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3 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Oros Ortega, Iván
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1.
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Diversity of soil macro-arthropods correlates to the richness of plant species in traditional agroforestry systems in the humid tropics of Mexico
Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Lara Pérez, Luis A. (autor) ; Oros Ortega, Iván (autor) ; Ramírez Barajas, Pablo Jesús (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Ramos Reyes, Rodimiro (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ;
Contenido en: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Vol. 286, no. 106658 (2019), p. 1-7 ISSN: 0167-8809
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A change in land use from forest to livestock and agriculture is generally linked to a potentially devastating effect on communities offlora and fauna. Tabasco is a state with the highest deforestation rate in the humid tropics of Mexico; more than 66% of its territory is currently occupied by livestock farming. Here, we evaluated the diversity of soil macro-arthropods and plant species richness in eight different, traditional agroforestry systems (AFS): family garden (FG), shade trees in plantations (ShTP), scattered trees in pastures (ScTP), living fences(LF), alley farming (AF), taungya systems (TG), slash and burn agriculture (SBA) and grazing plantations (GP). First, we recorded the biophysical information of the AFS, age and management of the system, richness of the plant community, and other general characteristics. Then, we collected of macro-arthropods in 49 plots of land in five sub-regions of Tabasco. We established ten pitfall traps in each plot during the dry season (March–May 2009).

To compare the diversity of soil macro-arthropods among the AFS, we computed the species accumu-lation curves and calculated the diversity indexes. We found that the total plant richness varied among the AFSand ordered as FG (108), ShTP (106), ScTP (32), LF (38), AF (30), TG (16), SBA (0) and GP (2). We collected42,269 individuals of arthropods, belonging to 15 orders in the eight AFS. The most abundant orders wereHymenoptera and Coleoptera, while the least abundant was Dermaptera. The SBA, FG, ShTP, and ScTP systemspresented the higher diversity of macro-arthropods as shown by Shannon-Wiener index (H’) values. We alsofound a significant positive correlation (rs= 0.84) between macro-arthropod order diversity (H’) and plantspecies richness in the most common AFS. The study showed that the AFS with greater plant species richness areimportant agricultural production strategies that increase the diversity and conservation of soil macro-ar-thropods.


2.
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Traditional uses of dispersed trees in the pastures of the mountainous region of Tabasco, Mexico
Villanueva Partida, Carlos R. ; Fernando Casanova Lugo (coaut.) ; González Valdivia, Noel Antonio (coaut.) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (coaut.) ; Oros Ortega, Iván (coaut.) ; Cetzal Ix, William Rolando ; Kumar Basu, Saikat (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 93, no. 2 (April 2019), p. 383-394 ISSN: 0167-4366
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The rapid deforestation in the state of Tabasco due to extensive livestock farming has resulted in the decrease of the original forest cover. Only 4% of the original vegetation remains and that vegetation is concentrated in the mountainous regions of the state. This destructive process continues due to support by the current government livestock policies. Under these circumstances, the traditional silvopastoral systems of dispersed trees can present an option for reversing and mitigating deforestation practices. The objective of this study was to generate information on the tree species common to silvopastoral systems of dispersed trees in the pastures for two mountainous areas in Tabasco. In the study, 64 tree species, representing 26 plant families were identified. All species were characterized as multipurpose, with at least three reported uses and a maximum of seven for each species. In total, nine categories of local uses were identified for the trees. The main category of use was fuel (firewood), followed by timber and shade for the livestock. Although leguminous species (Fabaceae) were dominant, these species were utilized for uses other than the provision of fodder. Since 12 of the total species identified were recognized as sources of food for animals; the assumption that livestock farmers do not recognize the utility of these species for improving production yields is apparent. The results suggest that there is potential need to expand research and offer further education on the subject in Tabasco.


3.
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Influence of the density of scattered trees in pastures on the structure and species composition of tree and grass cover in southern Tabasco, Mexico
Villanueva Partida, Carlos R. (coaut.) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; González Valdivia, Noel Antonio (autor) ; Oros Ortega, Iván (autor) ; Díaz Echeverria, Víctor Francisco (autor) ;
Contenido en: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment Vol. 232 (September 2016), p. 1–8 ISSN: 0167-8809
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The rapid deforestation of Tabasco due to extensive livestock farming has resulted in a decrease in the original forest cover. Silvopastoral systems represent an option for reversing this problem. A comparative study was conducted to determine the influence of tree density on the structure and species composition of scattered trees in pastures (STP) as well as the herbaceous coverage. A total of 16 livestock systems with 3 STP densities were selected: low (from 24 to 49 individuals ha-¹), medium (from 53 to 85 individuals ha-¹) and high (from 129 to 212 individuals ha-¹ . The diameter at breast height, total height, clear bole height and crown area of all trees in each plot were measured. Shannon’s and Simpson’s index values were determined along with the relative importance values (RIVs), and the herbaceous cover under the tree canopy was measured in dry and rainy seasons. A total of 64 species representing 31 botanical families were found. The structure and composition of the STPs are correlated with arboreal density, and thus, species diversity was greater under low and medium densities. The tree species with the highest RIVs were Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn., Guazuma ulmifolia (Lam.), and Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC. in low-density STPs; Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken., Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) S.F. Blak., and T. rosea in medium-density STPs and Swietenia macrophylla (King.) , Gmelina arborea (Roxb.), and C. alliodora in high-density STPs. The herbaceous cover was lower under high arboreal densities in both seasons. The STPs at high densities are inferred to be more specialized because they present less arboreal species diversity and structure than low-density STPs, and these properties also affect the coverage of the associated herbaceous component.