikilostalix (Orchidaceae). Methods: We studied in a coffee (Coffea arabica) agroecosystem the impact of the current traditional management [T] and two hypothetical epiphyte control management scenarios (intense ‘desmusgue’ [ID] and moderate ‘desmusgue’ [MD]), on the only known Mexican population of O. poikilostalix. Based on 3 years of field demographics data, the population dynamics of the orchid were projected using T, ID and MD scenarios for 20 years into the future. Results: Under the current management T, the population of O. poikilostalix was projected to grow continuously (λ = 1.102). Conversely, under management ID, the loss of individuals would lead to a sustained population decline (λ = 0.843); in the case of MD, the population would decline more slowly with the population growth rate tending towards equilibrium (λ = 0.966). Conclusions: The changes in the management of coffee plantations that have become common throughout the south-east of Mexico represent a threat to the survival of the only population of O. poikilostalix in Mexico, and likely threaten other epiphytic species.