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1.
Artículo
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Las características de los humedales costeros son resultado de las interacciones hidrogeomorfológicas entre el continente y el océano, que causan un gradiente ambiental, que resulta en diferentes tipos de vegetación como manglares, popales, tulares, selvas y palmares inundables. Objetivo: Caracterizar las variables del hidroperiodo y fisicoquímicas del agua y suelo para determinar la relación que existe en el patrón de distribución de la vegetación en el Sistema de Humedales El Castaño (SHC). Metodología: Se establecieron 11 unidades de muestreo (UM) permanentes por estrato definidos: cinco en el manglar, dos en selvas inundables, dos en tular y dos en pastizal inundable. De mayo 2016 a octubre 2017 se caracterizó la vegetación y se muestreó mensualmente los niveles de inundación y parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua (superficial, intersticial y subterránea): salinidad, conductividad y pH; y el suelo: densidad aparente, porcentaje de humedad y potencial redox. Resultados: El manglar es el más cercano al mar, tiene la menor diversidad (H:1.66) y especies registradas (14), está dominado por Laguncularia racemosa y Rhizophora mangle y tiene los valores más altos de salinidad intersticial y subterránea, mayores a 10.8 ups, se mantiene inundado de 4 a 12 meses, su potencial redox es de 14.57 mV. Seguido está el manglar, tierra adentro, se ubican los remanentes de la selva inundable, (H:2.18 y 18 especies), dominada por Pachira aquatica, la salinidad intersticial y subterránea de 4.95 ups, permanece inundada de 0 a 6 meses y el potencial redox es de 119.07 mV. El tular, después de la selva, (H:1.92 y 16 especies), dominado por Typha domingensis, salinidad intersticial y subterránea de 6.1 ups, el tiempo de inundación es de 5 a 8 meses y potencial redox es de 125.9 mV.

El pastizal inundable, con menor influencia marina, es un humedal herbáceo modificado para uso ganadero, presentó los valores más altos de diversidad (H:3.44 y 50 especies), Paspalum conjugatum es la especie dominante, la salinidad intersticial y subterránea es menor a 0.5 ups, se mantiene inundado de 5 a 9 meses y el potencial redox es de 151.23 mV. Conclusiones: En cada tipo de vegetación, la estructura, composición y diversidad es diferente, con un alto recambio de especies que indica un gradiente definido por la salinidad.

Resumen en inglés

Distribution patterns and vegetation structure in the coastal wetland gradient in the Castaño, Chiapas, Mexico. Introduction: The characteristics of coastal wetlands are the result of hydrogeomorphological interactions between the continent and the ocean, which cause an environmental gradient, hat results in different vegetation types such as mangroves, freshwater marshes, swamp forests and palm swamps. Objective: To characterize the hydroperiod and physicochemical variables of water and soil and their effect on the distribution of vegetation in the Sistema de Humedales El Castaño. Methods: A total of 11 permanent sampling units (UM) were established by defined strata: five in the mangrove, two in swamp forest, two in freshwater marshes and two in the flooded pasture. From May 2016 to October 2017 the vegetation was characterized and the water levels and physicochemical parameters (superficial, interstitial and groundwater) were sampled monthly for: salinity, and pH; and the soil for: bulk density, humidity percentage, and redox potential.

Results: Mangroves are the closest to the sea, have the lowest diversity (H: 1.66) and species richness (14), they are dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle, have the highest values of interstitial and groundwater salinity, (> 10.8 ups), remain flooded for 4 to 12 months per year, and have a redox potential of 14.57 mV. Immediately, inland, there are remnants of the swamp forests (H: 2.18 and 18 species), dominated by Pachira aquatica , with 5 ups interstitial and groundwater salinity, flooded from 0 to 6 months per year, with a redox potential of 119.07 mV. These forests are followed inland by freshwater marshes (H: 1.92 and 16 species), dominated by Typha domingensis with 6.1 ups interstitial and groundwater salinity, flooded for 5 to 8 months per year and a redox potential of 125.9 mV. Finally, furthest inland is the flooded pasture, a modified herbaceous wetland for cattle grazing (H: 3.44 and 50 species) dominated by Paspalum conjugatum , where interstitial and groundwater salinity is less than 0.5 ups, it stays flooded for 5 to 9 months and the redox potential is 151.23 mV. Conclusions: In each type of vegetation, the structure, composition, and diversity are different, with a high turnover of species that indicates a gradient defined by salinity. The vegetation in the SHC follows the patterns of typical organization of the tropical coastal wetlands, mangroves, swamp forests and herbaceous wetlands, in this case the freshwater marshes and flooded pastures. The factor that define the distribution of the vegetation is the salinity and the gradient that is observed are a function of the hydrological dynamics that depends on the mixing of marine and freshwater.


2.
Libro
Soil organic carbon: the hidden potential / authors: Lefèvre Clara, Rekik Fatma, Alcantara Viridiana, Wiese Liesl ; editors: Wiese Liesl, Alcantara Viridiana, Baritz Rainer, Vargas Ronald
Disponible en línea: Soil organic carbon: the hidden potential.
Lefèvre, Clara (autora) ; Rekik, Fatma (autora) ; Alcantara, Viridiana (autora :: editora) ; Wiese, Liesl (autora :: editora) ; Baritz, Rainer (editor) ; Vargas, Ronald (editor) ;
Rome, Italy : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations , 2017
Clasificación: F/631.417 / S65
Bibliotecas: Villahermosa
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
38986-90 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
PDF
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In the presence of climate change, land degradation and biodiversity loss, soils have become one of the most vulnerable resources in the world. Anthropogenic impacts on soil can turn soil organic carbon (SOC) into either a net sink or a net source of GHGs. After carbon enters the soil in the form of organic material from soil fauna and flora, it can persist in the soil for decades, centuries or even millennia. This publication aims to provide an overview to decision-makers and practitioners of the main scientific facts and information regarding the current knowledge and knowledge gaps on SOC. It highlights how better information and food practices may be implemented to support ending hunger, adapting to and mitigating climate change and achieving overall sustainable development.

Índice

Executive summary
Acknowledgements
Acronyms
1 • What is SOC?
1.1 • SOC: a crucial part of the global carbon cycle
1.2 • SOC: a component of SOM
1.3 • Soil: a source and sink for carbon-based GHGs
1.3.1 • Carbon dioxide (CO2 )
1.3.2 • Methane (CH4 )
1.4 • SOC sequestration
2 • Role of SOC in human well-being
2.1 • Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals
2.2 • SOC and biodiversity
2.2.1 • Importance of soil biodiversity
2.2.2 • Soil biodiversity losses
2.3 • SOC, food production and water supply
2.3.1 • Soil fertility for food production
2.3.2 • Influence of SOC on water-holding capacity and porosity
2.4 • Climate change effects on SOC
2.4.1 • Effects of rising temperatures and increased precipitation on SOC stocks
2.4.2 • Effects of increased CO2 concentration in the atmosphere
2.4.3 • Uncertainties about the response of SOC to climate change
2.5 • Importance of SOC in the international framework of climate change mitigation and adaptation
3 • What are the global SOC stocks?
3.1 • Current global SOC stocks
3.2 • Hot-spots and bright spots of SOC: major areas for consideration
3.2.1 • Black Soils
3.2.2 • Permafrost
3.2.3 • Peatlands
3.2.4 • Grasslands
3.2.5 • Forest soils
3.2.6 • Drylands
4 • Measuring, accounting, reporting and verifying SOC
4.1 • Measuring, reporting and verifying (MRV)
4.1.1 • What is MRV and what is it used for?
4.1.2 • Guidance for reporting on SOC in the GHG inventories
4.1.2.1 • Use of a Land Use and Land Use Change (LU/LUC) matrix
4.1.2.2 • Different calculations for different types of soil
4.1.2.3 • Different levels of information: use of methodological Tier levels
4.2 • Measuring and monitoring SOC
4.2.1 • Measuring SOC
4.2.1.1 • SOC content measurement methods
4.2.1.2 • Calculation of SOC stocks

4.2.1.3 • Important elements to consider in SOC stock calculations
4.2.1.4 • Upscaling SOC data
4.2.1.5 • Monitoring SOC stocks changes over time
4.2.1.6 • Soil Monitoring Networks (SMN)
4.2.2 • Challenges in measuring and monitoring SOC
4.2.3 • Verification of SOC stock estimates
5 • SOC management for sustainable food production and climate change mitigation and adaptation
5.1 • SOC management for sustainable food production
5.2 • SOC management for climate change mitigation and adaptation
5.3 • Challenges of SOC sequestration
5.3.1 • Barriers to adoption of climate change mitigation and adaptation measures
5.3.1.1 • Financial barriers
5.3.1.2 • Technical and logistical barriers
5.3.1.3 • Institutional barriers
5.3.1.4 • Knowledge barriers
5.3.1.5 • Resource barriers
5.3.1.6 • Socio-cultural barriers
5.3.2 • Non-human induced factors limiting SOC sequestration: abiotic factors
6 •What next? Points for consideration
References
Annexes
Annex 1: Main Methods for SOC Content Determination
Annex 2: Examples of current national SOC monitoring systems (non-exhaustive)


3.
Libro
Tropical peatland ecosystems / Mitsuru Osaki, Nobuyuki Tsuji, editors
Disponible en línea: Tropical peatland ecosystems.
Osaki, Mitsuru (editor) ; Tsuji, Nobuyuki (editor) ;
Tokyo, Japan : Springer Science+Business Media , c2016
Disponible en línea
Clasificación: 577.687 / T7
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020011191 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

This book is an excellent resource for scientists, political decision makers, and students interested in the impact of peatlands on climate change and ecosystem function, containing a plethora of recent research results such as monitoring-sensing-modeling for carbon–water flux/storage, biodiversity and peatland management in tropical regions. It is estimated that more than 23 million hectares (62 %) of the total global tropical peatland area are located in Southeast Asia, in lowland or coastal areas of East Sumatra, Kalimantan, West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Brunei, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak and Southeast Thailand. Tropical peatland has a vital carbon–water storage function and is host to a huge diversity of plant and animal species. Peatland ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change and the impacts of human activities such as logging, drainage and conversion to agricultural land. In Southeast Asia, severe episodic droughts associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, in combination with over-drainage, forest degradation, and land-use changes, have caused widespread peatland fires and microbial peat oxidation. Indonesia's 20 Mha peatland area is estimated to include about 45–55 GtC of carbon stocks. As a result of land use and development, Indonesia is the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases (2–3 Gtons carbon dioxide equivalent per year), 80 % of which is due to deforestation and peatland loss. Thus, tropical peatlands are key ecosystems in terms of the carbon–water cycle and climate change.

Índice

Part I Introduction to Tropical Peatland
1 Tropical Peatland of the World
2 Changing Paradigms in the History of Tropical Peatland Research
3 Peatland in Indonesia
4 Peatland in Malaysia
5 Peatland and Peatland Forest in Brunei Darussalam
6 Peatland in Kalimantan
7 Sustainable Management Model for Peatland Ecosystems in the Riau, Sumatra
Part II Peat Formation and It’s Property
8 Tropical Peat Formation
9 Tropical Peat and Peatland Definition in Indonesia
Part III Ecosystem in Peatland
10 Forest Structure and Productivity of Tropical Heath and Peatland Forests
11 Floristic Diversity in the Peatland Ecosystems of Central Kalimantan
12 Peat-Fire Impact on Forest Structure in Peatland of Central Kalimantan
13 A Comparative Zoogeographic View on the Animal Biodiversity of Indonesia and Japan
14 Aquatic Communities in Peatland of Central Kalimantan
15 Mycorrhizal Fungi in Peatland
Part IV Water Condition and Management in Peatland
16 Characteristics ofWatershed in Central Kalimantan
17 Groundwater in Peatland
18 Peat Fire Impact on Water Quality and Organic Matter in Peat Soil
19 Discharged Sulfuric Acid from Peatland to River System
20 Arrangement and Structure ofWeirs on the Kalampangan Canal
Part V Green House Gasses Emission from Peatland
21 CO2 Balance of Tropical Peat Ecosystems
22 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Tropical Peat Soil
23 Carbon Stock Estimate
24 Evaluation of Disturbed Peatland/Forest CO2 Emissions by Atmospheric Concentration Measurements
Part VI Wild Fire in Peatland
25 Peat Fire Occurrence
26 Detection and Prediction Systems of Peat-Forest Fires in Central Kalimantan
27 Compact Firefighting System for Villages and Water Resources for Firefighting in Peatland Area of Central Kalimantan

Part VII Estimation and Modeling of Peatland
28 Contribution of Hyperspectral Applications to Tropical Peatland Ecosystem Monitoring
29 Land Change Analysis from 2000 to 2004 in Peatland of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia Using GIS and an Extended Transition Matrix
30 Estimation Model of Ground Water Table at Peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
31 Peat Mapping
32 Modeling of Carbon and GHG Budgets in Tropical Peatland
33 Field Data Transmission System by Universal Mobile Telecommunication Network
Part VIII Sustainable Management of Peatland
34 Peatland Management for Sustainable Agriculture
35 Tropical Peatland Forestry: Toward Forest Restoration and Sustainable Use ofWood Resources in Degraded Peatland
36 Ethnic Plant Resources in Central Kalimantan
Part IX Ecological Services in Peatland
37 Local Community Safeguard by REDDC and Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in Peatland
38 Carbon Credit Current Trend and REDDC Projects
39 The Potential for REDDC in Peatland of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
40 Livelihood Strategies of Transmigrant Farmers in Peatland of Central Kalimantan
41 Sustainability Education and Capacity Building in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia


4.
Libro
Towards climate-responsible peatlands management / Riccardo Biancalani and Armine Avagyan (editors)
Biancalani, Riccardo (ed.) ; Avagyan, Armine (coed.) ;
Rome, Italy : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations , c2014
Clasificación: 333.918 / T6
Bibliotecas: Campeche , Tapachula , Villahermosa
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040006041 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013275 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
ECO050005834 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
PDF
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Peatlands are lands with a naturally accumulated peat layer at their surface. In their natural state, peatlands support a large range of habitats and provide a home for unique biodiversity. Even though peatlands extend over a relatively small portion of the earth’s land surface, they hold a large pool of carbon. Along with storing large quantities of carbon, peatlands also play an important role in the retention, purification and release of water and in the mitigation of droughts and floods. When drained, peatlands become net sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because of drainage, organic soils are currently the third-largest emitter of GHGs in the Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use sector. The aim of this guidebook is to support the reduction of GHG emissions from managed peatlands and present guidance for responsible management practices that can maintain peatlands ecosystem services while sustaining and improving local livelihoods. This guidebook also provides an overview of the present knowledge on peatlands, including their geographic distribution, ecological characteristics and socio-economic importance.

Índice

Acronyms and glossary of key terms
Acknowledgements
Executive summary
Definitions
Introduction
Section 1
Peatlands characterization and consequences of utilization
1. Peatland characterization
1.1 Peat definition
1.2 Peatland definition
1.3 Ecological context
1.4 Characteristics of peatland geochemistry
1.5 Characteristics of peatland hydrology
2. Contribution of drained organic soils to GHG emissions
3. Overview of types of peatlands
3.1 Tropical peatlands
3.2 Boreal and temperate peatlands
4. Mapping of Peatlands
4.1 State of the art of peatlands mapping
4.2 Comparison of different available maps
4.3 Priority actions for improved peatlands mapping
5. Utilization of peatlands and peat
5.1 Low-intensity use of peatlands
5.2 Intensive use of peatlands
6. Environmental impacts and consequences of utilizing peatlands
6.1 GHG emissions from drainage
6.2 Subsidence and flooding
6.3 Vegetation removal and deforestation
6.4 Main hazards related to the utilization and management of peatlands
Section 2
Improved management practices
7. Rewetting of drained peatlands
8. Croplands and paludicultures
9. Restoring degraded pastures
10. Forestry practices on peatlands
10.1 Northern peatlands
10.2 Possibilities for responsible peatlands management
11. Plantations in Southeast Asia
11.1 Plantations expansion and peatlands conversion
11.2 Urgent need for conservation and responsible use of peatlands
11.3 A paradigm shift in the use of peatlands
12. Aquaculture and tropical peatland fishery
13. Participatory and negotiated approach to responsible peatland management
13.1 Participatory identification and mapping of stakeholders
13.2 Promoting efforts to secure stakeholder natural resource tenure
13.3 Supporting sustainable natural resource governance through negotiation

Section 3
Case studies of management practices
14. Smallholder sago farming on largely undrained peatland
15. Illipe nut plantation on undrained peatland
16. Biomass from reeds as a substitute for peat in energy production
17. Sphagnum farming for replacing peat in horticultural substrates
18. Peatland restoration and sustainable grazing in China
19. Rewetting drained forest in Southern Sweden
References
Annex
Box 1.1 GHG emissions and waterborne carbon loss from peatlands
Box 3.1 Mire formation
Box 6.1 Methods to measure peatland GHG emissions and DOC loss
Box 7.1 The Bord na Mona Bog restoration programme
Box 8.1 Paludiculture plants for the temperate and boreal zones of the northern hemisphere
Box 8.2 Research and development for biomass use from rewetted peatlands - Vorpommern Paludiculture Initiative
Box 9.1 Rewetting alkaline fens with support of sustainable grazing in Germany
Box 10.1 Paperbark tree in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam
Box 10.2 Utilizing non-timber forest products to conserve Indonesia’s peat swamp forests
Box 11.1 Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions for peatlands management
Box 12.1 A lesson learned: the Mega Rice Project
Box 13.1 Advances in peatlands management in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina


5.
Artículo
Biogeographic aspects of the distribution of bird species breeding in Québec’s peatlands
Calmé, Sophie ; Desrochers, André (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Biogeography Vol. 27, no. 3 (May 2000), p. 725–732 ISSN: 0305-0270
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Aim: The state of peatlands in eastern Canada is of growing concern. This habitat is in decline due to urban sprawl, agriculture, forestry, and peat mining. Moreover, reduction and fragmentation have led to increasing isolation of remaining peatlands. We determined how bird species distribution in peatlands conforms to expectations drawn from island dynamics. We also determined the factors influencing the occurrence of 10 common peatland bird species, two of which rely mainly on peatlands for nesting in the study region. Location: We sampled sixty-three peatlands in southern Québec, Canada, within a landscape characterized by a mosaic of forest stands and farmland. Methods: We sampled nesting bird populations within peatlands from 4 June to 14 July 1995, using both transect lines and fixed-radius point counts. Each sampled peatland was characterized by area, vegetation structure (microhabitats), and isolation. We used multiple regression to test the relationship between bird species richness, peatland area, heterogeneity, microhabitat richness, and relative isolation, after correction for sampling effort. Relationships between bird species abundances and the variables the environmental variables were investigated with Canonical Correspondence Analyses. We calculated probabilities of occurrence of individual species in peatlands by logistic regression, with the same explanatory variables as mentioned previously.

Results: Bird species richness was mainly explained by microhabitat richness, and to a lesser extent, by sampling effort. By contrast, the occurrence of more than half of the species was mainly explained by peatland microhabitat heterogeneity. Palm warbler Dendroica palmarum (Gmelin) and upland sandpipers Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein) were the only species less frequent in small and isolated peatlands than in other peatlands. Main conclusions: The results for species richness support both the habitat diversity, and passive sampling hypotheses for patchy distribution of birds. By contrast, results from individual species emphasized the difference between factors affecting total species richness and individual species distribution. The distribution of palm warbler, the only species restricted to peatlands regionally, was consistent with expectations from island dynamics.