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117 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Calmé, Sophie
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1.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Ecological and social determinants of association and proximity patterns in the fission–fusion society of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)
Aguilar Melo, Adriana R. (autora) ; Calmé, Sophie (autora) ; Pinacho Guendulain, Braulio (autor) ; Smith Aguilar, Sandra E. (autora) ; Ramos Fernández, Gabriel (autor) ;
Contenido en: American Journal of Primatology Vol. 82, no. 1 (2019), p. 1-15 ISSN: 1098-2345
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Some social species exhibit high levels of fission–fusion dynamics (FFD) that improve foraging efficiency. In this study, we shed light on the way that FFD allows animal groups to cope with fluctuations in fruit availability. We explore the relative contribution of fruit availability and social factors like sex in determining association and proximity patterns in spider monkeys. We tested the influence of fruit availability and social factors on the association and proximity patterns using three‐year data from a group of spider monkeys in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. We identified subgroup members and estimated their Interindividual distances through instantaneous scan sampling. We evaluated fruit availability by monitoring the phenology ofthe 10 most important food tree species for spider monkeys in the study site. Social network analyses allowed us to evaluate association and proximity patterns in subgroups. We showed that association patterns vary between seasons, respond to changes in fruit availability, and are influenced by the sex of individuals, likely reflecting biological and behavioral differences between sexes and the interplay between ecological and social factors. In contrast, proximity patterns were minimally affected by changes in fruit availability, suggesting that social factors are more important than food availability in determining cohesion within subgroups.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Factors affecting feelings of justice in biodiversity conflicts: toward fairer jaguar management in Calakmul, Mexico
Lecuyer, Lou ; Calmé, Sophie (coaut.) ; Blanchet, F. Guillaume (coaut.) ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (coaut.) ; White, Rehema M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biological Conservation Vol. 237 (September 2019), p. 133-144 ISSN: 0006-3207
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Conservation focuses on environmental objectives, but neglecting social concerns can lead to feelings of injustice among some actors and thus jeopardise conservation aims. Through a case study on a biodiversity conflict around jaguar management in Southern Mexico, we explored actors' feelings of injustice and their associated determinants. We employed a framework distinguishing four dimensions of justice: recognition, ecological, distributive and procedural. By conducting and analysing 235 interviews with farmers and ranchers, we investigated what drive their feeling of injustice, namely their perceptions of the injustice itself, individual characteristics and interactions with their environment. The participants selected 10 statements representing criteria characterizing their feeling of justice toward jaguar management, which they compared using pair-wise comparisons. A pioneering statistical analysis, BTLLasso, revealed that self-interest assumptions were not upheld; feelings of injustice were only weakly influenced by experience of depredation. Feelings of injustice were influenced mainly by factors related to actors' intra-and inter-group relationships (e.g. perception of collective responsibility, perceived coherence in the group to which they identified).

This nuanced understanding of how people build their perception of justice can inform fairer and more effective conservation approaches. Whilst details will be context specific, it emerged that building relationships and enabling debate over ecological responsibilities are important and conservation efforts should go beyond merely offering financial compensation. We conclude that perception of justice is a neglected but important aspect to include in integrative approaches to managing biodiversity conflicts, and that novel mixed methods can advance both conceptual and applied understanding in this area.


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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El tapir de Baird es el más grande de las especies de tapires Neotropicales y está considerado como en peligro por la UICN. La Reserva de la Biosfera de Calakmul (CBR por sus siglas en ingles) es el área de bosque tropical protegido mas grande de México y se encuentra en el corazón de la Selva Maya, un bosque tri-nacional localizado entre Belice, Guatemala y México considerado el bosque tropical mas extenso de Mesoamérica. El agua de lluvia en la CBR percola al subsuelo y solamente en pocos sitios (localmente conocidos como aguadas) se almacena agua en el suelo. Estos sitios son raros en el paisaje con una densidad de uno cada 10 km2 y una distancia promedio de 3 km entre aguadas. Solamente algunos de esos sitios conserva agua durante la época seca de cada año. Se detectó una reducción de la disponibilidad de agua desde el 2008 al 2018. Documentamos la población de tapires durante estos años y examinamos la relación con este patrón de reducción de la disponibilidad de agua. Usando la técnica de foto-trampeo monitoreamos entre 9 a 15 aguadas en 8 años dentro de este periodo de 11 años. Con un total de mas de 18,000 días-cámaras encontramos que aunque la población de tapires de la CBR permanece estable en promedio el índice de abundancia relativa detectó una ligera disminución en la abundancia y en algunas aguadas se asoció con la falta de agua. Estudios de largo plazo de especies en peligro asociadas a cuerpos de agua son importantes porque permiten estimar los efectos de la disponibilidad de agua y predecir futuros escenarios para las poblaciones de fauna silvestre. Esta información es esencial para elaborar planes de conservación de especies en peligro y sensibles tales como el Tapir de Baird.

Resumen en inglés

Baird’s tapir is the largest Neotropical tapir species, and it is considered Endangered by the IUCN. The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (CBR) is the largest protected tropical forest in Mexico. The CBR is at the heart of the Maya Forest, a tri-national forest located in Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize that is the largest tropical forest outside the Amazon River basin. Free-standing water in the CBR occurs in only a few ephemeral ponds. These ponds are rare in the landscape, with a mean density of one pond in every 10 km2, and with an average distance among ponds of 3 km. Only some of these ponds have free-standing water in every year. A decreasing trend in water availability from these ponds was detected from 2008 to 2018. Our present objective was to document population of the tapirs during these 11 years, and reveal any relationship to the pattern of water availability. Using the technique of photo-trapping, we monitored from 9 to 15 ponds over a period of 8 years (a total of more than 18,000 camera-days) during the 11-year period. Results showed that although the population remained relatively stable, the index of relative abundance indicated a slight decrease in population abundance and in some sites seemed at least superficially associated with decreasing water availability. Such long-term population studies are becoming more important for estimating the impacts of possible changes and for predicting the future of populations. In turn, they assist the conservation of endangered and sensitive species such as Baird’s tapir.


4.
- Artículo de divulgación
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula, SIBE-Villahermosa
Tierra de sueños encontrados entre la ganadería y la conservación
Calmé, Sophie ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (coaut.) ; White, Rehema M. (coaut.) ; Lecuyer, Lou (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: ECOfronteras Vol. 23, no. 66 (mayo/agosto 2019), p. 15-17 ISSN: 2007-4549
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
35798-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula, SIBE-Villahermosa
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Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

Con una particular historia de migración y colonización y con desarrollos agropecuarios impulsados desde las políticas públicas, Calakmul es un territorio de potenciales conflictos entre sectores con diferentes intereses hacia la biodiversidad, por ejemplo: los ganaderos y quienes buscan preservar una especie emblemática: el jaguar. Como propuesta, se presenta un mecanismo inclusivo de toma de decisiones que apoye la conservación y la gestión ambiental.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Building on common ground to address biodiversity conflicts and foster collaboration in environmental management
Lecuyer, Marie-Lou (autora) ; White, Rehema M. (autora) ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (autora) ; Calmé, Sophie (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Journal of Environmental Management Vol. 220 (August 2018), p. 217-226 ISSN: 0301-4797
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Conservation biology faces critical challenges that require collaborative approaches, including novel strategies to support interactions among actors in biodiversity conflicts. The goals of this study were to investigate the concept of common ground across multiple issues and to explore its practical application for the support of environmental management. We conceptually defined common ground as the areas of relevance underlying the suite of issues expressed by people regarding environmental management in a particular context. We then empirically tested this in the Calakmul region of Mexico, where the complex socio-historical context and high biodiversity have created environmental management challenges that are now being addressed by a local, multi-stakeholder management board. We conducted 26 open interviews with members of the board and a further round of quantitative prioritisation of issues raised. Using a coding process designed to reveal common ground, we categorized the issues at four levels ranging from coarse to fine (themes, topics, sub-topics and perspectives). We then analysed two levels, topics (n=14 issues) and sub-topics (n=51 issues). To do so, we built common ground matrices to identify and analyze common ground among actors and across issues. First, cluster and non-metrical data analyses revealed the diversity of actor positions and the lack of consistent grouping among actors by occupational activity. This demonstrated that focusing on actors' differences might be misleading, and that actors' views were not closely aligned with their roles. Second, we located issues according to their levels of common ground and importance among actors.

We showed that by not focusing on single issue conflicts, the identification of common ground across multiple issues can pinpoint synergies. We then proposed a framework for collaboration that prioritizes issues of high importance with greater common ground (e.g. sustainable resource use activities), to support the development of trust and norms of reciprocity among actors, strengthening the potential for future cooperation. By adopting this approach, environmental managers could support the initial stages of collaborative conservation strategies, engaging with other actors to seek common ground, avoid the creation of polarised groups and help effectively manage biodiversity conflicts.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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The construction of feelings of justice in environmental management: an empirical study of multiple biodiversity conflicts in Calakmul, Mexico
Lecuyer, Lou ; White, Rehema M. (coaut.) ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (coaut.) ; Lemay, Violaine (coaut.) ; Calmé, Sophie (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Environmental Management Vol. 213 (May 2018), p. 363-373 ISSN: 0301-4797
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

A failure to address social concerns in biodiversity conservation can lead to feelings of injustice among some actors, and hence jeopardize conservation goals. The complex socio-cultural and political context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, has historically led to multiple biodiversity conflicts. Our goal, in this case study, was to explore perceptions of justice held by local actors in relation to biodiversity conflicts.We then aimed to determine the following: 1) people's definitions of their feelings of justice; 2) the criteria used in this assessment; 3) variability in the criteria influencing them; and 4) implications for environmental management in the region and beyond. We worked with five focus groups, exploring three examples of biodiversity conflict around forest, water and jaguar management with a total of 41 ranchers, farmers and representatives of local producers. Our results demonstrated that people constructed their feelings of justice around four dimensions of justice: recognition (acknowledging individuals' rights, values, cultures and knowledge systems); ecological (fair and respectful treatment of the natural environment), procedural (fairness in processes of environmental management), distributive (fairness in the distribution of costs and benefits). We identified a list of criteria the participants used in their appraisal of justice and sources of variation such as the social scale of focus and participant role, and whom they perceived to be responsible for resource management. We propose a new framework that conceptualizes justice-as-recognition and ecological justice as forms of conditional justices, and procedural and distributive justices as forms of practical justice.

Conditional justice allows us to define who is a legitimate source of justice norms and if nature should be integrated in the scope of justice; hence, conditional justice underpins other dimensions of justice. On the other hand, procedural and distributive address the daily practices of fair processes and distribution. We propose that the perception of justice is a neglected but important aspect to include in integrative approaches to managing biodiversity conflicts. Addressing demands of justice in environmental management will require us to consider more than the distribution of costs and benefits among actors. We also need to respect the plurality of fairness perspectives and to recognize the benefits of dialogical approaches to achieve more successful environmental management.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Fission-fusion dynamics as a temporally and spatially flexible behavioral strategy in spider monkeys
Aguilar Melo, Adriana R. ; Calmé, Sophie (coaut.) ; Smith Aguilar, Sandra E. (coaut.) ; Ramos Fernández, Gabriel (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol. 72, no. 150 (September 2018), p. 1-11 ISSN: 1432-0762
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Fission-fusion dynamics (FFD) encompass a behavioral strategy present in many animal species that reduces the costs and increases the benefits of group living. In this case study, we investigated how group characteristics (size and composition) and fission rates in spider monkeys varied in space and time with rainfall, fruit availability, and fruit variability in two sites, each presenting different characteristics regarding the distribution and size of food patches and rainfall. Habitat characteristics strongly influenced FFD in spider monkeys, particularly subgroup size and fission rate. Subgroup size varied with fruit availability and its variability, while fission rates varied with rainfall and fruit variability. However, both subgroup size and fission rate varied in opposite ways, depending upon habitat type. Subgroups tended to present stable mixed-sex composition regardless of fruit availability. We conclude that for spider monkeys, FFD are part of a flexible behavioral strategy to cope with a locally fluctuating environment and with different environments within the geographic range of the species.


8.
- Tesis
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9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Reportamos estimaciones del tamaño del ámbito hogareño de un individuo de tapir de Baird (Tapirus bairdii) en la Reserva de la Biósfera de Calakmul desde el 7 de mayo del 2011 hasta septiembre del 2015. El tapir fue capturado en una “aguada” dentro de la reserva y se le puso un collar de radiotelemetría VHF que funcionó solo unas semanas. Con ayuda de una red de cámaras trampas instaladas en cuerpos de agua hemos monitoreado movimientos de éste individuo por cuatro años y medio. Estimamos el ámbito hogareño a través del método del Polígono mínimo convexo y construyendo una área buffer alrededor de los sitios donde ha sido foto-capturado. Con los pocos registros obtenidos (< 30), pero que se extienden durante cuatro años y medio y utilizando el Polígono mínimo convexo y considerando todos los registros desde que este individuo fue capturado, estimamos un ámbito hogareño de 23.9 km2. Cuando construimos un buffer alrededor de dichos puntos estimamos un ámbito hogareño de 39.9 km2 con un área núcleo de 4.1 km2. La distancia máxima de dispersión fue de 10.5 km desde su ubicación original. Los ámbitos hogareños estimados en esta investigación son más grandes que los reportados para esta especie en otros estudios. Este es el primer reporte de ámbitos hogareños, capacidad de movimientos y distancias de desplazamiento para el tapir de Baird en México.

Resumen en inglés

We report home range estimates of an individual Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) recorded from May 7, 2011 to September 2015 at the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in Southern Mexico. The tapir was captured and equipped with a VHF collar in a pond within the reserve. The signal failed to transmit in the following month but with the help of a network of camera traps deployed in nearby water bodies we monitored this individual during four years and a half. We have estimated home range by the Minimum convex polygon method and also by constructing a buffer around camera traps locations where this animal was photo-captured. With few available records (<30) but spanned over four years the Minimum convex polygon estimate for all locations resulted in 23.9 km2. When we constructed a buffer around camera trap locations we estimated a home range of 39.9 km2 with a core area of 4.1 km2. Maximum distance dispersed from this tapir was 10.5 km from its original location. The home range estimates reported here are larger than previously reported for this species. This is the first report on the home range, travel capacity, and distances for the Baird’s tapir in the Calakmul Region.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Scoring body condition in wild baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) using camera traps and opportunistic photographic material
Pérez Flores, Jonathan Sechaly ; Calmé, Sophie (coaut.) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Tropical Conservation Science Vol. 9, no. 4 (October-December 2016), p. 1-12 ISSN: 1940-0829
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Body condition score (BCS) systems have been used in wild animals as a technique for evaluating the health status of species that are difficult to capture but can be observed in their habitat. In this study, our goal was to enable scoring the BC of wild Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) without the need for direct observation, using camera trap and opportunistic photographic records. First, we modified a BCS assessment that was created for other tapir species, using captive Baird’s tapirs. Second, we applied it to a set of photographs of wild Baird’s tapir that were obtained over six consecutive years in a protected area in southern Mexico. We compared morphometric measurements and muscle and fat deposited in several anatomical regions. We also evaluated changes in BC between seasons for individuals photographed on several occasions. We show that neck and thorax circumferences are significantly correlated with all BCSs associated with these anatomical regions, whereas abdominal circumference is correlated only with half of the BCS. BCS of captive tapirs that we evaluated averaged 24.93±5.61, which was higher than that of wild tapirs (22.63±3.68). No significant difference in BC was apparent between rainy and dry seasons in our study site; wild tapirs were able to maintain good BC throughout the year. Camera trap records and opportunistic photographs were a useful tool to track changes in BC over time.