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53 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Paleoecología
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1.
Libro
Vegetation, phytogeography and paleo-ecology of the last 20,000 years of montane Central America / Gerald Alexander Islebe
Islebe, Gerald A. ;
Amsterdam : University of Amsterdam , s.f.
Clasificación: AC/581.5 / I5
Bibliotecas: Chetumal
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
ECO030000515 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1

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Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

Here, we use 30 long-term, high-resolution palaeoecological records from Mexico, Central and South America to address two hypotheses regarding possible drivers of resilience in tropical forests as measured in terms of recovery rates from previous disturbances. First, we hypothesize that faster recovery rates are associated with regions of higher biodiversity, as suggested by the insurance hypothesis. And second, that resilience is due to intrinsic abiotic factors that are location specific, thus regions presently displaying resilience in terms of persistence to current climatic disturbances should also show higher recovery rates in the past. To test these hypotheses, we applied a threshold approach to identify past disturbances to forests within each sequence. We then compared the recovery rates to these events with pollen richness before the event. We also compared recovery rates of each site with a measure of present resilience in the region as demonstrated by measuring global vegetation persistence to climatic perturbations using satellite imagery. Preliminary results indeed show a positive relationship between pre-disturbance taxonomic richness and faster recovery rates. However, there is less evidence to support the concept that resilience is intrinsic to a region; patterns of resilience apparent in ecosystems presently are not necessarily conservative through time.


3.
Libro
The holocene and anthropocene environmental history of Mexico: a paleoecological approach on Mesoamerica / editors: Nuria Torrescano Valle, Gerald A. Islebe, Priyadarsi D. Roy
Torrescano Valle, Nuria (editora) ; Islebe, Gerald A. (editor) ; Roy, Priyadarsi Debajyoti (editor) ;
Cham, Switzerland : Springer International Publishing , c2019
Disponible en línea
Clasificación: EE/577 / H6
Bibliotecas: Campeche , San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040007071 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010019867 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Resumen en español

This book provides essential information on Mexico’s Holocene and Anthropocene climate and vegetation history. Considering the geography of Mexico – which is home to a variety of climatic and environmental conditions, from desert and tropical to high mountain climates – this book focuses on its postglacial paleoecology and paleoclimatology. Further, it analyses human intervention since the middle Holocene as a major agent of environmental change. Offering a valuable tool for understanding past climate change and its relationship with present climate change, the book is a must-read for botanists, ecologists, palaeontologists and graduate students in related fields.

Índice

1 Introduction: The Holocene and Anthropocene Environmental History of Mexico
References
2 Paleoclimate of the Gulf of California (Northwestern Mexico) During the Last 2000 Years
Introduction
Regional Settings
Processes Responsible for the Sedimentation Cycle
Hydrological Processes Linked to Climate and Anthropogenic Changes
Integrated Water–Vertical Settling Studies in the Alfonso Basin
Climate Variations: Interannual, Centennial, and Millennial Scales
Centennial–Scale Variability
Climate Modeling
Conclusions
References
3 Holocene Hydroclimate of the Subtropical Mexico: A State of the Art
Introduction
Modern Climate
Register and Hypothesis
Vegetation Composition
Hydrological Variation and Climate Forcing
Conclusions
References
4 The Environment of Ancient Cloud Forests in the Mexican Pacific
The Mexican Pacific
The Past Environments in the Mexican Pacific
The Present Cloud Forest
The Ancient Cloud Forests
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
5 Sea Level Change and Its Influence on the Coastal Landscape in the Gulf of Mexico During the Holocene
Introduction
Vegetation Types in the Gulf of Mexico
Vegetation Response to Sea Level
Human Impact on Coastal Vegetation
Conclusion
References
6 Insights into the Holocene Environmental History of the Highlands of Central Mexico
Introduction
Central Mexico
Holocene Environment
References
7 Integration of Landscape Approaches for the Spatial Reconstruction of Vegetation
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
References
8 Volcanic Activity in Mexico During the Holocene
Introduction
Distribution of Volcanoes in Mexico
Holocene Eruptions from Volcanoes in Mexico
Active Stratovolcanoes and Calderas
Monogenetic Volcanic Fields
Outlook of Holocene Volcanism
References


4.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
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Holocene paleoecology and paleoclimatology of South and Southeastern Mexico: a palynological and geospatial approach
Islebe, Gerald A. (autor) ; Carrillo Bastos, Alicia (autor) ; Aragón Moreno, Alejandro Antonio (autor) ; Valdéz Hernández, Mirna (autor) ; Torrescano Valle, Nuria (autor) ; Cabanillas Terán, Nancy (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: The holocene and anthropocene environmental history of Mexico: a paleoecological approach on Mesoamerica / editors: Nuria Torrescano Valle, Gerald A. Islebe, Priyadarsi D. Roy Cham, Switzerland : Springer International Publishing, 2019 páginas 195-207 ISBN:978-3-030-31718-8
Bibliotecas: Campeche , Chetumal , San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
59784-30 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
59784-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
59784-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en español

Reconstruction of Holocene paleoecological conditions and paleoclimate of an area with high biological diversity and a variety of climatic conditions like southern and southeastern Mexico is complex. This region is characterized by vegetation types ranging from tropical forest to high mountain vegetation. Additionally, this region was inhabited by the ancient Maya culture, which shaped the landscape for several millennia. Previous paleoecological studies from this region were focused on the Maya culture-environment relationships, to decipher natural and human-induced deforestation. These studies also aimed to understand the effects of climatic regional forcing (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the natural vegetation. In this chapter we review the paleoecological results and present a new geospatial approach to analyze past precipitation and tropical forest distribution of the Yucatán Peninsula from 1 AD to 1700 AD in 100-year intervals. The geospatial analysis revealed heterogeneity in spatial patterns of precipitation and tropical forest extension during the Late Preclassic, Terminal Classic, and Medieval Warm Period to Little Ice Age transition. The dry periods of the Middle and Late Holocene in the Yucatán Peninsula and southern Mexico can be chronologically placed in the following intervals: 4700–3600 cal year BP, 3400–2500 cal year BP, 2300–2100 cal year BP, 1900–1700 cal year BP, 1400–1300 cal year BP, 730 cal year BP, and 560 cal year BP. We conclude that this region requires additional studies with strong chronological framework due to its heterogeneous environmental conditions.


5.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
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Introduction: the holocene and anthropocene environmental history of Mexico
Torrescano Valle, Nuria (autora) ; Islebe, Gerald A. (autor) ; Roy, Priyadarsi Debajyoti (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: The holocene and anthropocene environmental history of Mexico: a paleoecological approach on Mesoamerica / editors: Nuria Torrescano Valle, Gerald A. Islebe, Priyadarsi D. Roy Cham, Switzerland : Springer International Publishing, 2019 página 1-5 ISBN:978-3-030-31718-8
Bibliotecas: Campeche , Chetumal , San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
59782-30 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
59782-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
59782-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en español

The Holocene spans the last 11,700 years of Earth’s history, and the paleoecology and paleoclimate dynamics of Mexico over this interval were complex. This is apparent when considering the region’s ecological and physiographic diversity, as well as human impact since the Late Holocene. The geography of Mexico varies from desert to high mountain systems, indicating conspicuous precipitation and temperature variability on latitudinal and altitudinal scales. More than one-third of Mexico’s territory is classified as arid or subarid. This area receives more than 60% of its total annual precipitation during the warm season through the North American Monsoon (NAM) and tropical storm systems, and significant winter precipitation occurs only in its northwestern margin. The Anthropocene is the latest part of the Holocene and it is marked by an era of substantial human activity. Climate change during this interval is not exclusively driven by natural processes, as humans have been influencing shifts in the global climate. Several climate projections predict that anthropogenic global warming will cause further enhancement in aridity in this drought-prone region by increasing the mean temperature and reducing the average annual rainfall in the near future. Other areas of Mexico are projected to receive less annual precipitation or the same amount but in shorter time periods. Ultimately, the knowledge of Holocene environmental change can provide society with clues for conservation, management, and adaptation of Mexico’s diverse environments.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Climate forcings on vegetation of the southeastern Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico) during the middle to late Holocene
Aragón Moreno, Alejandro Antonio ; Islebe, Gerald A. (coaut.) ; Roy, Priyadarsi D. (coaut.) ; Torrescano Valle, Nuria (coaut.) ; Mueller, Andreas D. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology Vol. 495 (April 2018), p. 214-226 ISSN: 0031-0182
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Climate and vegetation history from the Yucatán Peninsula, southeastern Mexico, are inferred from a mangrove sediment core deposited between the middle and late Holocene (~5600–1700 cal yr B.P.) in the Rio Hondo Delta. Fossil pollen and concentrations of Ca and Fe and Ca/Fe ratio in sediments are used to record changes in vegetation and climate. Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatic interpretations obtained from pollen abundances and associations and Fe/Ca ratio coincide with dynamics of major global forcings of climate change like ITCZ, ENSO and global cooling. Mesic conditions enabled tropical forest expansion during the middle Holocene (~5600–3650 cal yr B.P.), although there were periodic dry episodes at ~5200 cal yr B.P. and at ~4300 cal yr B.P. that caused disturbance and enabled herbaceous vegetation to expand. Changes in sedi- mentation and a gradual change from semi-evergreen to dry tropical forest occurred at ~3650 cal yr B.P., with increasing ENSO activity and southward migration of the ITCZ during transition of the middle to late Holocene. The driest period and lowest forest cover occurred between ~2600 and 2000 cal yr B.P. Data show that over the last two millennia, influence of the ENSO on southeastern Mexico is stronger compared to other proxy-records of climate variability from the Caribbean region.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Holocene precipitation changes in the Maya forest, Yucatán peninsula, Mexico
Vela Pelaez, Alejandro Antonio ; Torrescano Valle, Nuria (coaut.) ; Islebe, Gerald A. (coaut.) ; Mas, Jean François (coaut.) ; Weissenberger, Holger (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology Vol. 505 (September 2018), p. 42-52 ISSN: 0031-0182
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Holocene fossil pollen samples (n=38) from Lake Silvituc in Mexico were analyzed with the analog technique using modern pollen samples (n=98) of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Calculated dissimilarity indices allow us to reconstruct the vegetation and to develop a precipitation record for the last 7900 years. The Middle Holocene shows a gradual increase of precipitation and a marked drop in reconstructed precipitation around 4200 BCE. During the Late Holocene two phases were identified: Phase I (2500 BCE – 1 CE) shows the greatest increase in precipitation with four peaks around 1200 BCE, 650 BCE, 200 BCE and 1 CE. Also a period of increased precipitation resulted for the period between 200 and 500 BCE. Periods of reduced precipitation were detected at 900–1100 BCE, 500–600 BCE and 100–190 BCE. Phase II (1–2000 CE) encompasses several strong dry events during the following periods: 150–300 CE, 750–900 CE, 1050–1180 CE, and 1530–1580 CE. A strong reduction of 32% in precipitation in the late Preclassic Period (100–300 CE) was detected. Non-analogs of Phase II are associated with periods of reduced precipitation and fall into time periods of extended droughts related to the Maya Late Classic and the Little Ice Age. A limiting factor on the use of analogs for tropical forests is that a combination of different analogs for the same fossil pollen signal exists. Interpretation under these circumstances requires good knowledge of the ecology of the taxa and a priori characterization of the modern samples.


8.
- Artículo con arbitraje
The Paleoanthropocene of the Yucatán Peninsula: palynological evidence of environmental change
Islebe, Gerald A. ; Torrescano Valle, Nuria (coaut.) ; Aragón Moreno, Alejandro Antonio (coaut.) ; Vela Peláez, Alejandro A. (coaut.) ; Valdéz Hernández, Mirna (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana Vol. 70, no. 1 (March 2018), p. 49-60 ISSN: 1405-3322
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Las actividades humanas han influenciado sobre los paisajes de la península de Yucatán desde más de 4000 años. Varios estudios paleoecológicos muestran actividades de agricultura, el registro polínico más antiguo de maíz (Zea mays L.) proviene del norte de Belice, con una edad aproximada de 3300 BC. Otros estudios paleoecológicos del norte de Guatemala y de la porción mexicana de la península de Yucatán muestran registros de maíz fósil con rangos de edad desde 1500 a 3000 A.C. La mayoría de los registros muestran una marcada tendencia a condiciones de mayor sequía después de los 3500 A.C. Estas tendencias de sequía se registran como reducción del polen fósil arbóreo. El registro polínico de Z. mays está acompañado de taxa que indican diferentes grados de perturbación en la vegetación natural.

Resumen en inglés

Human activities have changed and shaped landscape conditions of the Yucatán Peninsula for more than 4000 years. Several paleoecological studies showed the oldest pollen record of corn-based agriculture is from northern Belize, with an estimated age of 3300 BC. Several other studies report maize between 1500 and 3000 BC from northern Guatemala and the Mexican part of the Yucatán Peninsula. After 3500 cal yr BP several paleoecological studies showed a marked tendency to drier climatic conditions. In pollen records, increased drought is expressed as a reduced presence of fossil arboreal pollen. Pollen records with the presence of Zea mays also show other taxa, which are indicators of disturbance in different vegetation types.


9.
Tesis - Doctorado
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Índice | Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

Se presenta una reconstrucción paleoambiental del Holoceno medio y tardío a través del análisis de sedimentos de manglar obtenidos en la desembocadura del Río Hondo, al sur de la Península de Yucatán. El Polen fósil y los análisis de elementos geoquímicos permitieron reconstruir cambios paleoecológicos y paleoclimáticos de los últimos 5,600 años, donde se encontraron variaciones ecológicas, de precipitación y escorrentía relacionadas con eventos climáticos globales. Durante el Holoceno medio hasta alrededor de 4,000 años antes del presente (AP), los cambios en la vegetación muestran haber estado más influenciados por patrones oceánico-atmosféricos originados en el océano Atlántico. Los indicadores geoquímicos mostraron los mayores niveles de precipitación, resultados que corresponden con la posición hacia el norte de la Zona de Convergencia Inter-tropical. Los cambios en la dinámica de los sistemas de manglar fue limitada, principalmente, por el aumento del nivel del mar. A partir de 4,000 AP, el incremento de la actividad ENSO, al oriente del Océano Pacífico, se hace evidente a través de cambios en la dinámica de la vegetación. Las selvas subperennifolias y las selvas secas se expanden en respuesta a la progresiva reducción de la precipitación. Los sistemas de manglar aumentaron su cobertura debido a la relentización en el aumento del nivel del mar durante este tiempo. Los cambios en la precipitación coinciden con un efecto acoplado de cambios en la posición de la Zona de Convergencia Inter-tropical y el aumento de la actividad ENSO.

Hacia 2,600 AP se registra el mínimo de precipitación en toda la temporalidad del estudio. Posteriormente las condiciones ambientales fueron favorables para la expansión de selvas hasta 2,000 AP, cuando se registra intensa actividad ENSO. El registro polínico sugiere una diversificación de los tipos de selva en respuesta a este forzamiento. La cobertura de los sistemas de manglar aumentó y el mangle botoncillo (Conocarpus erectus) fue la especie mejor representada. El establecimiento de los actuales sistemas de manglar rojo achaparrado fue a partir de la estabilización del nivel del mar, entre 3,600 y 4,000 AP, aunque la presencia de manglar fue desde el Holoceno medio. Los abruptos cambios en la vegetación e indicadores geoquímicos durante los últimos 2,000 años pueden estar relacionados con la intensa actividad ENSO. 2 Por otra parte, las actividades humanas fueron registradas desde el Holoceno medio. Sin embargo, los procesos de cambio en la vegetación fueron principalmente en respuesta a forzamientos climáticos basados en la composición del espectro polínico fósil. Finalmente, existen registros de eventos paleoclimáticos a escala global hace 5,200, 4,200 y 2,600 años, sin embargo, resulta necesario aumentar el número de sitios de estudio y obtener un mayor número de datos para realizar análisis numéricos y encontrar alguna ciclicidad en los procesos de cambio climático encontrados.

Índice

Resumen
Capítulo I: Introducción y objetivos
Capítulo II: Climate forcings on vegetation of the southeastern Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico) during the middle to late Holocene
Capítulo III: Middle and late Holocene mangrove dynamics of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
Capítulo IV: Conclusiones generales
Literatura citada


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