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59 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Castillo, R. del
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1.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Applicability of biodiversity databases to regional conservation planning in the tropics: a case study evaluation of the effect of environmental bias on the performance of predictive models of species richness
Vaca Genuit, Raúl Abel (autor) ; Rodiles Hernández, María del Rocío (autora) (1956-) ; Soria Barreto, Miriam (autora) ; Muñoz Alonso, Luis Antonio (autor) ; González Díaz, Alfonso Ángel (autor) ; Castillo Santiago, Miguel Ángel (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Acta Oecologica Volumen 109, artículo número 103653 (November 2020), páginas 1-13 ISSN: 1146-609X
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The biodiversity data typically available for fitting distributional models in the tropics come from museum and scientific collections which are often incomplete and prone to sampling and environmental biases. Nevertheless, most studies undertaken in tropical regions assume that collection data offers a satisfactory environmental coverage without any quantitative assessment. In this study, we investigate the effects of differences in environmental bias and coverage provided by distributional data when aggregated into different grid cell sizes, on the performance of species richness-environment models and predictions. We use an extensive data compilation, including national and regional collections, on the distribution of amphibians, reptiles and fishes in the hydrologic region of the Usumacinta River as a case study. General additive models and environmental variables are used to construct predictive models at 40, 20, 10 and 5 km grid resolutions, based on well-sampled cells. The best multivariate models included nonparametric interaction terms for the effects of precipitation and temperature and suggested an altitudinal shift in the relative importance of energy and water in determining the distribution of species richness.

For fishes, geomorphology accounted for fine scale variation in species richness along the hydrologic network, indicated by peaks in species diversity at the junction of the major rivers where major accumulation of water and sediments occurs. For all taxonomic groups, we found that sampling biases deviated most from the mean bias at the extremes of gradients accounting for important environmental factors. The pattern of environmental bias changed with grid size, with the form and amount of change being casespecific. Biases affected distribution predictions when compared with unbiased datasets. Moreover, not all models resulted best at coarser resolution as it is commonly assumed. Our results demonstrate that bias in the available data must be evaluated before mapping biodiversity distributions, irrespective of the choice of scale.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests
Rozendaal, Danaë M. A. (autora) ; Bongers, Frans (coaut.) ; Aide, T. Mitchell (coaut.) ; Álvarez Dávila, Esteban (autor) ; Ascarrunz, Nataly (autora) ; Balvanera, Patricia (autora) ; Becknell, Justin M. (coaut.) ; Bentos, Tony V. (coaut.) ; Brancalion, Pedro H. S. (autor) ; Cabral, George A. L. (coaut.) ; Calvo Rodríguez, Sofía (autora) ; Chave, Jerome (coaut.) ; César, Ricardo G. (autor) ; Chazdon, Robin L. (autor) ; Condit, Richard (autor) ; Dallinga, Jorn S. (coaut.) ; Almeida Cortez, Jarcilene Silva (coaut.) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (autor) ; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de (autor) ; Denslow, Julie S. (autor) ; Dent, Daisy H. (coaut.) ; DeWalt, Saara J. (autora) ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel (autor) ; Durán, Sandra M. (autora) ; Dutrieux, Loïc P. (coaut.) ; Espírito Santo, Mario M. (autor) ; Fandino, María C. (autora) ; Fernandes, G. Wilson (autor) ; Finegan, Bryan (coaut.) ; García, Hernando (autor) ; González Valdivia, Noel Antonio (autor) ; Granda Moser, Vanessa (autora) ; Hall, Jefferson S. (autor) ; Hernández Stefanoni, José Luis (autor) ; Hubbell, Stephen (autor) ; Jakovac, Catarina C. (autora) ; Hernández, Alma Johanna (autora) ; Junqueira, André B. (autor) ; Kennard, Deborah (coaut.) ; Larpin, Denis (autora) ; Letcher, Susan G. (autora) ; Licona, Juan Carlos (autor) ; Lebrija Trejos, Edwin (autor) ; Marín Spiotta, Erika (autora) ; Martínez Ramos, Miguel (autor) ; Massoca, Paulo E. S. (autor) ; Meave, Jorge A. (autor) ; Mesquita, Rita C. G. (autora) ; Mora Ardila, Francisco (autor) ; Müller, Sandra C. (autora) ; Muñoz, Rodrigo (autor) ; Nolasco de Oliveira Neto, Silvio (autor) ; Norden, Natalia (autora) ; Nunes, Yule R. F. (coaut.) ; Ochoa Gaona, Susana (autora) ; Ortiz Malavassi, Edgar (autor) ; Ostertag, Rebecca (autora) ; Peña Claros, Marielos (autor) ; Pérez García, Eduardo A. (autor) ; Piotto, Daniel (autor) ; Powers, Jennifer S. (autora) ; Aguilar Cano, José (autor) ; Rodríguez Buritica, Susana (autora) ; Rodríguez Velázquez, Jorge (autor) ; Romero Romero, Marco Antonio (autor) ; Ruíz, Jorge (autor) ; Sánchez Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo (autor) ; Silva de Almeida, Arlete (autor) ; Silver, Whendee L. (coaut.) ; Schwartz, Naomi B. (coaut.) ; Thomas, William Wayt (coaut.) ; Toledo, Marisol (autora) ; Uriarte, María (autora) ; Valadares de Sá Sampaio, Everardo (autor) ; van Breugel, Michiel (autor) ; Van Der Wal, Hans (coaut.) ; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio (autor) ; Veloso, María D. M. (autor) ; Vester, Hans F. M. (coaut.) ; Vicentini, Alberto (autor) ; Vieira, Ima C. G. (coaut.) ; Villa, Pedro (autor) ; Williamson, G. Bruce (autor) ; Zanini, Kátia J. (autora) ; Zimmerman, Jess (coaut.) ; Poorter, Lourens (coaut.) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Science Advances Vol. 5, no. 3, eaau3114 (March 2019), p. 1-10 ISSN: 2375-2548
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during secondary succession across gradients in environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbance in an unprecedented multisite analysis for the Neotropics. Secondary forests recover remarkably fast in species richness but slowly in species composition. Secondary forests take a median time of five decades to recover the species richness of old-growth forest (80% recovery after 20 years) based on rarefaction analysis. Full recovery of species composition takes centuries (only 34% recovery after 20 years). A dual strategy that maintains both old-growth forests and species-rich secondary forests is therefore crucial for biodiversity conservation in human-modified tropical landscapes.


3.
- Artículo de divulgación
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula, SIBE-Villahermosa
Herramientas genéticas para proteger a la naturaleza
Rico Mancebo del Castillo, Yessica ;
Contenido en: ECOfronteras Vol. 23, no. 66 (mayo/agosto 2019), p. 30-33 ISSN: 2007-4549
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
32915-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula, SIBE-Villahermosa
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Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

El análisis de ADN no solo sirve para atrapar asesinos o rastrear huellas de seres vivos de tiempos remotos; es la base de las herramientas genéticas que se aplican en varios esquemas de conservación de flora y fauna silvestres. Rastreo del comercio ilegal de especies, cría de animales en peligro de extinción, reservorios genéticos en jardines botánicos, son muestras del aporte de la genética para proteger la vida.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Assessments of trophic diversity are critical for evaluating ecological integrity of habitats, but interpretations of such assessments require an understanding of variation across natural environmental gradients. This can be problematic when comparing structure of assemblages in under-studied regions or habitats, such as watersheds in dry tropical forests. Here,we compared assemblage-wide trophic metrics and intraspecific variation for a subset of consumer traits across rivers and among different ecosystem types within the Grijalva and Usumacinta River basins of Mexico. The two rivers differ with respect to flow-regime alteration and climate: the Grijalva River has been hydrologically altered by a series of dams and has wet and dry tropical forests in its watershed, whereas the Usumacinta River remains unimpounded with a watershed dominated by tropical wet forest. Use of allochthonous resourceswas pervasive in Usumacinta basin tributaries,with stable isotope signatures suggesting that many fishes directly consumed riparian plants and detritus. In contrast, fish assemblages inGrijalva basin tributaries were supported by higher proportions of in-stream production. Food-chain length was highest in a Grijalva River reservoir fish assemblage, although trophic diversity was lowin the impounded systemcompared to the mainstem Usumacinta River, where fishes consumed the broadest variety of food resources. We also observed differences in trophic ecology and body nutrient content within taxa across habitat types and basins. The differences we observed suggest that even in relatively intact watersheds, expectations for trophic structure in tropical streams should be adjusted based on factors such as discharge, climate, and riparian forest cover.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Wet and dry tropical forests show opposite successional pathways in wood density but converge over time
Poorter, Lourens (autor) ; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A. (autora) ; Bongers, Frans (autor) ; Almeida Cortez, Jarcilene Silva (autora) ; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica María (autora) ; Álvarez, Francisco S. (autor) ; Andrade, José Luis (autor) ; Arreola Villa, Luis Felipe (autor) ; Balvanera, Patricia (autora) ; Becknell, Justin M. (autor) ; Bentos, Tony V. (autor) ; Bhaskar, Radika (autora) ; Boukili, Vanessa (autora) ; Brancalion, Pedro H. S. (autor) ; Broadbent, Eben North (autor) ; César, Ricardo G. (autor) ; Chave, Jerome (autor) ; Chazdon, Robin L. (autor) ; Dalla Colletta, Gabriel (autor) ; Craven, Dylan (autor) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (autor) ; Denslow, Julie Sloan (autora) ; Dent, Daisy H. (autora) ; DeWalt, Saara J. (autora) ; Díaz García, Elisa (autora) ; Dupuy Rada, Juan Manuel (autor) ; Durán, Sandra M. (autora) ; Espírito Santo, Mario M. (autor) ; Fandiño, María C. (autora) ; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson (autor) ; Finegan, Bryan (autor) ; Granda Moser, Vanessa (autora) ; Hall, Jefferson S. (autor) ; Hernández Stefanoni, José Luis (autor) ; Jakovac, Catarina C. (autora) ; Junqueira, André B. (autor) ; Kennard, Deborah (autra) ; Lebrija Trejos, Edwin (autor) ; Letcher, Susan G. (autora) ; Lohbeck, Madelon (autora) ; López, Omar R. (autor) ; Marín Spiotta, Erika (autora) ; Martínez Ramos, Miguel (autor) ; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio (autor) ; Massoca, Paulo E. S. (autor) ; Meave, Jorge A. (autor) ; Mesquita, Rita C. G (autora) ; Mora Ardila, Francisco (autor) ; Moreno, Vanessa de Souza (autora) ; Müller, Sandra C. (autora) ; Muñoz, Rodrigo (autor) ; Muscarella, Robert (autor) ; Nolasco de Oliveira Neto, Silvio (autor) ; Nunes, Yule R. F. (autor) ; Ochoa Gaona, Susana (autora) ; Paz, Horacio (autor) ; Peña Claros, Marielos (autor) ; Piotto, Daniel (autor) ; Ruíz, Jorge (autor) ; Sanaphre Villanueva, Lucía (autora) ; Sánchez Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo (autor) ; Schwartz, Naomi B. (autora) ; Steininger, Marc K. (autor) ; Thomas, William Wayt (autor) ; Toledo, Marisol (autora) ; Uriarte, María (autora) ; Utrera, Luis P. (autor) ; van Breugel, Michiel (autor) ; van der Sande, Masha T. (coaut.) ; Van Der Wal, Hans (coaut.) ; Veloso, María D. M. (autora) ; Vester, Henricus F. M. (autor) ; Vieira, Ima Celia G. (autora) ; Villa, Pedro Manuel (autor) ; Williamson, G. Bruce (autor) ; Wright, S. Joseph (autor) ; Zanini, Kátia J. (autora) ; Zimmerman, Jess K. (autor) ; Westoby, Mark (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Nature Ecology & Evolution Vol. 3, no. 6 (Jun 2019), p. 928–934 ISSN: 2397-334X
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Tropical forests are converted at an alarming rate for agricultural use and pastureland, but also regrow naturally through secondary succession. For successful forest restoration, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of secondary succession. These mechanisms may vary across forest types, but analyses across broad spatial scales are lacking. Here, we analyse forest recovery using 1,403 plots that differ in age since agricultural abandonment from 50 sites across the Neotropics. We analyse changes in community composition using species-specific stem wood density (WD), which is a key trait for plant growth, survival and forest carbon storage. In wet forest, succession proceeds from low towards high community WD (acquisitive towards conservative trait values), in line with standard successional theory. However, in dry forest, succession proceeds from high towards low community WD (conservative towards acquisitive trait values), probably because high WD reflects drought tolerance in harsh early successional environments. Dry season intensity drives WD recovery by influencing the start and trajectory of succession, resulting in convergence of the community WD over time as vegetation cover builds up. These ecological insights can be used to improve species selection for reforestation. Reforestation species selected to establish a first protective canopy layer should, among other criteria, ideally have a similar WD to the early successional communities that dominate under the prevailing macroclimatic conditions.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Diversidad íctica en la cuenca del Usumacinta, México
Soria Barreto, Miriam ; González Díaz, Alfonso Ángel (coaut.) ; Castillo Domínguez, Alfredo (coaut.) ; Álvarez Pliego, Nicolás (coaut.) ; Rodiles Hernández, María del Rocío (coaut.) (1956-) ;
Contenido en: Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad Supl., Vol. 89 (diciembre 2018), p. S100-S117 ISSN: 0187-6376
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

La cuenca del río Usumacinta se caracteriza por su gran extensión, heterogeneidad ecológica y alta biodiversidad. Con el objetivo de documentar de manera integral la riqueza y distribución de la ictiofauna, se incluyen en este trabajo los registros para la cuenca (1994-2014) depositados en la Colección de Peces (ECOSC), además de la revisión bibliográfica y de los registros de otras bases de datos nacionales e internacionales. Adicionalmente y con la finalidad de analizar la diversidad y abundancia, se realizaron muestreos (2014 y 2015) en 3 zonas: selva, planicie y delta. La ictiofauna se compone de 2 clases, 28 órdenes, 50 familias y 172 especies, de las cuales 3 son nuevos registros. De acuerdo a su afinidad ecológica, 75 especies son dulceacuícolas, 8 estuarinas y 89 marinas. La zona selva tuvo más especies dulceacuícolas exclusivas y la zona delta registró la mayor riqueza de peces marinos. Los cambios observados en la diversidad a lo largo de las 3 zonas están influidos por la historia geológica, dinámica hidrológica y su conectividad con el golfo de México. Es necesario continuar con el estudio de la ictiofauna en función de la complejidad geomorfológica para entender patrones biogeográficos, así como procesos ecológicos importantes para su conservación.

Resumen en inglés

The Usumacinta Basin is characterized by its large size, ecological heterogeneity and high diversity of fish. The purpose of this work was to examine the richness and distribution of the fish fauna, and analyze the diversity and abundance in three zones of the basin. The records (1994-2014) in the Fish Collection (ECOSC) are included, additional information was obtained from a review of the scientific literature, records of national and international fish databases, and from samplings conducted (2014-2015) in 3 zones: rainforest, floodplain and delta. The fish fauna is composed of 2 classes, 28 orders, 50 families and 172 species; 3 of these are new records for the region. According to the ecological affinity, 75 species are freshwater, 8 estuarine and 89 marine. The rainforest zone had more freshwater exclusive species, and the delta zone had the biggest richness of marine fish. The diversity changes along 3 zones, which is influenced by its hydrological dynamics, geological history and its connectivity with the Gulf of Mexico. It is necessary to continue studying the ichthyofauna as related to the geomorphological complexity to understand biogeographical patterns, as well as ecological processes important for conservation.


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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Quantifying patterns of deforestation and linking these patterns to potentially influencing variables is a key component of modelling and projecting land use change. Statistical methods based on null hypothesis testing are only partially successful for interpreting deforestation in the context of the processes that have led to their formation. Simplifications of cause-consequence relationships that are difficult to support empirically may influence environment and development policies because they suggest simple solutions to complex problems. Deforestation is a complex process driven by multiple proximate and underlying factors and a range of scales. In this study we use a multivariate statistical analysis to provide contextual explanation for deforestation in the Usumacinta River Basin based on partial pattern matching. Our approach avoided testing trivial null hypotheses of lack of association and investigated the strength and form of the response to drivers. As not all factors involved in deforestation are easily mapped as GIS layers, analytical challenges arise due to lack of a one to one correspondence between mappable attributes and drivers. We avoided testing simple statistical hypotheses such as the detectability of a significant linear relationship between deforestation and proximity to roads or water.

We developed a series of informative generalised additive models based on combinations of layers that corresponded to hypotheses regarding processes. The importance of the variables representing accessibility was emphasised by the analysis. We provide evidence that land tenure is a critical factor in shaping the decision to deforest and that direct beam insolation has an effect associated with fire frequency and intensity. The effect of winter insolation was found to have many applied implications for land management. The methodology was useful for interpreting the relative importance of sets of variables representing drivers of deforestation. It was an informative approach, thus allowing the construction of a comprehensive understanding of its causes.


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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Objetivo: Revisar los diversos usos y aplicaciones que posee Gliricidia sepium en los agroecosistemas tropicales. Diseño/metodología/aproximación: En este artículo revisamos literatura sobre Gliricidia sepium de los últimos 20 años, enfocándonos en aquellas publicaciones que presentan resultados sobre usos, aplicaciones y servicios ecosistémicos; con la finalidad de aportar información de relevancia en los agroecosistemas tropicales. Resultados: Encontramos que Gliricidia sepium, es una especie arbórea que presenta diversas alternativas de uso dentro de los agroecosistemas, que permiten mejorar la producción ganadera, el manejo en el control de plagas y enfermedades en diversos cultivos, apoya en la fijación simbiótica de nitrógeno y por ende, presenta diversos servicios ecosistémicos importantes en los agroecosistemas tropicales. Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones: Aunque se considera una planta importante en la alimentación animal y con diversos servicios ecosistémicos, se encontró poca información relevante sobre el efecto que presentan los metabolitos secundarios sobre otros organismos y el valor que presenta en la interacción con otros seres vivos. Hallazgos/conclusiones: La inclusión de Gliricidia sepium puede contribuir a mejorar la sustentabilidad en los agroecosistemas tropicales, porque aporta beneficios ecológicos en los agroecosistemas; contribuye a mejorar la calidad de la dieta para los animales; además, representa una opción viable para el control biológico de insectos plagas a través del uso de extractos para tal fin.

Resumen en inglés

Objective: Review the various uses and applications of Gliricidia sepium in tropical agroecosystems. Design/methodology/approach: In this article we reviewed literature on Gliricidia sepium from the last 20 years, focusing on those publications that present results on uses, applications and ecosystem services; in order to provide relevant information in tropical agroecosystems. Results: We find that Gliricidia sepium, is an arboreal species that presents diverse alternatives of use within agroecosystems, that allow to improve livestock production, management in the control of pests and diseases in various crops, supports the symbiotic fixation of nitrogen and therefore, it presents diverse important ecosystem services in tropical agroecosystems. Limitations of the study/implications: Although it is considered an important plant in animal feed and with diverse ecosystem services, little relevant information was found on the effect of secondary metabolites on other organisms and the value it presents in the interaction with other living beings. Findings/Conclusions: The inclusion of Gliricidia sepium can contribute to improve sustainability in tropical agroecosystems, because it provides ecological benefits in agroecosystems; contributes to improve the quality of the diet for the animals; In addition, it represents a viable option for the biological control of insect pests through the use of extracts for this purpose.


9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in Neotropical forests
Gei, Maga ; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A. (coaut.) ; Poorter, Lourens (coaut.) ; Bongers, Frans (coaut.) ; Sprent, Janet I. (coaut.) ; Garner, Mira D. (coaut.) ; Aide, T. Mitchell (coaut.) ; Andrade, José Luis (coaut.) ; Balvanera, Patricia (coaut.) ; Becknell, Justin M. (coaut.) ; Brancalion, Pedro H. S. (coaut.) ; Cabral, George A. L. (coaut.) ; Gomes César, Ricardo (coaut.) ; Chazdon, Robin L. (coaut.) ; Cole, Rebecca J. (coaut.) ; Dalla Colletta, Gabriel (coaut.) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (coaut.) ; Denslow, Julie S. (coaut.) ; Dent, Daisy H. (coaut.) ; DeWalt, Saara J. (coaut.) ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel (coaut.) ; Durán, Sandra M. (coaut.) ; do Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos (coaut.) ; Fernandes, G. Wilson (coaut.) ; Ferreira Nunes, Yule Roberta (coaut.) ; Finegan, Bryan (coaut.) ; Granda Moser, Vanessa (coaut.) ; Hall, Jefferson S. (coaut.) ; Hernández Stefanoni, José Luis (coaut.) ; Junqueira, André B. (coaut.) ; Kennard, Deborah (coaut.) ; Lebrija Trejos, Edwin (coaut.) ; Letcher, Susan G. (coaut.) ; Lohbeck, Madelon (coaut.) ; Marín Spiotta, Erika (coaut.) ; Martínez Ramos, Miguel (coaut.) ; Meave, Jorge A. (coaut.) ; Menge, Duncan N. L. (coaut.) ; Mora Ardila, Francisco (coaut.) ; Muñoz, Rodrigo (coaut.) ; Muscarella, Robert (coaut.) ; Ochoa Gaona, Susana (coaut.) ; Orihuela Belmonte, Dolores Edith (coaut.) ; Ostertag, Rebecca (coaut.) ; Peña Claros, Marielos (coaut.) ; Pérez García, Eduardo A. (coaut.) ; Piotto, Daniel (coaut.) ; Reich, Peter B. (coaut.) ; Reyes García, Casandra (coaut.) ; Rodríguez Velázquez, Jorge (coaut.) ; Romero Pérez, Isabel Eunice (coaut.) ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía (coaut.) ; Sánchez Azofeifa, Arturo (coaut.) ; Schwartz, Naomi B. (coaut.) ; Silva de Almeida, Arlete (coaut.) ; Almeida Cortez, Jarcilene Silva (coaut.) ; Silver, Whendee L. (coaut.) ; de Souza Moreno, Vanessa (coaut.) ; Sullivan, Benjamin W. (coaut.) ; Swenson, Nathan G. (coaut.) ; Uriarte, María (coaut.) ; van Breugel, Michiel (coaut.) ; Van Der Wal, Hans (coaut.) ; Magalhães Veloso, Maria Das Dores (coaut.) ; Vester, Hans F. M. (coaut.) ; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Célia (coaut.) ; Zimmerman, Jess K. (coaut.) ; Powers, Jennifer S. (caout.) ;
Contenido en: Nature Ecology and Evolution Vol. 2, no. 7 (Jun. 2018), p. 1104–1111 ISSN: 2397-334X
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area is twice as high in dry compared with wet secondary forests. The tremendous ecological success of legumes in recently disturbed, water-limited forests is likely to be related to both their reduced leaflet size and ability to fix N2, which together enhance legume drought tolerance and water-use efficiency. Earth system models should incorporate these large-scale successional and climatic patterns of legume dominance to provide more accurate estimates of the maximum potential for natural nitrogen fixation across tropical forests.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

La dinámica del comportamiento ingestivo en pastoreo de los animales depende especialmente de la diversidad y variabilidad del forraje en el potrero. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento productivo y alimenticio en ovinos de pelo, en condiciones de pastoreo en sistemas silvopastoriles con Leucaena leucocephala y Cynodon plectostachyus en el trópico húmedo del estado de Yucatán, México. Se evaluó el sistema silvopastoril en la época de lluvias (junio a septiembre 2014) y en la época de seca (diciembre 2014 a febrero 2015). Se registró la conducta ingestiva de los ovinos en pastoreo por observación directa de 7 a 17 horas, registrando el tiempo dedicado a pastoreo de Cynodon plectostachyus (PE), pastoreo de maleza (PM), ramoneo de Leucaena leucocephala (RLl), rumia parado (RP), rumia en decúbito (RD) y consumo de agua (CA). El comportamiento de pastoreo de ovinos de pelo no fue afectado por la época del año, ni por la hora del día (p>0.05). Se observó un comportamiento similar (p>0.05) en el consumo de C. plectostachyus, L. leucocephala, maleza y RD; por lo consiguiente, la hora del día (mañana o tarde) no afectó el comportamiento ingestivo de los ovinos (p>0.05). Sin embargo, la mayor parte del tiempo en pastoreo fue dedicado al consumo de C. plectostachyus, maleza, RD, descanso, y consumo de agua a cualquier hora del día, en las dos épocas evaluadas. Se obtuvieron ganancias diarias de peso (GDP) de 16.80 g y 28.35 g en la época seca y de lluvias, respectivamente. Se concluye que el sistema silvopastoril conformado por Leucaena leucocephala y Cynodon plectostachyus incrementa el tiempo dedicado al pastoreo de gramíneas y puede ayudar a mantener el peso en ambas épocas del año.

Resumen en inglés

The dynamics of the ingestive behavior in grazing animals is especially dependent on the variety and variability of forage in the pasture. The objective of this work was to determine the productive and feeding behavior in hair sheep grazing in silvopastoral systems with Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon plectostachyus in the humid tropics in Yucatan, Mexico. The silvopastoral system was evaluated in the rainy season (June to September of 2014) and dry season (December to February of 2015). The ingestive behavior of sheep grazing by direct observation of 7 to 17 hours, recording the time to grazing Cynodon plectostachyus (GCP), grazing of weeds (GW), browsing of Leucaena leucocephala (BLl), rumia standing (RS), rumination in the lying position (RL) and water consumption (WC). The grazing behavior of hair sheep was not affected by the time of year neither by the time of day (p>0.05). Similar behavior was observed (p>0.05) in the consumption of C. plectostachyus, L. leucocephala, weeds and the RS. Similarly, the time of day (morning or afternoon) did not affect the behavior of the sheep (p>0.05). However, most of the grazing time was devoted to the consumption of C. plectostachyus, weeds, RS, rest and water consumption at any time of the day in the two seasons evaluated. Was obtained DWG of 16.80 g and 28.35 g in the dry season and rainy season, respectively. It is concluded that the silvopastoral system with Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon plectostachyus increases the time devoted to grazing of grasses and help maintenance of weight.