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155 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Insectos útiles
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1.
Artículo
Comparación de Novaluron, Piriproxifeno, Spinosad y Temefos como larvicidas contra Aedes aegypti en Chiapas, México
Marina Fernández, Carlos Félix (autor) ; Bond Compeán, Juan Guillermo (autor) ; Muñoz, José (autor) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (autor) ; Quiroz Martínez, Humberto (autor) ; Torres Monzón, Jorge Aurelio (autor) ; Williams, Trevor (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Salud Pública de México Volumen 62, número 4 (julio-agosto de 2020), p. 424-431 ISSN: 0036-3634
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Objetivo. Comparar la eficacia de tres larvicidas modernos para el control de Aedes aegypti en tanques de agua doméstica en Chiapas. Material y métodos. Se comparó la eficacia de piriproxifeno, novalurón, dos formulaciones de spinosad (gránulos y tabletas) y temefos en ovitrampas y tanques domésticos de agua. Resultados. El piriproxifeno y el temefos proporcionaron de 2 a 3 semanas de control de larvas en ovitrampas, mientras que los gránulos de spinosad y novaluron proporcionaron de 7 a12 semanas. Los tanques de agua tratados produjeron una reducción significativa en la oviposición por Ae. aegypti en las casas (p<0.001). Se encontró gran cantidad de larvas en los tanques tratados con temefos y piriproxifeno en comparación con los tratados con novaluron y tabletas de spinosad durante la mayor parte del estudio. Conclusión. Las formulaciones de spinosad en tabletas y novaluron fueron larvicidas efectivos en esta región. El bajo desempeño de temefos puede indicar una susceptibilidad reducida en poblaciones de Ae. aegypti en Chiapas.

Resumen en inglés

Objective. To compare the efficacy of three modern larvicides with the organophosphate temephos for control of Aedes aegypti in water tanks in Chiapas. Materials and methods. Trials were performed to compare the efficacy of pyriproxyfen, novaluron, two formulations of spinosad (granules and tablets) and temephos in oviposition traps and domestic water tanks. Results. Pyriproxyfen and temephos provided 2-3 weeks of complete control of larvae in oviposition traps, whereas spinosad granules and novaluron provided 7-12 weeks of control. Treatment of water tanks resulted in a significant reduction in oviposition by Ae. aegypti in houses (p<0.001). Higher numbers of larvae were present in temephos and pyriproxyfen-treated water tanks compared to novaluron and spinosad tablet treatments during most of the study. Conclusion. Spinosad formulations and novaluron were effective larvicides in this region. The poor performance of temephos may be indicative of reduced susceptibility in Ae. aegypti populations in Chiapas.


2.
Tesis - Maestría
Resumen en español

La aplicación de la técnica del insecto estéril (TIE) como método de control contra vectores de enfermedades en humanos es una novedosa estrategia por ser amigable con el ambiente. Debido a que las hembras de mosquitos son insectos de hábitos hematófagos, la TIE se ve seriamente limitada por esta condición, ya que su liberación representaría un riesgo de salud por el aumento de la capacidad vectorial. El objetivo de esta investigación fue, primero hacer una revisión exhaustiva sobre la separación sexual en mosquitos del género Aedes spp. para la aplicación de la TIE. Se revisaron 136 documentos (libros, capítulos de libros y artículos científicos), donde se ha documentado la identificación de mutaciones basadas en genes que expresan un fenotipo visible y con potencial para el desarrollo de una cepa de sexado genético (CSG). Posteriormente se realizó el aislamiento de mutantes basados en el color del cuerpo de larvas en poblaciones silvestres y de cría de Aedes aegypti y Ae. albopictus para el desarrollo de CSG de estas especies. Se describieron para Ae. aegypti cuatro mutantes, denominados negro, café, blanco y colmillos; y para Ae. albopictus fueron cinco mutantes, negro, café, blanco, gold y cebra. Los denominados colmillos y cebra son dos nuevos mutantes. Las mutaciones con mayor frecuencia fueron larvas de cuerpo negro, seguidas de las de cuerpo café. Los mutantes blanco, gold, cebra y colmillos, se presentaron en una frecuencia mucho menor. El análisis de correspondencia múltiple (ACM) confirmó la asociación entre las variables de color del mutante, especie y localidad, que se encuentran fuertemente influenciados por las fechas de colecta. También se observó que algunos mutantes fueron más frecuentes en una especie, en una localidad o en una época de colecta.

Índice

Resumen
Capítulo I. Introducción general
Capítulo II. Sex separation of Aedes spp. mosquitoes for Sterile Insect Technique application: A review
Capítulo III. Identificación de mutantes en poblaciones silvestres y de laboratorio de Aedes aegypti y Ae. albopictus
Capítulo IV. Conclusiones
Literatura citada
Anexos
Comprobante de envío del artículo a la revista Entomologia experimentalis et applicata


3.
Tesis - Doctorado
Resumen en español

La búsqueda y preferencia de hospedero por mosquitos como fuente de alimentación sanguínea es mediada por el uso de señales asociadas al hospedero. La alimentación sanguínea puede influir en la aptitud reproductiva óptima del mosquito. Sin embargo, esta idea no se ha investigado en insectos hematófagos. En el presente estudio, se determinó la preferencia y desempeño reproductivo de hembras de Aedes albopictus atraídas y alimentadas sobre ratas de diferentes sexos y estados fisiológicos. Se recolectaron volátiles de Rattus novergicus,) de ambos sexos y diferentes estados fisiológicos que fueron evaluados como extractos en un olfatometro Y. Se encontró que el extracto de rata hembra inmadura fue más atractivo para las hembras de Ae. albopictus que los extractos de ratas machos inmaduros y de edad media, y de hembras maduras y preñadas. Los compuestos presentes en los extractos se identificaron por cromatografía de gasesespectrometría de masas como fenol, 4- metilfenol, 4-etilfenol e indol

Los compuestos sintéticos evaluados en el laboratorio de manera individual no mostraron ser atractivos para hembras de Ae. albopictus; sin embargo, las mezclas binaria (4-metilfeno, 4-etilfenol), terciaria (4- metilfenol, 4-etilfenol e indol) y cuaternaria (fenol, 4-metilfenol, 4-etilfenol e indol) lo fueron. En las pruebas de campo, las trampas BGs cebadas con la mezcla terciaria y cuaternaria capturaron más machos y hembras de Ae. albopictus en comparación con la mezcla binaria y el control. Este resultado puede deberse a la diferencia cuantitativa de los compuestos presentes en las mezclas. Además, las hembras de Ae. albopictus alimentadas de sangre de ratas hembras inmaduras tuvieron un ciclo gonotrófico más corto, una mayor fecundidad y fertilidad, y una progenie sesgada hacia las hembras. Lo anterior sugiere que la preferencia de mosquitos por un hospedero está determinada en cierto grado por las ventajas reproductivas que la calidad de una alimentación le confiere

Índice

Resumen
Capítulo I. Introducción General
Objetivo General
Objetivos Específicos
Capítulo II. Volátiles de rata como fuente atrayente para el mosquito tigre asiático, Aedes albopictus
Capítulo III. EL sexo y estado fisiológico de las ratas afectan el desempeño reproductivo de Aedes albopictus
Capítulo IV. Conclusiones generales
Literatura citada


4.
Artículo
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New record of aedes albopictus in a suburban area of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico
Contreras Perera, Yamili J. (autora) ; Briceño Méndez, Marcos Alberto (autor) ; Flores Suárez, Adriana Elizabeth (autora) ; Manrique Saide, Pablo Camilo (autor) ; Palacio Vargas, Jorge A. (autor) ; Huerta Jiménez, Herón (autor) ; Martin Park, Abdiel (autor) ;
Contenido en: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Vol. 35, no. 3 (September 2019), p. 210–213 ISSN: 1943-6270
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

A survey was carried out in 51 households within a suburban area of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, for 5 consecutive days. Adult collections were performed using Prokopack aspirators (indoors) and human-landing mosquito catches (HLC) outdoors, and larval sites (artificial containers) were revised for larvae collection. A total of 259 Aedes albopictus were collected, 246 from artificial larval sites, 8 by indoor aspiration, and 5 by HLC. This isthe first record of Ae. albopictusin Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.


5.
Artículo
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Background: The leishmaniases are neglected diseases that affect some of the most vulnerable populations in the tropical and sub-tropical world. The parasites are transmitted by sand flies and novel strategies to control this neglected vector-borne disease are needed. Blocking transmission by targeting the parasite inside the phlebotomine vector offers potential in this regard. Some experimental approaches can be best performed by longitudinal study of parasites within flies, for which non-destructive methods to identify infected flies and to follow parasite population changes are required. Methods: Lutzomyia longipalpis were reared under standard insectary conditions at the Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology. Flies were artificially infected with L. tarentolae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. Parasite counts were carried out 5 days post-infection and the percentage of infected flies and survival of infected females was established up to days 5 post-infection. Whole living females were visualised using an epifluorescence inverted microscope to detect the presence parasites inferred by a localised green fluorescent region in the upper thorax. Confirmation of infection was performed by localised-fluorescence of dissected flies and estimates of the parasite population.

Results: Leishmania tarentolae was successfully transfected and expressed GFP in vitro. L. tarentolae-GFP Infected flies showed similar parasite populations when compared to non-transfected parasites (L. tarentolae-WT). Survival of non-infected females was higher than L. tarentolae-infected groups, (Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test, p<0.05). L. tarentolae-GFP infected females displayed an intense localised fluorescence in the thorax while other specimens from the same infected group did not. Localised fluorescent flies were dissected and showed higher parasite populations compared to those that did not demonstrate high concentrations in this region (t-test, p<0.005). Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a safe non-human infectious fluorescent Leishmania-sand fly infection model by allowing non-destructive imaging to signal the establishment of Leishmania infections in living sand flies.


6.
Artículo
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Efficacy of larvicides for the control of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya vectors in an urban cemetery in southern Mexico
Marina Fernández, Carlos Félix ; Bond Compeán, Juan Guillermo (coaut.) ; Muñoz, José (coaut.) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (coaut.) ; Quiroz Martínez, Humberto (coaut.) ; Torres Monzón, Jorge Aurelio (coaut.) ; Williams, Trevor (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Parasitology Research Vol. 117, no. 6 (June 2018), p. 1941–1952 ISSN: 0932-0113
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Many countries in Latin America have recently experienced outbreaks of Zika and chikungunya fever, in additional to the usual burden imposed by dengue, all of which are transmitted by Aedes aegypti in this region. To identify potential larvicides, we determined the toxicity of eight modern insecticides to A. aegypti larvae from a colony that originated from field-collected insects in southern Mexico. The most toxic compounds were pyriproxyfen (which prevented adult emergence) and λ-cyhalothrin, followed by spinetoram, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and acetamiprid, with chlorantraniliprole and spiromesifen the least toxic products. Field trails performed in an urban cemetery during a chikungunya epidemic revealed that insecticide-treated ovitraps were completely protected from the presence of Aedes larvae and pupae for 6 and 7 weeks in spinosad (Natular G30) and λ- cyhalothrin-treated traps in both seasons, respectively, compared to 5–6 weeks for temephos granule-treated ovitraps, but was variable for pyriproxyfen-treated ovitraps with and 1 and 5 weeks of absolute control in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Insecticide treatments influenced the mean numbers of Aedes larvae + pupae in each ovitrap, mean numbers of eggs laid, and percentage of egg hatch over time in both trials. The dominant species was A. aegypti in both seasons, although the invasive vector Aedes albopictus was more prevalent in the rainy season (26.7%) compared to the dry season (10.2%).We conclude that the granular formulation of spinosad (Natular G30) and a suspension concentrate formulation of λ-cyhalothrin proved highly effective against Aedes spp. in both the dry and rainy seasons in the cemetery habitat in this region.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Electroantennogram responses of the Triatoma dimidiata complex to volatiles produced by its exocrine glands
May Concha, Irving Jesús ; Guerenstein, Pablo G. (coaut.) ; Malo Rivera, Edi Álvaro (coaut.) ; Catalá, Silvia S. (coaut.) ; Rojas, Julio C. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Acta Tropica Vol. 185 (September 2018), p. 336-343 ISSN: 0001-706X
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Members of the Triatoma dimidiata complex are vectors of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata complex has three principal haplogroups in Mexico. However, whether there are differences in the olfactory physiology among the haplogroups of this complex and a possible correlation with their antennal phenotype are not yet known. Antennal responses to 13 compounds released from the metasternal and Brindley´s glands, which are involved in the alarm and mating-related behaviours of T. dimidiata were investigated using electroantennography (EAG). Overall, of the 13 compounds tested, seven triggered EAG responses in both sexes of three Mexican haplogroups. The sensitivity of the EAG responses show some relationship with the total number of chemo-sensilla present on the antennae. Antennal sensitivity was different between sexes and haplogroups of the T. dimidiata complex. Discriminant analysis of EAG sensitivity was significant, separating the three haplogroups. Our finding is consistent with morphological and genetic evidence for haplogroups distinction within the complex.


8.
Artículo
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

It is formulated a stability analysis of a mathematical model to interpret the dynamics of the population growth including resistance to chemicals and phytocompounds. The threshold of the population growth of A. aegypti is determined. A sensitivity analysis and simulations of the model were developed. We conclude that the control focused in the non-resistant mosquitoes lead to a decrease in the resistant mosquitoes as well as the immature stages.


9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Background: The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. Adults of this insect feed on blood (females only) or sugar from plant sources, but their digestion of carbohydrates is poorly studied. Beta-glycosides as esculin and amygdalin are plant compounds and release toxic compounds as esculetin and mandelonitrile when hydrolyzed. Beta-glucosidase and trehalase are essential enzymes in sand fly metabolism and participate in sugar digestion. It is therefore possible that the toxic portions of these glycosides, released during digestion, affect sand fly physiology and the development of Leishmania. Results: We tested the oral administration to sand flies of amygdalin, esculin, mandelonitrile, and esculetin in the sugar meal. These compounds significantly decreased the longevity of Lutzomyia longipalpis females and males. Lutzomyia longipalpis adults have significant hydrolytic activities against esculin and feeding on this compound cause changes in trehalase and β-glucosidase activities. Female trehalase activity is inhibited in vitro by esculin. Esculin is naturally fluorescent, so its ingestion may be detected and quantified in whole insects or tissue samples stored in methanol. Mandelonitrile neither affected the amount of sugar ingested by sand flies nor showed repellent activity. Our results show that mandelonitrile significantly reduces the viability of L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. infantum and L. mexicana, in a concentration-dependent manner. Esculetin caused a similar effect, reducing the number of L. infantum and L. mexicana. Female L. longipalpis fed on mandelonitrile had a reduction in the number of parasites and prevalence of infection after seven days of infection with L. mexicana, either by counting in a Neubauer chamber or by qPCR assays.

Conclusions: Glycosides have significant effects on L. longipalpis longevity and metabolism and also affect the development of parasites in culture and inside the insect. These observations might help to conceptualize new vector control strategies using transmission blocking sugar baits.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Aedes aegypti is a major vector of arboviruses that may be controlled on an area-wide basis using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Larval diet is a major factor in mass-rearing for SIT programs. We compared dietary effects on immature development and adult fitness-related characteristics for an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) diet, developed for rearing Ae. albopictus, and a standardized laboratory rodent diet (LRD), under a 14:10 h (light:dark) photoperiod ("light" treatment) or continuous darkness during larval rearing. Larval development was generally fastest in the IAEA diet, likely reflecting the high protein and lipid content of this diet. The proportion of larvae that survived to pupation or to adult emergence did not differ significantly between diets or light treatments. Insects from the LRD-dark treatment produced the highest proportion of male pupae (93% at 24 h after the beginning of pupation) whereas adult sex ratio from the IAEA diet tended to be more male-biased than that of the LRD diet. Adult longevity did not differ significantly with larval diet or light conditions, irrespective of sex. In other aspects the LRD diet generally performed best. Adult males from the LRD diet were significantly larger than those from the IAEA diet, irrespective of light treatment. Females from the LRD diet had ~25% higher fecundity and ~8% higher egg fertility compared to those from the IAEA diet. Adult flight ability did not differ between larval diets, and males had a similar number of copulations with wild females, irrespective of larval diet. The LRD diet had lower protein and fat content but a higher carbohydrate and energetic content than the IAEA diet. We conclude that the LRD diet is a low-cost standardized diet that is likely to be suitable for mass-rearing of Ae. aegypti for area-wide SIT-based vector control.