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25 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Avilés Ramírez, G. A.
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1.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Carbon stocks in biomass and soils of woody species fodder banks in the dry tropics of Mexico
Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Petit Aldana, Judith (autora) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (autor) ; Ward, Sheila Emily (autora) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Soil Use and Management Vol. 34, no. 4 (December 2018), p. 500-509 ISSN: 2007-4476
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Understanding carbon (C) dynamics of the silvopastoral systems can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the C concentration and storage in above- and belowground tree biomass as well as in the soils of fodder banks of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia (Lam.) or a combination of the both species. The above- and belowground biomass was quantified by the destructive sampling. We also obtained samples from soil pits, 20-cm deep, and determined bulk density and organic carbon concentration. The mixed species banks produced more foliage dry matter (DM) (6.3 t DM/ha) than the pure fodder banks. The total living biomass stocks ranged from 31.5 to 33.5 t DM/ha and did not differ between fodder bank types. The tissue C concentration was greater in stems (45.1%) and roots (44.9%) compared to the foliage component (43.4%). Total soil carbon (TSC) in the 5–10 cm layer was greater in the fodder banks with legumes alone than in mixed species banks (35.7 vs. 30.8 t C/ha). TSC storage in the 15–20 cm layer was greater in the nonlegume fodder bank than in the legume fodder bank (39.8 vs. 34.5 t C/ha). However, to the 0–20 cm layer, TSC was similar for all fodder banks. Thus, the three types of fodder banks had similar total C storage in plant biomass and soil, but the production of foliage biomass was higher in the mixed species banks.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Se provee una primera evidencia sobre un sitio de desove del cangrejo herradura americano Limulus polyphemus en Río Lagartos perteneciente a la Reserva de la Biósfera Ría Lagartos (RBRL) en Yucatán, México. En un solo día, junio de 2016, se realizó un muestreo aleatorio simple sin reemplazo, trazando seis transectos de 10 m de largo cada uno (BOC 1 - BOC 6), medidos a lo largo de la zona intermareal, con tres cuadrantes de 1m² (a, b, c), alternados en cada transecto. Se contabilizaron los nidos encontrados, la profundidad y el número de huevecillos hallados. Se midieron la temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, pH, conductividad eléctrica y salinidad del agua en cada cuadrante, por triplicado, y el sedimento marino se analizó mediante la técnica del tamizado mecánico de Folk. Se encontraron dos nidos sumergidos con profundidades en el sedimento de 20.1 y 16.8 cm, conteniendo un racimo cada uno, con 313 huevecillos y 194 huevos, respectivamente. El ANDEVA no mostró diferencias significativas entre los parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua (p>0.05). Los resultados de los valores sedimentológicos evidenciaron un sedimento compuesto de arena media y pobremente clasificado, presentando una curva muy platicúrtica. Es posible que el número reducido de nidos y huevos en el presente estudio con respecto a los registrados en la costa atlántica de los EUA, se deba a factores relacionados con la estacionalidad, la morfología de la playa y las actividades antrópicas registradas en la zona. Se recomienda incrementar los estudios sobre reproducción y desove de L. polyphemus en la RBRL para sustentar acciones de conservación de la especie y su hábitat en México.

Resumen en inglés

This study provides first evidence about a spawning site of American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus at Rio Lagartos, belonging to Biosphere Reserve, in Yucatan, Mexico. In a single day, June 2016, a simple random sampling without replacement was performed. Six transect (BOC 1 - BOC 6) of 10 m of length each one, were measured along the intertidal zone, with 3 quadrants of 1m²(a, b, c) alternated in each transect. The nests, its depth, and the number of eggs found there were quantified. The temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity and salinity of the water in every quadrant, for triplicate, were measured. The marine sediment was analyzed by means of grain size analysis of Folk. Two nests, with depths in the sediment of 20.1 and 16.8 cm, containing one cluster each one, with 313 and 194 eggs, respectively, were found. The ANOVA did not show significant differences between the physicochemical parameters of the water measured (p>0.05). The results of the sedimentological values demonstrated sediment consisted of sand and poorly classified, presenting a curve very platicurtic. It is possible that the limited number of nests and eggs in our study with regard to the registered on the Atlantic coast of the USA, should be because several factors i.e. the seasonal variation, the morphology of the beach and anthropic activities. It is recommended to increase the studies on reproduction and spawning of L. polyphemus in the RBRL to encourage actions of preservation of the species in critical habitats of Mexico.


3.
Capítulo de libro
Almacenamiento de carbono en bancos de forraje de especies leñosas en Yucatán
Casanova Lugo, Fernando ; Petit Aldana, Judith (coaut.) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco (coaut.) ; Díaz Echeverria, Víctor Francisco (coaut.) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ; López Martínez, Jorge Omar (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Estado actual del conocimiento del ciclo del carbono y sus interacciones en México: Síntesis a 2017 Texcoco, Estado de México, México : Programa Mexicano del Carbono, 2018 página 583-589 ISBN:978-607-96490-5-0
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
B9950 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Live fences reduce the diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of soil CO2 emissions in livestock systems
Villanueva López, Gilberto ; Martínez Zurimendi, Pablo (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (coaut.) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agronomy for Sustainable Development Vol. 36, no. 1 (March 2016), p. 1-8 ISSN: 1773-0155
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Deforestation of tropical forests for the establishment of grass monoculture for livestock production is responsible for about 30 % of CO2 emissions. This issue is particularly severe in degraded pastures because degraded soils favor CO2 flow to the soil surface. Silvopastoral systems could reduce CO2 emissions, notably by using live fences. Here, we hypothesized that live fences of Gliricidia sepium in livestock systems should reduce variations in environmental relative humidity and soil temperature and, in turn, reduce soil CO2 emissions. Here, we studied two livestock systems: (1) grass monoculture of Brachiaria decumbens with live fences of G. sepium and (2) grass monoculture of B. decumbens without live fences. We measured soil CO2 seasonal emissions at different times of the day, soil temperature, and environmental relative humidity. Nine 600-m² plots were established in each system. All variables were measured over four 6-h period during a 24-h period, twice a month from April to September. Our results show that soil CO2 emissions showed less variability with G. septum live fences than without live fences. This lower variability is explained by the creation of a microclimate with a higher and more stable environmental relative humidity, provided by the shade of trees. Results also show, however, that global soil CO2 emissions did not differ between the two systems, with and without live fence. Moreover, soil CO2 emissions varied according to season, as shown by 1.082 g CO2 m−² h−¹ in the wet season versus 0.871 g CO2 m−² h−¹ in the dry season. Soil CO2 emissions varied also according to sampling time, as shown by 1.116 g CO 2 m−² h−¹ in the night versus 0.960 CO 2 m−² h−¹ in the morning.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Carbon storage in livestock systems with and without live fences of Gliricidia sepium in the humid tropics of Mexico
Villanueva López, Gilberto ; Martínez Zurimendi, Pablo (coaut.) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ; Montañez Escalante, Patricia Irene (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 89, no. 6 (December 2015), p. 1083-1096 ISSN: 1572-9680
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Agroforestry systems (AFS) play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C). The objectives of this study were to quantify the organic C stocks in the above- and below-ground tree biomass and in the soil in a cattle-farming system with live fences (CFSLF) of Gliricidia sepium and to compare the levels with those of a cattle-farming system based on a grass monoculture (CFSGM). The methodology included a forest inventory in nine randomly assigned plots and the destructive sampling of G. sepium 32 trees, measuring for each tree the diameter at breast height (DBH), stem height, total tree height, branch weight, leaf weight and coarse root weight. In addition, we measured grass biomass, collected litterfall and collected soil samples at depths of 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm in the plots. A logarithmic model was developed to quantify the above- and below-ground tree biomass. The soil organic matter was determined by the dry combustion method. The total carbon stored in the CFSLF was 119.82 Mg C ha-¹, with the G. sepium trees contributing 5.7 % of the total C (6.48 Mg C ha-¹). The CFSGM stored 113.34 Mg C ha-¹. The grass biomass stored 15.32 Mg C ha-¹ year-¹ in the CFSGM and 15.68 Mg C ha-¹ year-¹ in the CFSLF, and the litterfall in the CFSLF stored 0.205 Mg C ha-1 year-¹. Despite the modest contribution of G. sepium trees to the C storage, the total carbon accumulated in the CFSLF and CFSGM was similar.


6.
Capítulo de libro - Memoria en extenso sin arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Efecto del fruto molido de Enterolobium cyclocarpum Jacq Griseb. sobre la población de protozoarios y la producción de metano en el rumen de ovinos de pelo
Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier ; Albores Moreno, Samuel (coaut.) ; Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (coaut.) ; Aguilar Pérez, Carlos Fernando (coaut.) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ; Magaña Monforte, Juan (coaut.) ; Ku Vera, Juan Carlos (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Primera conferencia de gases de efecto invernadero en sistemas agropecuarios de Latinoamérica Osorno, Chile : Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias : Ministerio de Agricultura, 2014 No. 54, p. 105-160 ISSN: 0717-4810
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a

7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Influence of livestock systems with live fences of Gliricidia sepium on several soil properties in Tabasco, Mexico
Villanueva López, Gilberto ; Martínez Zurimendi, Pablo (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (coaut.) ; Jarquín Sánchez, Aarón (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Ciencia e Investigación Agraria Vol. 41, no. 2 (mayo-agosto 2014), p. 175-186 ISSN: 0304-5609
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de dos sistemas ganaderos, un sistema ganadero con cercas vivas (SGCV) de Gliricidia sepium asociado con pasto señal (Brachiaria decumbens), y un sistema ganadero en monocultivo de pasto (SGMP), sobre algunas características físicas y químicas del suelo a diferentes profundidades y distancias de la cerca. En cada sistema se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 9 parcelas de 600 m2. Se utilizó un diseño estadístico completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 × 3; donde se analizó la influencia de los sistemas ganaderos (SGCV y SGMP), la profundidad de muestreo (0-10, 10-20 y de 20-30 cm) y la interacción de ambos factores, través de un análisis multivariado de varianza. Además se realizó un análisis de varianza para determinar el efecto de la distancia de muestreo en los SGCV (0-3, 3-6 y 6-9 m). Los SGCV fueron asociados con altos contenidos de materia orgánica (MO), carbón (C) y nitrógeno (N) así como con bajos contenidos de pH y densidad aparente del suelo (DA) comparado con los SGMP (P≤0.05). En ambos sistemas ganaderos, MO, C y N del suelo fue más alto en la parte superficial (0-10 cm) y, en los SGCV de 3 a 6 m de distancia de las cercas vivas (P≤0.05). En los SGCV el pH y la DA del suelo fueron similares a diferentes profundidades y distancias de las cercas vivas (P>0.05). Sin embargo, pH del suelo varió entre las profundidades del suelo en los SGMP. En cuanto a las propiedades físicas del suelo, sólo las proporciones de arena y arcilla variaron a diferentes profundidades en ambos sistemas, pero no a diferentes distancias de los sistemas ganaderos con cercas vivas (P≤0.05). Se concluye que los SGCV tienen un enorme potencial para mejorar sustancialmente las propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo, siendo una oportunidad para frenar el deterioro de los suelos en sistemas de producción ganaderos basados en el monocultivo de pasto.

Resumen en inglés

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two livestock systems, a livestock system with live fences (LSLF) of Gliricidia sepium associated with signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and a livestock system based on a grass monoculture (LSPM), on specific physical and chemical soil characteristics at different depths and distances from the fence. In each system, we randomly selected 9 plots of 600 m2. A completely randomized design was used with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in which we analyzed the influence of the livestock systems (LSLF and LSPM), soil strata (0-10, 10-20 and 20- 30 cm) and the interaction of both factors using a multivariate analysis of variance. In addition, we performed analysis of variance to determine the effect of distance sampling in the LSLF (0-3, 3-6 and 6-9 m). The LSLFs were associated with higher (P≤0.05) soil organic matter (OM), carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content as well as lower pH and bulk density (BD) when compared with the LSPM. In both livestock systems, the soil OM, C and N were higher (P≤0.05) in the upper (0-10 cm) strata and in the LSLF at a 3 to 6 m distance from the live fences. In the LSLF soil, the pH and BD were similar (P>0.05) at different depths and distances from the live fences. However, the soil pH varied between soil depths in the LSPM. Regarding the physical soil properties, only the sand and clay content varied (P≤0.05) at different depths in both systems but not at different distances from the LSLF. We concluded that the LSLF presents high potential to substantially improve the physical and chemical soil properties and provide an important option for reducing soil degradation in future in livestock production systems based on pasture monoculture.


8.
Artículo - Nota científica con arbitraje
Influencia del sistema silvopastoril cercas vivas de Gliricidia Sepium en la respiración del suelo en Tacotalpa, Tabasco, México
Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (autor) ; Martínez Zurimendi, Pablo (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems Vol. 17, no. 2 (May-August 2014), p. 261-266 ISSN: 1870-0462
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El objetivo del presente estudio fue cuantificar las tasas de respiración del suelo en sistemas ganaderos con cercas vivas (CV) conformadas por árboles de G. sepium y en sistemas ganaderos en monocultivo de pasto señal (MP) (Brachiaria decumbens); examinar la variación de los flujos en la época de lluvia y de seca, y las fluctuaciones durante el día, así como de la temperatura del suelo y la humedad relativa. La respiración del suelo fue medida dos veces al mes, cuatro veces al día en los horarios de 00:00 a 06:00 h; 06:00 a 12:00 h; 12:00 a 18:00 h; y de 18:00 a 24:00 h, en ambas épocas. Simultáneamente, se midió la temperatura del suelo y la humedad relativa. Los resultados muestran que la tasa de respiración del suelo es similar entre sistemas, las CV emitieron 0.97 y el MP 1.01 μmol de CO2 m² h-¹. En contraste, existió influencia de la época del año y del momento de la toma de las muestras. En ambos sistemas los flujos del suelo fueron superiores en la época de lluvia (1.1 μmol de CO2 m² h-¹ en promedio) y ligeramente menores en la época de seca (0.90 μmol de CO2 m² h-¹ en promedio); y fueron más altas durante la noche (00:00 a 06:00 horas), que durante las primeras horas del día (06:00 a 12:00 horas). La temperatura del suelo fue superior en el MP, y la humedad relativa en las CV. Se concluye que el factor principal que causo la variación en las tasas de respiración del suelo fue la presencia de los árboles de G. sepium en las cercas vivas, que propiciaron temperaturas más bajas y humedad ambiental más estables, que impactaron en menores flujos de CO2 de suelo.

Resumen en inglés

The aim of this study was to quantify rates of soil respiration on livestock systems with live fences (LF) formed by Gliricidia sepium trees and on livestock systems in signal grass monoculture (MP) (Brachiaria decumbens); examine the variation of flows in the rainy and dry seasons, and fluctuations during the day, as well as soil temperature and relative humidity. Soil respiration was measured twice a month, four times a day between the hours of 00:00 to 06:00 h, 6:00 to 12:00 h, 12:00 to 18:00 h, and 18:00 to 24:00 h, in both seasons. Soil temperature and the relative humidity were simultaneously measured. The results show that the rate of soil respiration is similar between these systems, LF issued 0.97 and MP 1.01 mol CO2 m² h-¹. In contrast, there was influence of the time of year and time of collection of the samples. In both systems the soil flows were higher in the rainy season (1.1 mol CO2 m² h-¹ on average) and slightly lower in the dry season (0.90 mol CO2 m² h-¹ on average) and were higher during the night (00:00 to 06:00 hours), during the early morning hours (6:00 to 12:00 hours). Soil temperature was higher in the MP, and the relative humidity in LF. It is concluded that the main factor that caused the variation in soil respiration rates was the presence of G. sepium trees in LF, which led to lower temperatures and more stable humidity, which resulted in lower soil CO2 fluxes.


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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The first part of this chapter provides an introduction to Mexican livestock systems. The second part describes silvopastoral systems, which are recognized as a strategy for food production, including the integration of annual, forage, legumes, such as fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). The third part highlights the importance of silvopastoral systems for livestock production and how fenugreek can be integrated in to the diet of the Mexican livestock. Overall the current review discusses various agronomics aspects of intercropping with fenugreek mainly as a fodder bank for increased fodder yield and quality. In addition to improve animal diet, fenugreek can also increase soil nitrogen content. Based on this current review it can be concluded that integrating fenugreek into silvopastoral systems with livestock production could be a good sustainable solution to enhance biodiversity as well as increase the margin of profitability for local producers and growers.


10.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Application of a simulation model for assessing integration of smallholder shifting cultivation and sheep production in Yucatán, Mexico
Parsons, David (coaut.) ; Nicholson, Charles F. (coaut.) ; Blake, Robert W. (coaut.) ; Ketterings, Quirine M. (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ; Cherney, Jerome H. (coaut.) ; Fox, Danny G. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agricultural Systems Vol. 104, no. 1 (January 2011), p. 13-19 ISSN: 0308-521X
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
50438-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Simulation models are effective tools to examine interactions between livestock, cropping systems, households, and natural resources. Our study objective was to use an integrated livestock and crop model to assess the outcomes from selected suites of management decisions observed in smallholder sheep-cropping systems of Yucatán, Mexico. The scenarios contrasted specialized systems versus mixed farming, and evaluated the outcomes of increased crop-livestock integration. Mixed enterprise scenarios involving sheep provided more income than specialized enterprises, and capitalized on a lower price of on-farm maize grain, efficient utilization of surplus labor, and availability of common land. Labor and management income was greatest for the unintegrated and partially integrated crop and livestock scenarios. It was more profitable for producers to sell excess grain and maize stover, and use common land to feed the livestock, suggesting that increased integration does not always result in improved outcomes. The results are consistent with a system not yet pushed to the point where integration is inevitable. For all sets of scenarios, the model structure was able to accommodate subtle management differences to produce appropriate biophysical, labor, and economic outcomes. We conclude there is potential to use similar model development methods to describe other crop-livestock systems, thus providing tools for learning, scenario analysis, and impact assessment.