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15 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Díaz Fleischer, Francisco
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1.
Artículo
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Known and estimated distribution in Mexico of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a pathogenic fungus of amphibians
Bolom Huet, René (autor) ; Pineda, Eduardo (autor) ; Díaz Fleischer, Francisco (autor) ; Muñoz Alonso, Luis Antonio (autor) ; Galindo González, Jorge (autor) ;
Contenido en: Biotropica Vol. 51, no. 5 (September 2019), p. 731–746 ISSN: 1744-7429
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Chytridiomycosis caused by fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is one of the decline global causes of amphibians. Currently, it is distributed throughout a broad range of climates and ecosystems around the world. An epidemic wave of chytridiomycosis began in North America, resulting in population decline and local extinction of many species, reconfiguring species composition of amphibian communities in the Americas. In Mexico, Bd has caused an amphibian population decrease, and its potential distribution area has not been determined. We reviewed the number of species infected, obtaining Bd frequency of infection by land use and vegetation type, and by elevation range. We examined the known distribution of Bd, estimated the potential distribution, and obtained the bioclimate variables relevant for Bd. Our results indicate that in Mexico, Bd has been detected in 78 species of amphibians in 10 families, from 29 different land use and vegetation types, with cloud forest having the highest number of cases (139) and infected species (15). Bd occurs over an elevation range of 1–3,300 m asl and is most frequent at 1,200–1,500 m asl (36%). In addition to the regions previously described as suitable for Bd, our model included desert, coastal, and tropical forest regions, revealing an increase in the area where amphibians could be at risk of infection. Distribution of Bd is mainly associated with temperature of the wettest quarter and potential evapotranspiration of the warmer quarter. We offer an estimate of the ideal conditions for Bd in Mexico, also information for future studies on Bd and the conservation of amphibians.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Among the many Magnolia species that are endangered by anthropogenic disturbance, some are knownto have the capacity to produce new shoots. Demographic studies are an important tool to evaluate the impact of disturbances as well as the resilience and resistance of endangered species. Our study lookedat the demographic dynamics of two Magnolia schiedeana populations, with an aim to determine therole played by disturbances. The questions were: 1) what demographic trends characterize this species? 2) What differences are there between disturbed and undisturbed populations? 3) Is M. schiedeana adisturbance-resilient species in general? 4) How important is the contribution of the resprouting trait to λ in a population under anthropogenic disturbance? The demographic attributes evaluated were: elasticity, population growth rate (λ), and sensitivity to concrete disturbances (LTRE, Life Table Response Experiment). The results indicated that the λ of the two populations did not differ significantly. The transitions that contributed the most to λ and presented the largest variation were similar in both population sunder study. More than 90% of the contribution came from those individuals measuring ≤ 5 cm in diameter. Surprisingly, M. schiedeana is not sensitive to moderate anthropogenic disturbance. Resprouting contributed to with less than 0.2%.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Novel insecticides and bait stations for the control of Anastrepha fruit flies in mango orchards
Díaz Fleischer, Francisco ; Pérez Staples, Diana (coaut.) ; Cabrera Mireles, Héctor (coaut.) ; Montoya Gerardo, Pablo Jesús (coaut.) ; Liedo Fernández, Pablo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Pest Science Vol. 90, no. 3 (June 2017), p. 865–872 ISSN: 1612-4766
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Agricultural pests represent a limiting factor for safety food production. Environmental friendly alternatives to the use of synthetic pesticides are required. Here we evaluated the effect of a novel insecticide and a new designed bait station using Anastrepha ludens sterile flies in release– recapture tests in mango orchards. Seven treatments were distributed in 35 plots of one hectare each in a five blocks arrangement. Spinosad (GF-120), malathion and abamectin, Fly-catch bait station (FC): baited with 95% water, 4% hydrolyzed protein (Captor 300) and 1% malathion, 1.5 L plastic bottle bait station (PB) baited with 250 mL of CeraTrap, Papaya Leaf Mimic station: Sprayed with GF- 120, untreated plots (control) were used as treatments. Half of the trees of each plot received the treatment. Approximately 5000 flies per plot were released at 15-day intervals, in four consecutive replicates. For monitoring, two Multilure traps/plot baited with BioLure were revised weekly. Wild populations of A. serpentina and A. obliqua were censored. Abamectin sprays and the FC induced the highest reduction in A. ludens captures (up to 50% with respect to the untreated plots). No clear effects were observed in the wild populations, since more flies were captured in some treatments than in the untreated plots, but here the initial population density and distribution was unknown. Traps in the FC treatment captured less nontarget insects than other treatments. Overall, the results indicate that the abamectin and the attract-and-kill bait stations, especially the FC, can be useful alternatives for the control of Anastrepha flies.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Laboratory evaluation of two commercial abamectin-based insecticides against Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae): lethal and sublethal effects
Díaz Fleischer, Francisco (coaut.) ; Pérez Staples, Diana (coaut.) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (coaut.) ; García Pérez, José Antonio (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Economic Entomology Vol. 109, no. 6 (October 2016), p. 2472-2478 ISSN: 1938-291X
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Resumen en: Inglés |
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Toxic environmental effects of most insecticides have led to a search for bio-organic insecticides. In this study, we tested the effects of lethal and sublethal exposure to two abamectin-based insecticides (VOLIAM TARGO and LUQ-THOR) on survival, mating, and oviposition of the tephritid Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Different doses of insecticides (0.001–2.00% of the commercial products) were offered mixed with the phagostimulant bait Captor commonly used in spraying and in trapping activities for the control of flies. Both insecticides exhibited 90% killing effectiveness (Abbott index) when offered in doses between 0.02 to 2.00%. The LC 50 obtained from the bioassay at 72 h after treatment was 0.003% of commercial product for TARGO and 0.008% for LUQ-THOR. Sublethal exposures to insecticides (0.003%; LC 50 for TARGO and LC 30 for LUQ-THOR) caused a reduction in oviposition but not in mating parameters, indicating that females were more susceptible than males to reduced doses of insecticide. The mean amount of eggs deposited 5 d after feeding on the insecticide-bait mixtures was reduced up to a third compared with the amount of eggs deposited by untreated females. Both insecticides are promising bio-organic alternatives to malathion in bait control programs against A. ludens .


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Reasons for success: rapid evolution for desiccation resistance and life-history changes in the polyphagous fly Anastrepha ludens
Tejeda, Marco Tulio ; Arredondo, José (coaut.) ; Liedo Fernández, Pablo (coaut.) ; Pérez Staples, Diana (coaut.) ; Ramos Morales, Patricia (coaut.) ; Díaz Fleischer, Francisco (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Evolution Vol. 70, no. 11 (November 2016), p. 2583–2594 ISSN: 1558-5646
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Resumen en inglés

Species that exhibit broad ranges of distribution may successfully navigate environmental changes by modifying some of their life-history traits. Environmental humidity imposes a critical stress that organisms may overcome by increasing their resistance to desiccation. We used experimental evolution to investigate adaptation to desiccation in the tephritid Anastrepha ludens, a species with high fecundity, late maturation, and long lifespan.We measured morphological, physiological, developmental as well as demographic changes involved in the adaptation to desiccation. Notwithstanding a low heritability (h² = 0.237), desiccation resistance evolved extremely rapidly and few negative trade-offs were detected. Selected flies exhibited correlated increases in longevity, body size, the amount of body lipids, and bulk water content, and in the duration of the pupal stage. Females further delayed sexual maturation, decreased daily fecundity but retained high lifetime reproductive potential. No differences in male mating competitiveness were found. Selected and control lines differed in longevity but not in total female fecundity, demonstrating that A. ludens flies have the capability for fast adaptation to desiccation without loosing their reproductive capability. Thus, it seems that a rapid evolutionary response to desiccation in this polyphagous insect works as a buffer for environmental variation and reduces the strength of selection on reproductive traits.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

BACKGROUND: The field activity of the mixtures of liquid baits and insecticides used in the control of tephritid pests is normally short, both when they are sprayed or when used in trapping or in attract-and-kill devices. A new lure-and-kill device based on Torricelli’s barometer principle was tested as a long-lasting dispenser for two liquid hydrolysed protein baits mixed with insecticide, GF-120 and Captor 300+malathion, against Anastrepha ludens (Loew) flies of laboratory origin. The dispensers were kept under field conditions for 42 days. Laboratory bioassays for insecticide properties and field cage studies for attraction capacity were carried out on a weekly basis after 22 and 42 days of weathering respectively. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that both mixtures of insecticides and phagostimulant baits killed up to 80% of the tested flies when they were 42 days old. The attraction capacity of both weathering-exposed mixtures was even higher than fresh insecticidal–bait mixtures after the same period. CONCLUSION: The device is efficient when used with the liquid baits currently employed in the control of tephritid flies. It also offers a high potential for combining visual stimuli, such as shape and colour, and for improving trapping and bait station designs. Incorporating this newdevice in trapping and attract-and-kill methods could help to reduce the frequency of servicing of the traps and bait stations and lower their costs.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en español

Water availability is recognized as one of the most important factors in the distribution and activity of terrestrial organisms. In the case of insects, hydric stress imposes a major challenge for survival because of the small surface-area-to-volume ratio they exhibit. In general, stress resistance is expected to co-vary positively with size; however, this pattern can become obscured in insects that exhibit sexual size dimorphism, as sexes differ in size and/or shape and have dissimilar resource allocations. In the present study, we use an allometric-based approach to (i) assess the desiccation and starvation stress resistance of teneral Anastrepha ludens flies, (ii) disentangle the relationships between resistance, size and sex and (iii) examine the adult fly body differences in water and lipid contents before and after exposure to stress. After controlling for sexual size dimorphism, an allometric increase of resistance with overall size was observed for all stress-based treatments. The scaling exponents that define the proportion of increase resistance varied with size traits and with type and degree of hydric stress. In this allometric relationship, and also in the relationships between mass and wing length and between size and teneral resources, the sexes maintained similar scaling exponents but differed in the intercepts. Males were more resistant to stress than females; this competitive advantage is probably linked to greater amounts of teneral lipids and more water use during stress.


8.
- Tesis
El potencial efecto nutricional del cebo Ceratrap en el desempeño sexual de Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) y su respuesta al cebo según su estado fisiológico / Cruz Raúl Perea Castellanos
Perea Castellanos, Cruz Raúl ; Pérez Staples, Diana (directora) ; Díaz Fleischer, Francisco (asesor) ; Castillo Rocha, Doris Guadalupe (asesora) ;
Xalapa, Veracruz, México : Universidad Veracruzana. Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas , 2014
Clasificación: TE/632.774 / P44
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013211 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1

9.
Artículo
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Commercially ripe ‘Hass’ avocados, Persea americana Mill, artificially exposed to wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) females 24 h after harvest were placed in a cold storage facility to determine the effect of low temperature on larval survival and adult viability. Fruit were left for 3, 6, 9, and 12 d in a cold room at 5°C followed by a 20 -25-d period at ambient temperature to allow for larval development and pupation. Hass avocados and grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen, maintained at ambient temperature served as controls. Overall, only 0.23% of the Hass avocados and 19.30% of the grapefruit were infested. The number of infested fruit increased with decreasing exposure time to cold. Puparia from cold-treated Hass avocados were significantly smaller than those stemming from cold-treated grapefruit. Hass avocados exposed for 12 d to 5°C yielded no puparia, and those exposed for 6 and 9 d yielded 22 and two puparia, respectively, but no adults. Although Hass avocados exposed to cold temperature for 3 d yielded adults that reached sexual maturity (N = 16), females laid in viable eggs. Grapefruit exposed to cold for 12 d yielded normal-sized puparia (but no adults), whereas those exposed over 9 d yielded females able to lay viable eggs. We conclude that exposing fruit to cold storage after packing and during transport represents an effective risk-mitigating procedure in the highly improbable event that a gravid A. ludens female might lay eggs in a commercially ripe Hass avocado that had been left unprotected in a packinghouse.


10.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Effects of post-eclosion ligh-dark regimes on mating performance of mass-reared tephritid fly anastrepha ludens
Díaz Fleischer, Francisco ; Arredondo, José (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Vol. 141, no. 1 (October 2011), p. 52-58 ISSN: 0013-8703
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
51133-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Many insect species show daily rhythms in their reproductive behaviour, with male and female cycles often being synchronized by photoperiod. In mass-rearing facilities, many environmental factors, including photoperiod, are standardized to favour insect production. However, these standardizations could affect sexual performance. Herein we studied, under semi-natural conditions, the effect of different photoperiods on the copulation behaviour of mass-reared Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies. Adult flies were exposed to six combinations of light conditions during the first 12 days after eclosion: (1) 12 days under a L12:D12 h regime (12-LD), (2) 8 days under L12:D12 followed by 4 days in complete darkness (8-L:4-D), (3) 4 days under L12:D12, then 8 days in darkness (4-L:8-D), (4) 12 days in darkness (12-D), (5) 8 days in darkness, then 4 days under L12:D12 (8-D:4-L), and (6) 4 days in darkness followed by 8 days under L12:D12 (4-D:8-L). On day 13, field-cage tests were carried out to determine fly mating performance. There was a sex-specific effect of light regime on fly copulation behaviour. Females exposed to absolute darkness during periods longer than 4 days had fewer copulations compared with females subjected to other light regimes. In contrast, periods of darkness of 8 or 12 days immediately before the field test affected male mating performance. There was no significant difference in the latency to copulation or in copula duration among males or females of the six treatments. We conclude that a period of 4 days under dark conditions does not affect male mating performance. We discuss our results in terms of the light conditions encountered bymass-reared tephritids when emerging in packing devices, which may negatively affect their sexual performance once released in the field.