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4 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Asner, Gregory P
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We combined two existing datasets of vegetation aboveground biomass (AGB) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2011, 9899; Nature Climate Change, 2, 2012, 182) into a pan-tropical AGB map at 1- km resolution using an independent reference dataset of field observations and locally calibrated high-resolution biomass maps, harmonized and upscaled to 14 477 1-km AGB estimates. Our data fusion approach uses bias removal and weighted linear averaging that incorporates and spatializes the biomass patterns indicated by the reference data. The method was applied independently in areas (strata) with homogeneous error patterns of the input (Saatchi and Baccini) maps, which were estimated from the reference data and additional covariates. Based on the fused map, we estimated AGB stock for the tropics (23.4 N–23.4 S) of 375 Pg dry mass, 9–18% lower than the Saatchi and Baccini estimates. The fused map also showed differing spatial patterns of AGB over large areas, with higher AGB density in the dense forest areas in the Congo basin, Eastern Amazon and South-East Asia, and lower values in Central America and in most dry vegetation areas of Africa than either of the input maps. The validation exercise, based on 2118 estimates from the reference dataset not used in the fusion process, showed that the fused map had a RMSE 15–21% lower than that of the input maps and, most importantly, nearly unbiased estimates (mean bias 5 Mg dry mass ha 1 vs. 21 and 28 Mg ha 1 for the input maps). The fusion method can be applied at any scale including the policy-relevant national level, where it can provide improved biomass estimates by integrating existing regional biomass maps as input maps and additional, country-specific reference datasets.

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This sourcebook provides a consensus perspective from the global community of earth observation and carbon experts on methodological issues relating to quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of implementing mitigation activities related to the forest land use in developing countries (REDD+). At current status of negotiation five forestrelated activities have been listed to be implemented as mitigation actions by developing countries, namely: reducing emissions from deforestation (which implies a land-use change) and reducing emissions from forest degradation, conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forest, Enhancement of forest carbon stocks (all relating to carbon stock changes and GHG emissions within managed forest land use). The UNFCCC negotiations and related country submissions on REDD+ have advocated that methodologies and tools become available for estimating emissions and removals from deforestation and forest land management with an acceptable level of certainty. Based on the current status of negotiations and UNFCCC approved methodologies, the Sourcebook aims to provide additional explanation, clarification, and methodologies to support REDD+ early actions and readiness mechanisms for building national REDD+ monitoring systems. It compliments the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and it is aimed at being fully consistent with this IPCC Guidelines and with the UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9). The book emphasizes the role of satellite remote sensing as an important tool for monitoring changes in forest cover, provides guidance on how to obtain credible estimates of forest carbon stocks and related changes, and provides clarification on the use of IPCC Guidelines for estimating and reporting GHG emissions and removals from forest lands.

The sourcebook is the outcome of an ad-hoc REDD+ working group of “Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics” (GOFC-GOLD, www.fao.org/gtos/gofcgold/), a technical panel of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS). The working group has been active since the initiation of the UNFCCC REDD+ process in 2005, has organized REDD+ expert workshops, and has contributed to related UNFCCC/SBSTA side events and GTOS submissions. GOFC-GOLD provides an independent expert platform for international cooperation and communication to formulate scientific consensus and provide technical input to the discussions and for implementation activities. A number of international experts in remote sensing, carbon measurement and reporting under the UNFCCC have contributed to the development of this sourcebook. With political discussions and negotiations ongoing, the current document provides the starting point for defining an appropriate monitoring framework considering current technical capabilities to monitor gross GHG emissions from changes in forest cover by deforestation and forest land management. This sourcebook is a living document and further methods and technical details can be specified and added with evolving negotiations and science. Respective communities are invited to provide comments and feedback to evolve a more detailed and refined guidelines document in the future.


1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose and Scope of the Sourcebook
1.2 IPCC Context and Requirements
1.2.1 LULUCF in the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol
1.2.2 Definition of forests, deforestation and degradation
1.2.3 General method for estimating CO2 emissions and removals
1.2.4 Reference levels and benchmark forest area map
1.3 Clarifying REDD+ Elements Causing Forest Carbon Stock Change
1.4 Emerging Issues for REDD+ Implementation
1.5 Roadmap for the Sourcebook
2 Guidance on Methods
2.1 Monitoring Of Changes In Forest Area
2.1.1 Scope of chapter
2.1.2 Monitoring of changes of forest areas - deforestation and forestation
2.2 Monitoring of Change in Forest Land Remaining Forest Land
2.2.1 Direct approach to monitor selective logging
2.2.2 Indirect approach to monitor forest degradation
2.2.3 Key references for Section 2.2.
2.3 Estimation of Above Ground Carbon Stocks
2.3.1 Scope of chapter
2.3.2 Overview of carbon stocks, and issues related to C stocks
2.3.3 Which Tier should be used?
2.3.4 Stratification by carbon stocks
2.3.5 Estimation of carbon stocks of forests undergoing change
2.3.6 Estimation of soil carbon stocks
2.4 Methods for Estimating CO2 Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
2.4.1 Scope of chapter
2.4.2 Linkage to 2006 IPCC Guidelines
2.4.3 Organization of chapter
2.4.4 Fundamental carbon estimating issues
2.4.5 Estimation of emissions from deforestation
2.4.6 Estimation of emissions from forest degradation
2.5 Methods for Estimating GHG Emissions from Biomass Burning
2.5.1 Scope of chapter
2.5.2 Introduction
2.5.3 IPCC guidelines for estimating fire-related emission
2.5.4 Mapping fire from space
2.5.5 Using existing products
2.5.6 Case studies
2.5.7 Key references for Section 2.5.
2.6 Estimation of Uncertainties
2.6.1 Scope of chapter
2.6.2 General concepts
2.6.3 Quantification of uncertainties

2.6.4 Key references for Section 2.6.
2.7 Methods to Address Emerging Issues for REDD+ Implementation
2.7.1 Identifying drivers of deforestation and degradation with remote sensing
2.7.2 Safeguards to ensure protection of biodiversity
2.7.3 Safeguards to ensure rights of forest dwellers
2.7.4 Monitoring displacement of emissions and permanence at a national scale
2.7.5 Linking national and sub-national monitoring
2.8 Guidance on Reporting
2.8.1 Scope of chapter
2.8.2 Overview of reporting principles and procedures
2.8.3 What are the major challenges for developing countries?
2.8.4 The conservativeness approach
2.8.5 Key references for chapter 2.8.
2.9 Status of Evolving Technologies
2.9.1 Scope of chapter
2.9.2 Role of LIDAR observations
2.9.3 Forest monitoring using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations
2.9.4 Integration of satellite and in situ data for biomass mapping
2.9.5 Targeted airborne surveys to support carbon stock estimations – a case study
2.9.6 Modeling and forecasting forest-cover change
2.9.7 Cloud-computing and web-based approaches to support national forest monitoring
2.9.8 Summary and recommendations
2.9.9 Key references for Section 2.9.
3 Practical Examples for Data Collection
3.1 Methods Used By Annex-1 Countries for National Lulucf Inventories
3.1.1 Scope of chapter
3.1.2 Methods for estimating forest area changes
3.1.3 Methods for estimating carbon stock changes
3.1.4 National carbon budget models
3.1.5 Estimation of uncertainties
3.1.6 Key References for section 3.1.
3.2 Overview of the Existing Forest Area Changes Monitoring Systems
3.2.1 Scope of chapter
3.2.2 National case studies
3.2.3 Key references for Section

3.3 From National Forest Inventory to National Forest GHG Inventories
3.3.1 Scope of chapter
3.3.2 Introduction on forest inventories in tropical countries
3.3.3 Indian national forest inventory (NFI)
3.3.4 GHG emissions in Mexico from land-use change and forestry
3.3.5 Key references for Section 3.3.
3.4 Community Forest Monitoring
3.4.1 Scope of chapter: rationale for community based inventories
3.4.2 How communities can make their own forest inventories
3.4.3 Additional data requirements
3.4.4 Reliability and accuracy
3.4.5 Costs
3.4.6 Options for independent assessment of locally collected data
3.4.7 Emerging information needs and technologies for locally collected data
4 Country Capacity Building
4.1 Scope of Chapter
4.2 Building National Carbon Monitoring Systems for REDD: Elements And Capacities
4.2.1 Key elements and required capacities - overview
4.2.2 Key elements and required capacities - GHG inventories
4.2.3 Key elements and required capacities - current monitoring capacities
4.3 Capacity Gaps and Cost Implications
4.3.1 Importance of monitoring for establishing a national REDD+ infrastructure
4.3.2 Planning and design
4.3.3 Institutional capacities
4.3.4 Cost factors for monitoring change in forest area
4.3.5 Cost factors for monitoring change in carbon stocks
4.3.6 Spatial data infrastructure, access and reporting procedures
4.4 Linking Monitoring and Policy Development
4.5 Key References for Section 4

*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Regional ecosystem structure and function: ecological insights from remote sensing of tropical forests
Chambers, Jeffrey Q. ; Asner, Gregory P. (coaut.) ; Morton, Douglas C. (coaut.) ; Anderson, Liana O. (coaut.) ; Saatchi, Sassan S. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Trends in Ecology and Evolution Vol. 22, no. 8 (August 2007), p. 414-423 ISSN: 0169-5347
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
SIBE San Cristóbal
44164-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal

*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Correlating stem biomechanical properties of Hawaiian canopy trees with hurricane wind damage
Asner, Gregory P. ; Golgstein, Guillermo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biotropica Vol. 29, no. 2 (June 1997), p. 147-150 ISSN: 0006-3606
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
SIBE San Cristóbal
B8750 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal