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15 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Camerún
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1.
Tesis - Maestría
Producción sustentable de leña y carbón, una vía para luchar contra la pobreza / Vitza Cabrera Manrique
Cabrera Manrique, Vitza ; Valdéz Hernández, Mirna (tutora) ; Macario Mendoza, Pedro A. (evaluador) ;
Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur :: Université de Sherbrooke , 2017
Clasificación: TE/333.953970972 / C3
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SIBE Campeche
ECO040006719 (Disponible)
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SIBE Chetumal
ECO030008644 (Disponible)
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SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010019154 (Disponible)
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SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013727 (Disponible)
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SIBE Villahermosa
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Índice | Resumen en: Español | Frances |
Resumen en español

Los bosques son ecosistemas que se encuentran distribuidos en todas las regiones del planeta. Intervienen en diversos ciclos biogeoquímicos y actúan como sumideros de carbono, lo que ayuda en la regulación del clima y ofrecen una gran cantidad de productos de necesidad básica. La leña y el carbón forman parte de estos productos, los cuales son la principal fuente de energía para millones de personas, sobre todo en países en desarrollo. Además, esta industria genera gran cantidad de empleos a lo largo de la cadena productiva. A pesar de su relevancia, esta industria se ha mantenido en el sector informal por ser considerada una fuente de energía para pobres. Hasta hoy, existe una gran ignorancia sobre la cantidad de leña y carbón que es suministrada y consumida, así como del funcionamiento y la dinámica de la cadena productiva. Asimismo, no existen leyes que regularicen la actividad, ni un interés de los gobiernos por desarrollarla. Este ensayo evalúa la contribución y sustentabilidad de la industria de la leña y producción de carbón en la lucha contra la pobreza. Los estudios de caso presentados muestran los vacios de información que existen a lo largo de la cadena y una deficiencia en la ejecución de políticas públicas; situación que demerita su sustentabilidad y uso como mecanismo para luchar contra la pobreza. Para lograr la sustentabilidad es imprescindible implementar políticas públicas que reconozcan su valor y formalicen y regularicen la actividad, así como estudios que permitan cubrir dichos vacios. Es necesario desarrollar, junto con las comunidades, planes de manejo forestal sustentable y aplicar tecnología que eficientice el uso de leña iv y la producción de carbón. Sólo así, esta industria podría llegar a ser una vía contra la pobreza.

Resumen en frances

Les forêts sont reparties dans toutes les régions de la planète. Ils jouent un rôle important dans les différents cycles biogéochimiques et comme puits de carbone, ce qu'aide à réguler le climat. Ainsi, ils offrent de nombreux produits de base. Le bois de chauffage et le charbon forme partie de ces produits, lesquels sont la principale source d’énergie pour des millions de personnes, en particulier dans les pays en développement. Aussi, cette industrie crée un grand nombre des emplois, tout au long la chaîne productive. Malgré son importance, elle demeure dans le secteur informel, car elle est considérée comme l'énergie des pauvres. Jusqu'à aujourd'hui, il y a une grande ignorance sur la quantité de bois de chauffage et de charbon qui est fournie et consommée, ainsi comme du fonctionnement et de la dynamique de la chaîne de production. D'ailleurs, il n’y a aucune loi qui le régularise ou un réel intérêt des gouvernements pour le développer. Cet essai a pour objective d'évaluer la contribution et la durabilité de l'industrie de bois énergie et la production de bois de chauffage dans la lutte contre la pauvreté. Les études de cas présentés montrent qu'il y a une absence d'information, tout au long la chaîne productive et un manque des politiques publiques. Cela porte atteinte sa durabilité et sa utilisation comme un mécanisme dans la lutte de la pauvreté. Pour atteindre la durabilité, il est essentiel de mettre en oeuvre des politiques publiques qui reconnaissent sa valeur, ce qui permette de formaliser et réglementer l'activité. De plus, il est nécessaire de développer, avec des communautés, des plans d'aménagement forestier durable et employer des technologies qu'améliore l'utilisation vi du bois de chauffage et la production du charbon. Cela serait la seule manière pour que cette industrie puisse être un mécanisme dans la lutte contre la pauvreté.

Índice

Agradecimientos
Resumen
Résumé
Lista de Tablas
Lista de Figuras
Glosario
Abreviaturas y Acrónimos
Introducción
Capítulo 1: Sustentabilidad en la extracción de la leña y carbón
1.1 Los bosques como sumideros de carbono
1.1.1 Los bosques el día de hoy
1.1.2 ¿Qué va a pasar con los bosques?
1.2 La leña y el carbón como fuente de energía
1.2.1 El uso actual de la leña y prospecciones
1.2.2 Factores que influyen en el uso de leña y carbón
1.2.3 Efectos de la extracción de la leña y producción del carbón
1.3 Manejo de los bosques y uso eficiente de la leña para mitigar las concentraciones de CO2 atmosférico
1.3.1 Manejo sustentable de los bosques
1.3.2 Uso y producción eficiente de leña y carbón
Capítulo 2: La industria de la leña y el carbón, ¿una medida para luchar contra la pobreza?
2.1 Un vistazo a la industria de la leña y el carbón
2.1.1 Eslabones de la cadena de producción y sus actores principales
2.2 Importancia socioeconómica de la industria de la leña y carbón
2.2.1 La industria como una herramienta para luchar contra la pobreza
2.3 Estrategias para lograr una reducción de la pobreza
2.3.1 Acciones en cada eslabón
Capítulo 3: Uso de la leña en los bosques tropicales secos
3.1 Los bosques tropicales secos
3.2 Importancia socioeconómica y ambiental de los bosques tropicales secos
3.3 Estudios de caso
3.3.1 Región Norte de Camerún, la sabana
3.3.2 Región del sureste de México, la selva seca en Yucatán
Conclusión
Referencias


2.
Libro
Agroforestry as a tool for landscape restoration / Florencia Montagnini, Wendy Francesconi and Esteban Rossi, editors
Montangini, Florencia (ed.) ; Francesconi, Wendy (coed.) ; Rossi, Esteban (coed.) ;
Nueva York : Nova Science Publishers , 2011
Clasificación: 634.99 / A36
Bibliotecas: Campeche
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SIBE Campeche
ECO040006202 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The book is comprised of 5 sections with a total of 14 chapters. The articles selected provide an overview of recent efforts to apply agroforestry technologies to landscape restoration in degraded lands located in tropical and temperate regions worldwide. The book is directed at a broad audience including academics, practitioners, and policy makers. The topics, problems and objectives in each chapter vary according to the specific circumstances of ecosystem or landscape degradation, ranging from extreme conditions and solutions such as sand embankments and vegetative barriers in arid regions of Sudan, to degraded agricultural or pasture lands, implementing successional analog ecosystems in the Brazilian Amazon, “agrotropic-rainforestry” systems in Cameroon, traditional shifting agricultural technologies without burning in Madagascar, agrosilvopastoral systems in Costa Rica, or reforestation with taungya systems in Venezuela. Several chapters focus on soil restoration and sustainable production of subsistence goods, as well as non timber forest products in Cameroon, Mexico and Argentina. Several chapters are dedicated to describing agroforestry systems aimed at the provision of environmental services such as biodiversity conservation and protection of watersheds. The book closes with a chapter stressing the importance of working with local people, and providing education and extension services to local communities. This collection of articles intends to call the attention of practitioners, academics and policy makers to key issues and approaches in agroforestry that can be useful to address the complex environmental and productivity problems of degraded agricultural lands throughout the world.

Índice

Preface
Section 1- Agroforestry systems designed to restore degraded lands to productive land use systems yielding subsistence goods for rural people
Chapter 1. Imitating natural ecosystems through successional agroforestry for the regeneration of degraded lands - a case study of smallholder agriculture in northeastern Brazil
Chapter 2. Tavy bôka: a Malagasy alternative to slash and burn agriculture
Chapter 3. Restoration of equatorial rainforest slopes of Mabonji in the Meme division, Southwest region of Cameroon
Chapter 4. Constraints of tree establishment and their role in rehabilitating degraded dry land in Sudan
Chapter 5. Restoration of degraded pastures using agrosilvopastoral systems with native trees in the Neotropics
Chapter 6. The Multispecies Agroforestry System of the Danac Foundation in tropical dry forest landscapes of Yaracuy, Venezuela (a case study)
Section 2- Agroforestry systems designed to restore soil while focusing on non-timber forest products
Chapter 7. Non-wood products from native multipurpose trees from agroforestry homegardens in the semiarid Mexican Plateau
Chapter 8. Effects of native trees in agroforestry systems on the soils and yerba mate in Misiones, Argentina
Section 3- Agroforestry systems to restore and conserve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes
Chapter 9. Effects of management practices on coffee productivity and herbaceous species diversity in agroforestry systems in Costa Rica
Chapter 10. Using bird distribution to evaluate the potential of living fences to restore landscape connectivity in pasturelands
Chapter 11. Operationalizing environmental services of agroforestry systems: Functional biodiversity assessment in Tomé-Açú, Pará, Brazil
Section 4- Agroforestry systems for watershed restoration and conservation
Chapter 12. Riparian Buffers for Habitat Enhancement of Beaverlodge Watershed - Alberta, Western Canada

Chapter 13. Agroforest landscape ecosystem analysis in Mindanao, Philippines: current status and perspectives for watershed restoration
Section 5- Agroforestry dissemination and training
Chapter 14. Agroforestry educational experiences for smallholders involved in biodiversity conservation and landscape restoration in the Xingu Watershed – Mato Grosso, Brazil
Index


3.
Artículo
The hunting behavior of the African ponerine ant Pachycondyla pachyderma
Dejean, Alain ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Behavioural Processes Vol. 86, no. 2 (February 2011), p. 169-173 ISSN: 0376-6357
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The hunting behavior of the African ponerine ant Pachycondyla pachyderma, a semi-specialized centipede predator, appears well adapted to this kind of prey and shows a graded complexity according to the difficulty it has in overwhelming prey. Small prey (5 to 8 mm-long termites) were detected by contact and seized by the thorax while larger prey (≥30 mm-long centipedes) were frequently detected from a distance and seized by the anterior-most part of their body. Termites and 30 mm-long lithobiomorph centipedes were not always stung, whereas stinging and even repeated stinging was needed for 50 mm-long geophilomorphs and scolopendromorphs. Moreover, overwhelming wide and heavy scolopendromorphs, which have better defensive abilities, involved the use of additional behaviors allowing the workers to capture them safely: venom spreading, and a peculiar stinging posture, the "fatal embrace". Here the workers seize scolopendromorphs by an antenna or by one of their first legs, wrap themselves around the prey while maintaining their grip with their mandibles and legs, and slowly inject venom into the prey's ventral surface. Workers retrieve small prey solitarily while, for large geophilomorphs and scolopendromorphs, nestmates can be recruited at short range or even at long range through tandem running.


4.
Libro
Negotiated learning: collaborative monitoring in forest resource management / edited by Irene Guijt
Guijt, Irene (editora) ;
Washington, District of Columbia, United States : Resources for the Future , 2007
Bibliotecas: Campeche
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SIBE Campeche
ECO040007101 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The first book to critically examine how monitoring can be an effective tool in participatory resource management, Negotiated Learning draws on the first-hand experiences of researchers and development professionals in eleven countries in Africa, Asia, and South America. Collective monitoring shifts the emphasis of development and conservation professionals from externally defined programs to a locally relevant process. It focuses on community participation in the selection of the indicators to be monitored as well as community participation in the learning and application of knowledge from the data that is collected. As with other aspects of collaborative management, collaborative monitoring emphasizes building local capacity so that communities can gradually assume full responsibility for the management of their resources. The cases in Negotiated Learning highlight best practices, but stress that collaborative monitoring is a relatively new area of theory and practice. The cases focus on four themes: the challenge of data-driven monitoring in forest systems that supply multiple products and serve diverse functions and stakeholders; the importance of building upon existing dialogue and learning systems; the need to better understand social and political differences among local users and other stakeholders; and the need to ensure the continuing adaptiveness of monitoring systems.

Índice

Foreword by Robert Chambers
Acknowledgments
Contributors
Part I. Introduction. Strengthening learning in adaptive collaborative management: the potential of monitoring
Part II. Using Criteria and Indicators. Testing the limits of criteria and indicators in the Brazilian Amazon
Creating monitoring with rubber tappers in Acre, Brazil
Part III. Building on Existing Monitoring Systems. Imposing indicators or co-creating meanings in Nepal
Helping village stakeholders monitor forest benefits in Bolivia
Tracking broom grass resources for equity in Zimbabwe
Part IV. Dealing With Difference. Monitoring with strong interests and weak incentives in Palawan, the Philippines
Using monitoring as leverage for equal opportunity in Nepal
Monitoring to ease forest management conflicts in Cameroon
Part V. Adapting Monitoring Processes. Improving forest beekeeping through monitoring in Chimaliro, Malawi
Initiating a dynamic process for monitoring in Mafungautsi State Forest, Zimbabwe
Learning to monitor political processes for fairness in Jambi, Indonesia
Part VI. Conclusions. Expanding views about collaborative monitoring
References
Index


5.
Libro
Slash-and-burn agriculture: the search for alternatives / edited by Cheryl A. Palm, Stephen A. Vosti, Pedro A. Sanchez, and Polly J. Ericksen
Palm, Cheryl Ann (ed.) ; Vosti, Stephen A. (coed.) ; Sánchez, Pedro A. (coed.) ; Ericksen, Polly J. (coed.) ;
New York : Columbia University Press , c2005
Clasificación: 631.5818 / S5
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
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SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010000766 (Disponible)
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Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Every year about 130,000 km2 of humid tropical rain forest is destroyed. Caused in part by the slash-and-burn practices of both large- and small-scale farmers in Brazil, Cameroon, Indonesia, and elsewhere, the environmental implications of tropical deforestation and its threat to biodiversity and carbon emissions remain a worldwide concern. Yet the small-scale farmers who use slash-and-burn agriculture depend on it to produce food and make a living for their families. Balancing the legitimate interests of rural households and global concerns about tropical deforestation is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. The Alternatives to Slash and Burn (ASB) consortium was formed in 1992 by a group of concerned national and international research institutions to address the global and local issues associated with this form of agriculture. With contributions from agronomists, foresters, economists, ecologists, and anthropologists, this book synthesizes the first decade of ASB's work. It assesses the environmental, economic, and social impact of deforestation and identifies the costs and benefits of alternative uses of forests and cleared land. Throughout the volume, the contributors present new conceptual tools and a rich compendium of empirical analyses needed to formulate viable alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture.

Índice

Foreword
Preface
Contributors
Acronyms and Abbreviations
I The Problem and Approac
h 1 Alternatives to Slash and Burn: Challenge and Approaches of an International Consortium
II Thematic Research
2 Carbon Losses and Sequestration After Land Use Change in the Humid Tropics
3 Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Slash and Burn and Alternative Land Use Practices in Sumatra, Indonesia
4 The Potential Role of Above-Ground Biodiversity Indicators in Assessing Best-Bet Alternatives to Slash and Burn
5 Below-Ground Biodiversity Assessment: Developing a Key Functional Group Approach in Best-Bet Alternatives to Slash and Burn
6 Sustainability of Tropical Land Use Systems After Forest Conversion
7 The Forest for the Trees: The Effects of Macroeconomic Factors on Deforestation in Brazil and Indonesia
III Site-Specific Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Agriculture
8 Sustainable Forest Management for Smallholder Farmers in the Brazilian Amazon
9 Permanent Smallholder Rubber Agroforestry Systems in Sumatra, Indonesia
10 Coffee, Pastures, and Deforestation in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Farm-Level Bioeconomic Model
11 Smallholder Options for Reclaiming and Using Imperata cylindrica L. (Alang-Alang) Grasslands in Indonesia
IV National Perspectives
12 The Western Brazilian Amazon
13 The Forest Margins of Sumatra, Indonesia
14 The Forest Margins of Cameroon
15 The Peruvian Amazon: Development Imperatives and Challenges
16 Northern Thailand: Changing Smallholder Land Use Patterns
V Cross-Site Comparisons and Conclusions
17 Land Use Systems at the Margins of Tropical Moist Forest: Addressing Smallholder Concerns in Cameroon, Indonesia, and Brazil
18 Balancing Agricultural Development and Environmental Objectives: Assessing Tradeoffs in the Humid Tropics
Index


6.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
The impact of land conversion on plant biodiversity in the forest zone on Cameroon
Zapfack, Louis (autor) ; Engwald, Stefan (autora) ; Sonke, Bonaventure (autor) ; Achoundong, Gaston (autor) ; Madong, Birang A. (autor) ;
Contenido en: Biodiversity and conservation Vol. 11, no. 11 (2002), p. 2047-2061 ISSN: 0960-3115
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
28347-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal

7.
Artículo
Feeding preferences in African ponerine ants: a cafeteria experment (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Dejean, Alain ; Schatz, Bertrand (coaut.) ; Orivel, J. (coaut.) ; Beugnon, Guy (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ; Corbara, Bruno (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Sociobiology Vol. 34, no. 3 (1999), p. 555-568 ISSN: 0361-6525
PDF

8.
Artículo
Sistemate recognition: the case of Anochetus traegordhi (Hymenoptera; Formicidae) Preying on Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae)
Schatz, Bertrand ; Orivel, J. (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ; Beugnon, Guy (coaut.) ; Dejean, Alain (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Sociobiology Vol. 34, no. 3, (1999), p. 568-580 ISSN: 0361-6525
PDF

9.
Tesis
Diversity of fields and farmers: explaining yield variations in northern Cameroon / Carolus Bartholomeus de Steenhuijsen Piters
Steenhuijsen Piters, Carolus Bartholomeus de ;
The Netherlands : Wageningen Agricultural University , 1995
Clasificación: 630.2745 / S84
Bibliotecas: Campeche
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SIBE Campeche
ECO040000307 (Disponible)
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Resumen en: Alemán |
Resumen en alemán

This research was inspired by the inability of agricultural research to deal adequately with phenomena of variation, diversity and heterogeneity in agriculture. Although these phenomena were observed as long ago as the beginning of this century, they are still causing concern. Until recently, analysis of variance was applied to any form of undesired variation in the experimental results. The statistical elimination of variation from the research coincided with attempts to uniformise agriculture in order to optimise production. For a long time, deviations from the standardised average were regarded as undesirable random effects. Recent research has shown that variations in yield are very common in agroecosystems. They may be large, especially under difficult climatic conditions, and may even be considered as an asset to farmers. There is evidence that variations are not random, but are the result of systematic interaction between environment, crop genotype and management. This agrodiversity has important relations with the higher-level heterogeneity of the environment and diversity of farm households. At present, no comprehensive approach to its analysis is available, largely because agrodiversity is basically multidimensional in nature and may comprise several levels of aggregation.

The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of diversity in agroecosystems by focusing explicitly on variations of yield and their explanation at field and household level. Between 1991 and 1993, field work was done in one village in northern Cameroon. Yield variations of three crops, field properties, crop and management characteristics and household characteristics were assessed systematically. Various techniques for statistical analysis were employed to determine the magnitude of variation and to define the agrodiversity of Within the agroecosystern of the selected village, variations in yield were observed for rainfed sorghum, cotton and dry season sorghum. The magnitude of variation was more or less constant over the years of observation, but varied between the crops. Two rainfed sorghum cropping systems were distinguished and within one cropping system, three field types were defined according to their distance from the homestead. Thus stratified it was possible to reduce overall yield variation and to explain it within each stratum by a reduced number of variables. It was concluded that the composition of agrodiversity was not uniform over the strata. Yield levels, limitations and constraints of rainfed sorghum production were specific to each cropping system and field type.

Of the three crops, yield variation was greatest in cotton, despite many efforts of the cotton agency to standardise its cultivation. This variation was explained by distinguishing between types of variables, each explaining cotton yield variation to a different degree and in a particular way. Dry season sorghum showed least variation in yield, although it is subject to great environmental stress. Crop genotype and management proved to be adapted to one dominant field property, i.e. the water holding capacity of the soil. All farmers, irrespective of ethnic or socio-economic origin, agreed about the need to adjust mouskouari sorghum cultivation to field characteristics that define the water availability. Processes at field level leading to agrodiversity could be summarised by (1) spatial differentiation of the fields, (2) mechanisation of labour and (3) adaptation of cultivation to the environment. Ethnic diversity explained the absolute difference in cotton production, and the distinction between rainfed sorghum cropping systems within the agroecosystem. Socio-economic diversity explained the relative differences in cotton yield, and the distinction between rainfed sorghum field types. Finally, gender differences highlighted variations in rainfed sorghum yields and in non-agricultural income. Gender differences and ethnic and socioeconomic diversity proved to be interrelated, resulting in at least three classes of women farmers.

It must be concluded that within one agroecosystem, crop yields may vary considerably. The agrodiversity explaining these variations proves to be cropspecific, One agroecosystern may comprise several cropping systems and field types of the same crop. Agrodiversity is also spatially specific and is largely determined by ethnic and socio-economic diversity and gender differences at household level. The potentials and problems of crops and fields also prove to be specific to the farmer. Within the context of rural development, it is essential to distinguish between well defined target groups in order to prevent interventions from uneffective generalisation. To do so, variation, heterogeneity and diversity must be accepted as realistic phenomena in agroecosystems and considered as an important source of information.


10.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
La plantation du caféier arabica au Cameroun
Bouharmont, P. ;
Contenido en: Café, Cacao, Thé Vol. 26, no. 1, (janv.-mars 1982), p. 3-16
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
B402 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal