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No. de sistema: 000001516

LDR _ _ 00000nam^^22^^^^^za^4500
008 _ _ 141030s2006^^^^enka^^^f^^^^^z000^0^eng^d
020 _ _ a| 0521606365
020 _ _ a| 9780521606363
040 _ _ a| ECO
c| ECO
044 _ _ a| enk
084 _ _ a| 574.5028
b| E2/2006
245 0 0 a| Ecological census techniques a handbook
c| edited by William J. Sutherland
250 _ _ a| 2nd ed.
260 _ _ a| Cambridge
b| Cambridge University Press
c| 2006
300 _ _ a| xv, 432 p.
b| il.
c| 26 cm.
504 _ _ a| Incluye bibliografía e índice (p. 411-432)
505 2 _ a| List of contributors page.. Preface.. 1 Planning a research programme.. Introduction: reverse planning.. What is the specific question?.. What results are necessary to answer the questions?.. What data are needed to complete these analyses?.. What protocol is required to obtain these data?.. Can the data be collected in the time available?.. Modifying the planning in response to time available.. Creating data sheets.. Start and encounter reality.. 2 Principles of sampling.. Before one starts.. Objectives.. Know your organism.. Censuses and samples.. Know the reliability of your estimates.. Performing the calculations.. Sampling – the basics.. Defining sample units and the sampling frame.. The need for replication.. Ensuring that samples are representative.. Deviations from random.. The shape and size of sampling units.. Estimation of means and total population sizes.. The layout of samples.. Cluster sampling.. Multi-level sampling.. Stratified sampling.. Adaptive sampling.. Repeated counts at the same site.. Comparing two or more study areas.. Modelling spatial variation in numbers.. Surveillance and monitoring.. The difference between surveillance and monitoring.. Monitoring and adaptive management.. Sampling design for surveillance.. Describing long-term changes.. Alerts and indicators.. Planning and managing a monitoring programme.. References.. 3 General census methods.. Introduction.. Complete counts (1): general.. Not as easy as it seems.. Sampling the habitat.. Attempted complete enumeration.. Complete counts (2): plotless sampling.. Sample counts (1): mark–recapture methods.. Fundamentals of mark–recapture.. The two-sample method.. Multiple recaptures in closed populations.. Multiple recaptures in open populations.. The robust model.. What area does a trapping grid cover?.. Sample counts (2): some other methods based on trapping.. The removal method.. The change-in-ratio method
505 2 _ a| Simultaneous marking and recapture: the method of Wileyto et al. .. Continuous captures and recaptures: the Craig and du Feu method.. Passive distance sampling.. Sampling from the whole area.. Sample counts (3): ‘mark–recapture’ without capture.. Marking without capture.. Individual recognition without capture.. The double-observer method.. The double-survey method.. Subdivided point counts.. Sample counts (4): N-mixture models.. Sample counts (5): distance sampling.. General.. Line transects.. Point transects.. Passive distance sampling.. Sample counts (6): interception methods.. Point quadrats.. Line intercepts (cover).. Line intercepts (counts).. Sample counts (7): migrating animals.. Continuous migration.. Stop-over sites.. Population indices.. The idea of an index.. Overcoming variation in the index ratio.. Double sampling.. Frequency of occurrence.. Basics.. Managing the methodology.. Sampling strategy and statistical analysis for frequency of occurrence.. Subdivision of samples.. Appendix: software packages for population estimation.. Capture–recapture: closed populations.. Capture–recapture: open populations.. Ring-recovery models.. Multi-state models.. Observation-based methods.. References.. 4 Plants.. Introduction.. Counts.. Dafor.. Quadrats.. Point quadrats.. Transects.. Mapping terrestrial vegetation.. Mapping aquatic vegetation.. Seed traps.. Sampling of seedbanks.. Phytoplankton.. Benthic algae.. Marking and mapping individuals.. References.. 5 Invertebrates.. Introduction.. Direct searching and collecting.. Trapping.. Extraction from the substrate.. Storing, killing and preserving invertebrates.. Searching and direct observation (terrestrial and aerial).. Pitfall traps.. Sweep netting.. Vacuum sampling.. Beating.. Fogging.. Malaise traps.. Window or interception traps.. Water traps.. Light traps.. Other aerial attractants and traps.. Terrestrial emergence trap
505 2 _ a| Terrestrial emergence traps.. Digging and taking soil cores.. Litter samples and desiccation funnels.. Searching and direct observation (aquatic).. Pond netting.. Cylinder samplers.. Aquatic bait traps.. Aquatic emergence traps.. Digging, taking benthic cores and using grabs.. Kick sampling.. References.. 6 Fish.. Introduction.. Bankside counts.. Underwater observations.. Electric fishing.. Seine netting.. Trawling.. Lift, throw and push netting.. Hook and lining.. Gill netting.. Trapping.. Hydroacoustics.. Visual estimates of eggs.. Volumetric estimates of eggs.. Plankton nets for catching eggs.. Emergence traps for eggs.. References.. 7 Amphibians.. Introduction.. Recognising individuals.. Detection probability.. Drift netting.. Scan searching.. Netting.. Trapping.. Transect and patch sampling.. Removal studies.. Call surveys.. Using multiple methods.. Recording other data.. References.. 8 Reptiles.. Introduction.. Hand capturing.. Noosing.. Trapping.. Marking individuals.. References.. 9 Birds.. Introduction.. Listing methods.. Timed species counts.. Territory mapping.. Transects.. Line transects.. Point counts or point transects.. Correcting for differences in detection probabilities.. Capture techniques.. Catch per unit effort.. Capture–mark–recapture.. Counting nests in colonies.. Counting roosts.. Counting flocks.. Counting migrants.. Indirect methods of censusing.. Dropping counts.. Footprints and tracking strips.. Response to playback.. Vocal individuality.. References.. 10 Mammals.. Introduction.. Nesting or resting structures.. Bat roosts and nurseries.. Line transects.. Aerial surveys.. Individual recognition.. Counting calls.. Trapping.. Counting dung.. Feeding signs for herbivores.. Counting footprints and runways.. Hair tubes and hair catchers.. Counting seal colonies.. References.. 11 Environmental variables.. Introduction
505 2 _ a| Wind and water flow.. Wind.. Water flow.. Other kinds of water movement.. Rainfall.. Temperature.. Humidity.. pH.. Duration of sunshine.. Slope angles and height above shore.. Light.. Aquatic light.. Water turbidity.. Conductivity.. Salinity.. Preamble to water chemistry.. Dissolved oxygen.. Nitrogenous compounds.. Phosphorus compounds.. Water-testing kits.. Soil and sediment characteristics.. Redox potential.. Oxygen in soils and sediments.. References.. 12 The twenty commonest censusing sins.. Index
520 1 _ a| This is an updated version of the best selling first edition, Ecological Census Techniques, with updating, some new chapters and authors. Almost all ecological and conservation work involves carrying out a census or survey. This practically focussed book describes how to plan a census, the practical details and shows with worked examples how to analyse the results. The first three chapters describe planning, sampling and the basic theory necessary for carrying out a census. In the subsequent chapters international experts describe the appropriate methods for counting plants, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. As many censuses also relate the results to environmental variability, there is a chapter explaining the main methods. Finally, there is a list of the most common mistakes encountered when carrying out a census.
650 _ 4 a| Metodología científica
650 _ 4 a| Ecología
650 _ 4 a| Evaluación ecológica (Biología)
700 1 _ a| Sutherland, William J.
e| ed.
902 _ _ a| GOG
904 _ _ a| Octubre 2014
905 _ _ a| Acervo
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Ecological census techniques a handbook / edited by William J. Sutherland
Sutherland, William J. (ed.)
Editor: Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2006
Edición: 2nd ed.
ISBN: 0521606365
9780521606363
Descripción: xv, 432 p. : il. ; 26 cm.
Clasificación: 574.5028/E2/2006
Bibliotecas:
Campeche
Nota: Incluye bibliografía e índice (p. 411-432)
No. de sistema: 1516
Tipo: Libro
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List of contributors page
Preface
1 Planning a research programme
Introduction: reverse planning
What is the specific question?
What results are necessary to answer the questions?
What data are needed to complete these analyses?
What protocol is required to obtain these data?
Can the data be collected in the time available?
Modifying the planning in response to time available
Creating data sheets
Start and encounter reality
2 Principles of sampling
Before one starts
Objectives
Know your organism
Censuses and samples
Know the reliability of your estimates
Performing the calculations
Sampling – the basics
Defining sample units and the sampling frame
The need for replication
Ensuring that samples are representative
Deviations from random
The shape and size of sampling units
Estimation of means and total population sizes
The layout of samples
Cluster sampling
Multi-level sampling
Stratified sampling
Adaptive sampling
Repeated counts at the same site
Comparing two or more study areas
Modelling spatial variation in numbers
Surveillance and monitoring
The difference between surveillance and monitoring
Monitoring and adaptive management
Sampling design for surveillance
Describing long-term changes
Alerts and indicators
Planning and managing a monitoring programme
References
3 General census methods
Introduction
Complete counts (1): general
Not as easy as it seems
Sampling the habitat
Attempted complete enumeration
Complete counts (2): plotless sampling
Sample counts (1): mark–recapture methods
Fundamentals of mark–recapture
The two-sample method
Multiple recaptures in closed populations
Multiple recaptures in open populations
The robust model
What area does a trapping grid cover?
Sample counts (2): some other methods based on trapping
The removal method
The change-in-ratio method

Simultaneous marking and recapture: the method of Wileyto et al.
Continuous captures and recaptures: the Craig and du Feu method
Passive distance sampling
Sampling from the whole area
Sample counts (3): ‘mark–recapture’ without capture
Marking without capture
Individual recognition without capture
The double-observer method
The double-survey method
Subdivided point counts
Sample counts (4): N-mixture models
Sample counts (5): distance sampling
General
Line transects
Point transects
Passive distance sampling
Sample counts (6): interception methods
Point quadrats
Line intercepts (cover)
Line intercepts (counts)
Sample counts (7): migrating animals
Continuous migration
Stop-over sites
Population indices
The idea of an index
Overcoming variation in the index ratio
Double sampling
Frequency of occurrence
Basics
Managing the methodology
Sampling strategy and statistical analysis for frequency of occurrence
Subdivision of samples
Appendix: software packages for population estimation
Capture–recapture: closed populations
Capture–recapture: open populations
Ring-recovery models
Multi-state models
Observation-based methods
References
4 Plants
Introduction
Counts
Dafor
Quadrats
Point quadrats
Transects
Mapping terrestrial vegetation
Mapping aquatic vegetation
Seed traps
Sampling of seedbanks
Phytoplankton
Benthic algae
Marking and mapping individuals
References
5 Invertebrates
Introduction
Direct searching and collecting
Trapping
Extraction from the substrate
Storing, killing and preserving invertebrates
Searching and direct observation (terrestrial and aerial)
Pitfall traps
Sweep netting
Vacuum sampling
Beating
Fogging
Malaise traps
Window or interception traps
Water traps
Light traps
Other aerial attractants and traps
Terrestrial emergence trap

Terrestrial emergence traps
Digging and taking soil cores
Litter samples and desiccation funnels
Searching and direct observation (aquatic)
Pond netting
Cylinder samplers
Aquatic bait traps
Aquatic emergence traps
Digging, taking benthic cores and using grabs
Kick sampling
References
6 Fish
Introduction
Bankside counts
Underwater observations
Electric fishing
Seine netting
Trawling
Lift, throw and push netting
Hook and lining
Gill netting
Trapping
Hydroacoustics
Visual estimates of eggs
Volumetric estimates of eggs
Plankton nets for catching eggs
Emergence traps for eggs
References
7 Amphibians
Introduction
Recognising individuals
Detection probability
Drift netting
Scan searching
Netting
Trapping
Transect and patch sampling
Removal studies
Call surveys
Using multiple methods
Recording other data
References
8 Reptiles
Introduction
Hand capturing
Noosing
Trapping
Marking individuals
References
9 Birds
Introduction
Listing methods
Timed species counts
Territory mapping
Transects
Line transects
Point counts or point transects
Correcting for differences in detection probabilities
Capture techniques
Catch per unit effort
Capture–mark–recapture
Counting nests in colonies
Counting roosts
Counting flocks
Counting migrants
Indirect methods of censusing
Dropping counts
Footprints and tracking strips
Response to playback
Vocal individuality
References
10 Mammals
Introduction
Nesting or resting structures
Bat roosts and nurseries
Line transects
Aerial surveys
Individual recognition
Counting calls
Trapping
Counting dung
Feeding signs for herbivores
Counting footprints and runways
Hair tubes and hair catchers
Counting seal colonies
References
11 Environmental variables
Introduction

Wind and water flow
Wind
Water flow
Other kinds of water movement
Rainfall
Temperature
Humidity
pH
Duration of sunshine
Slope angles and height above shore
Light
Aquatic light
Water turbidity
Conductivity
Salinity
Preamble to water chemistry
Dissolved oxygen
Nitrogenous compounds
Phosphorus compounds
Water-testing kits
Soil and sediment characteristics
Redox potential
Oxygen in soils and sediments
References
12 The twenty commonest censusing sins
Index

Inglés

"This is an updated version of the best selling first edition, Ecological Census Techniques, with updating, some new chapters and authors. Almost all ecological and conservation work involves carrying out a census or survey. This practically focussed book describes how to plan a census, the practical details and shows with worked examples how to analyse the results. The first three chapters describe planning, sampling and the basic theory necessary for carrying out a census. In the subsequent chapters international experts describe the appropriate methods for counting plants, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. As many censuses also relate the results to environmental variability, there is a chapter explaining the main methods. Finally, there is a list of the most common mistakes encountered when carrying out a census."

SIBE Campeche
Codigo de barra
Estado
Colección
ECO040005711
(Disponible)
Tematica general