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53 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Agrobiodiversidad
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1.
Artículo
Home gardens' agrobiodiversity and owners' knowledge of their ecological, economic and socio-cultural multifunctionality: a case study in the lowlands of Tabasco, México
Avilez López, Teresita (autora) ; Van Der Wal, Hans (autor) ; Aldasoro Maya, Elda Miriam (autora) ; Rodríguez Robles, Ulises (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine Volumen 16, número 1 (July 2020), p. 1-13 ISSN: 1746-4269
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Background: Home gardens (HGs) are hotspots of in situ agrobiodiversity conservation. We conducted a case study in Tabasco, México, on HG owners’ knowledge of HG ecological, economical and socio-cultural multifunctionality and how it relates to agrobiodiversity as measured by species richness and diversity. The term multifunctionality knowledge refers to owners’ knowledge on how HGs contribute to ecological processes, family economy, as well as human relations and local culture. We hypothesized a positive correlation between owners’ multifunctionality knowledge and their HGs’ agrobiodiversity. Methods: We inventoried all perennial species in 20 HGs, determined observed species richness, calculated Shannon diversity indexes and analysed species composition using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). Based on literature, semi-structured interviews and a dialogue of knowledge with HG owners, we catalogued the locally recognized functions in the ecological, economic and socio-cultural dimensions. We determined the score of knowledge on each function in the three dimensions on explicit scales based on the interviews and observed management. We determined Spearman rs correlations of HGs’ observed species richness, Shannon diversity index (H) and of HGs’ scores on NMDS-axis and multifunctionality knowledge scores. We dialogued on the results and implications for agrobiodiversity conservation at workshops of HG owners, researchers and local organizations.

Results: HG agrobiodiversity and owners’ multifunctionality knowledge in the study area showed large variation. Average richness was 59.6 perennial species, varying from 21 to 107 species, and total observed richness was 280 species. A total of 38 functions was distinguished, with 14, 12 and 12 functions in the ecological, economic and socio-cultural dimensions. Total multifunctionality knowledge scores varied from 64.1 to 106.6, with an average of 87.2. Socio-cultural functionality knowledge scores were the highest, followed by scores in the ecological and economic dimensions. Species richness and Shannon H were significantly correlated with ecological functionality knowledge (rs=0.68 and P< 0.001 in both cases), and species richness was also correlated with economic functionality knowledge (rs=0.47, P= 0.03). Species composition scores on the first and second axes of NMDS was significantly correlated with knowledge of ecological multifunctionality, with rs= 0.49 resp-0.49 and P= 0.03 in both cases. Other functionality knowledge scores showed no correlation with NMDS scores. Dialogue in workshops confirmed the interwovenness of multifunctionality knowledge and agrobiodiversity. Conclusion: The rich agrobiodiversity of home gardens cherished by rural families in Tabasco relates with the knowledge about HG functionality in the ecological and economic dimensions. Also, species composition relates with ecological functionality knowledge. The socio-cultural functionality knowledge, which includes many elements beyondthe individual HG, is not correlated with agrobiodiversity, but had the highest scores. Our results show that multifunctionality knowledge provides many opportunities for the participative conception and planning of policies and actions necessary to conserve agrobiodiversity.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Factores socioambientales que favorecen la conservación in situ de tubérculos alto andinos nativos en los cantones de Colta y Guamote en Chimborazo, Ecuador
Estrada Aguayo, Verónica Soledad (autora) ; Suárez Duque, David (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Sociedad y Ambiente Número 22 (marzo-junio 2020), páginas 72-96 ISSN: 2007-6576
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Colta y Guamote son dos cantones de la provincia de Chimborazo que juntos conforman uno de los microcentros de mayor biodiversidad de tubérculos alto andinos nativos del Ecuador. El presente estudio se enfocó en establecer cuáles son los factores socioambientales que favorecen la conservación in situ de este tipo de agrobiodiversidad en esa zona. Las técnicas empleadas para el levantamiento de información fueron talleres participativos con los productores y entrevistas a profundidad tanto a productores como a informantes calificados. Los resultados demostraron que la conservación in situ de las variedades nativas estudiadas depende de cuatro factores: la disponibilidad de semilla, el manejo dado a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo, los usos dentro de las fincas y la influencia de la demanda del mercado. Se concluye que los productores prefieren conservar en sus parcelas aquellas variedades nativas que también son demandadas en el mercado y que las intervenciones a favor de la reintroducción de variedades nativas deben incluir la implementación de medidas de adaptación al cambio climático como factor transversal.

Resumen en inglés

Colta and Guamote are two cantons in the province of Chimborazo that together form one of the microcenters with the greatest biodiversity of high Andean tubers native to Ecuador. The study focused on establishing the socio-environmental factors that encourage in-situ conservation of this type of agrobiodiversity in the area. The techniques used to gather information were participatory workshops with producers and in-depth interviews with both producers and qualified informants. The results showed that in-situ conservation of native varieties depends on four factors: seed availability, the management provided throughout the crop cycle, uses within farms and the influence of market demand. The author concludes that producers prefer to conserve native varieties that are also required in the market in their plots and that interventions to promote the reintroduction of native varieties should include adaptation measures to climate change as a transversal factor.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Estudios recientes evidencian que la salud, la alimentación y el bienestar de los seres humanos se relacionan directamente con la diversidad de los sistemas agrícolas utilizados para garantizar la seguridad alimentaria nutricional (SAN). Las familias mayas de la Península de Yucatán practican una estrategia de uso múltiple de los recursos agrícolas para fines de subsistencia e intercambio, esto a pesar del monocultivo que ha impulsado la modernidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y evaluar la relación que se establece entre la SAN de las familias y la diversidad agrícola de sus sistemas tradicionales de producción milpa y traspatio. Los resultados evidenciaron que no existe una relación significativa (p > 0.05) entre la SAN, los índices de diversidad y las variables económicas, aunque se observó una influencia positiva hacia la citada condición. El sistema traspatio resultó más diverso que la milpa, pero estos recursos son estacionales.

Resumen en inglés

Recent studies show that health, food, and human well-being are directly related to the diversity of farming systems used to ensure nutritional food security (SAN). The Maya families of the Yucatan Peninsula practice a strategy of multiple use of agricultural resources for subsistence and exchange purposes, despite the monoculture that has driven modernity. The objective of the present study was to identify and evaluate the relationship established between the family’s SAN and the agricultural diversity of their traditional milpa and backyard systems. The results showed that there is no significant relationship (p > 0.05) between the SAN, the diversity indices, and the economic variables, although a positive influence was observed towards the mentioned condition. The backyard system was more diverse than the milpa system; however, these resources are seasonal.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Factores sociales explicativos de la riqueza vegetal en huertos familiares: análisis de una estrategia de vida
García Flores, José Carmen (autor) ; Gutiérrez Cedillo, Jesús Gastón (autor) ; Araújo Santana, María Raimunda (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Sociedad y Ambiente Año 7, no. 19 (marzo-junio 2019), p. 241-264 ISSN: 2007-6576
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El objetivo del artículo fue analizar los factores sociales que propician la riqueza vegetal en huertos familiares de tres localidades rurales del Estado de México. El enfoque teórico de estrategia de vida se utilizó para indagar las acciones realizadas por las personas de ingresos bajos en dichas localidades. La metodología consistió en: selección y caracterización del área de estudio; descripción de las familias y los huertos familiares; análisis del manejo de los agroecosistemas, la riqueza de especies y su aprovechamiento; y exploración de factores sociales asociados a la riqueza vegetal. Los resultados revelaron una riqueza de especies alta, se registraron 128 especies en las tres localidades, usadas para fines variados. Los valores del índice de Simpson D indicaron que la diversidad de especies en los huertos familiares es baja (> 0.9). La familia se distribuye las prácticas de manejo, mismas que involucran creencias, costumbres y tradiciones locales. Los factores que favorecen la riqueza vegetal fueron la religión, la ocupación y el valor de uso del huerto familiar. Se concluye que los factores sociales identificados propician la agrobiodiversidad, influyendo en la estrategia de vida de huertos familiares.

Resumen en inglés

The aim of this paper was to analyze the social factors that promote species richness in home gardens in three rural localities in the State of Mexico. The livelihood strategy theoretical approach was used to investigate the actions carried out by low-income people in these locations. The methodology consisted of the selection and characterization of the study area; a description of the families and home gardens; an analysis of the agroecosystem management, species richness and its use; and the exploration of social factors associated with species richness. The results reveal a large variety of plants, with 128 species registered in the three locations, used for various purposes. Values in the Simpson D index showed that species diversity in home gardens is low (> 0.9). The family distributes management practices, which involve local beliefs, customs, and traditions. Factors that encouraged species richness included religion, occupation and the usage value of home gardens. The social factors identified promote agrobiodiversity, influencing the livelihood strategy of home gardens.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Territorial resilience the third dimension of agroecological scaling: approximations from three peasant experiences in the South of Mexico
Guzmán Luna, Alejandra ; Ferguson, Bruce G. (coaut.) (1967-) ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (coaut.) ; Giraldo Palacio, Omar Felipe (coaut.) ; Aldasoro Maya, Elda Miriam (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems Vol. 43, no. 7-8 (2019), p. 764-784 ISSN: 2168-3565
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In this paper we explore the depth dimension of agroecological scaling. Through interviews, focus groups and participant observation, we explore the link between agroecology and the recovery and maintenance of ecosystem functions through three case studies in peasant communities in southern Mexico. These communities have contrasting ecological, social and historical contexts, but all engage in autonomous initiatives for agroecology and nature protection. We found that agroecology deepens when rooted in a cultural matrix of peasant identity, spiritual values, and local institutions.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
A 6-year longitudinal study on agrobiodiversity change in homegardens in Tabasco, México
Serrano Ysunza, Andrea Alejandra ; Van Der Wal, Hans (coaut.) ; Gallardo Cruz, José Alberto (coaut.) ; Ramos Muñoz, Dora Elia (coaut.) ; Vaca Genuit, Raúl Abel (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 92, no. 6 (December 2018) p. 1485-1494 ISSN: 1572-9680
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Societal processes of rural change and globalization may change homegardens and their contribution to the conservation of agrobiodiversity, particularly of species occurring naturally in regional vegetation. The best way to determine if this occurs is through longitudinal studies. We conducted such a study, inventorying tree species in a sample of 38 homegardens in 2009, 2012 and 2015. The homegardens were located in the subregions of mountain slopes, fluvial plains and coastal plains in the tropical lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. We analysed changes in species richness by geographic origin, species richness and species composition in each inventory. We identified 169 tree species in the three inventories, of which 74.6% were native or neotropical and 25.4% introduced. Of the 140 species recorded in 2009, 88% remained in 2015, whereas 12% had been replaced and nine additional species had arrived. Mean species richness increased between 2009 and 2015 (P = 0.03) and between 2012 and 2015 (P = 0.001). Increases resulted from increased mean neotropical (P = 0.01) and introduced (P = 0.01) species richness, and constant native species richness. Differences in species composition between the three subregions in 2009 persisted in 2012 and 2015 (P\0.001 in all years). These results show how the highly dynamic character of homegardens combines with the renewal and persistence of their agrobiodiversity, andunderpins the continued relevance of homegarden for agrobiodiversity conservation and livelihoods in tropical lowlands amidst rural change and globalization.


7.
Capítulo de libro
Agrobiodiversidad en huertos familiares y conservación de los bosques tropicales: el caso del sureste de México
Van Der Wal, Hans ; Aldasoro Maya, Elda Miriam (coaut.) ; Poot Pool, Wilbert Santiago (coaut.) ; Serrano Ysunza, Andrea Alejandra (coaut.) ; Alcudia Aguilar, Alejandro (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Exploring Frameworks for tropical forest conservation : integrating natural and cultural diversity for sustainability. A global perspective México : UNESCO : INECOL, 2018 p. 254-265 ISBN:978-607-7579-79-3
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Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

Analizamos cómo el cambio rural en el sureste mexicano influye en la agrobiodiversidad arbórea y arbustiva en huertos familiares —considerados como entes bioculturales— y cuáles son las implicaciones para la conservación de los bosques tropicales. Partimos de estudios disponibles sobre la relación entre, por un lado, la agrobiodiversidad y, por otro lado, la diferenciación social al interior de comunidades, el grado de urbanidad/ruralidad de estas y los paisajes culturales en los cuales están inmersos los huertos. La diferenciación social, manifiesta entre otros factores en una tenencia de la tierra cada vez más inequitativa, incide en la agrobiodiversidad en los huertos: las familias relativamente pobres conservan más especies nativas, por depender más de la gama de productos que estas proporcionan, mientras que familias relativamente ricas se concentran en frutales.

En comunidades rurales había mayor riqueza de especies arbóreas y arbustivas y mayor proporción de árboles nativas que en huertos periurbanos. En los paisajes culturales más deforestados de agricultura industrializada y ganadería extensiva, emanados de un megaproyecto de modernización y colonización, la agrobiodiversidad en los huertos fue menor que en el paisaje cultural menos deforestado de agricultura de subsistencia y ganadería en la misma región. En un área fuertemente deforestada e impactada socialmente y económicamente por la industria petrolera, de largo historial de ocupación, se mantuvo una alta agrobiodiversidad, con un componente relevante de especies de la región nacidas espontáneamente y toleradas. Lo anterior demuestra la diversificación de los huertos familiares en el sureste mexicano en los procesos de cambio en curso. Se mantienen como entes bioculturales de alta agrobiodiversidad, de la cual la mayor parte (las especies nativas y neotropicales) son compartidas con la vegetación regional. Con ello, los huertos familiares representan una contribución mayor a la conservación de los bosques tropicales y las culturas locales asociadas a ellos.


8.
- Capítulo de libro sin arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
La comarca de Entresierras-Alto Alagón. Aportes desde una experiencia en política local, patrimonio y biodiversidad
Coraza de los Santos, Enrique (autor) ; Espinel Olanda, Carmen (autora) ; Casado, Salomé (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Protección, desarrollo e innovación de conocimientos y recursos tradicionales / Arturo Argueta Villamar, Martha Elena Márquez, Martín Puchet Anyul, coordinadores Ciudad de México, México : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2018 páginas 53-89 ISBN:978-607-0299-83-4
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal , Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
59394-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
59394-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en español

Un grupo de pequeños municipios ubicados en el sur de la provincia de Salamanca, en la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León en España entre el año 2000 y 2011 desarrollaron una experiencia de desarrollo rural que implicó una apuesta por trabajar, desde lo local, sus recursos en forma mancomunada. Lo que aquí se expone, es una serie de experiencias de trabajo en diferentes áreas, una en la gestión desde la política local, otra referida a los recursos patrimoniales tangibles e intangibles y, una tercera, que corresponde a un centro de conservación de etnobotánica y agrobiodiversidad (Centro Zahoz), cuya labor de cuidado, promoción y formación de la biodiversidad tiene como una de sus áreas de influencia y trabajo la comarca de Entresierras-Alto Alagón.


9.
Libro
Food sovereignty, agroecology and biocultural diversity: constructing and contesting knowledge / edited by Michel. P. Pimbert
Pimbert, Michel P. (editor) ;
London, England, United Kingdom : Routledge :: Taylor & Francis Group , 2018
Clasificación: 630.2745 / F6
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal , Villahermosa
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010019462 (Prestado)
Disponibles para prestamo: 0
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
34199-30 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Contestations over knowledge – and who controls its production – are a key focus of social movements and other actors that promote food sovereignty, agroecology and biocultural diversity. This book critically examines the kinds of knowledge and ways of knowing needed for food sovereignty, agroecology and biocultural diversity. ‘Food sovereignty’ is understood here as a transformative process that seeks to recreate the democratic realm and regenerate a diversity of autonomous food systems based on agroecology, biocultural diversity, equity, social justice and ecological sustainability. It is shown that alternatives to the current model of development require radically different knowledges and epistemologies from those on offer today in mainstream institutions (including universities, policy think tanks and donor organizations). To achieve food sovereignty, agroecology and biocultural diversity, there is a need to re-imagine and construct knowledge for diversity, decentralisation, dynamic adaptation and democracy. The authors critically explore the changes in organizations, research paradigms and professional practice that could help transform and co-create knowledge for a new modernity based on plural definitions of wellbeing. Particular attention is given to institutional, pedagogical and methodological innovations that can enhance cognitive justice by giving hitherto excluded citizens more power and agency in the construction of knowledge. The book thus contributes to the democratization of knowledge and power in the domain of food, environment and society.

Índice

Figures
Tables
Boxes
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations
List of contributors
1. Constructing knowledge for food sovereignty, agroecology and biocultural diversity: an overview
2. How agricultural research systems shape a technological regime that develops genetic engineering but locks out agroecological innovations
3. Sustainability science and ‘ignorance-based’ management for a resilient future
4. On non-equilibrium and nomadism: knowledge, diversity and global modernity in drylands
5. Sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya and the Malthusian paradigm in contemporary development thinking
6. Plants that speak and institutions that don't listen: notes on the protection of traditional knowledge
7. Economics: the limitations of a special case
8. Democratizing knowledge and ways of knowing for food sovereignty, agroecology, and biocultural diversity
Index


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Home garden agrobiodiversity in cultural landscapes in the tropical lowlands of Tabasco, México
Alcudia Aguilar, Alejandro ; Van Der Wal, Hans (coaut.) ; Suárez Sánchez, Juan (coaut.) ; Martínez Zurimendi, Pablo (coaut.) ; Castillo Uzcanga, María Mercedes (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 92, no. 5 (October 2018), p. 1329–1339 ISSN: 0167-4366
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

We studied whether agrobiodiversity in home gardens reflects the cultural landscapes that embed them. We compared floristic composition, biomass and cover of trees in home gardens between the cultural landscapes on mountain slopes (MSL), small hills (SHL), and floodplains (FPL) in a segment of the Grijalva–Usumacinta watershed in the tropical lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. We characterized the cultural landscapes based on information obtained through questionnaires, identified species andmeasured tree height and diameter at breast height in random samples of home gardens from two localities in each case. The cultural landscapes showed distinct land use combinations: MSL comprised subsistence agriculture, pasturelands and forests; SHL pasturelands, some secondary vegetation and industrial agriculture fields; and FPL mainly industrial agriculture fields and pasturelands. Total species richness was greater in MSL than in SHL and FPL. Mean species richness was greater in MSL and SHL (22.4 and 15.8 respectively) than in FPL(7.2), aswas themean number of individuals per home garden (98.2, 94.1 and 20.4. Dominant species in home gardens in FPL and SHL included particular secondary species for each landscape,whereas single or double occurrences of mature forest species were distinctive of home gardens in MSL. Mean biomass was greater inMSLthan in SHLand FPL(37.1, 28.2 and 23.7 Mg C ha-1), as was tree cover (1.06, 0.95 and 0.76 m2/m2). We conclude that agrobiodiversity varies considerably among cultural landscapes and recommend the design of specific policies to enhance its conservation in each of them.