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13 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Eakin, Hallie
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1.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Agricultural change and resilience: agricultural policy, climate trends and market integration in the Mexican maize system
Eakin, Hallie ; Sweeney, Stuart (coaut.) ; Lerner, Amy M. (coaut.) ; Appendini, Kirsten Albrechtsen de (coaut.) ; Perales Rivera, Hugo Rafael (coaut.) ; Steigerwald, Douglas G. (coaut.) ; Dewes, Candida F. (coaut.) ; Davenport, Frank (coaut.) ; Bausch, Julia C. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Anthropocene Vol. 23 (September 2018), p. 43-52 ISSN: 2213-3054
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Ensuring that national food systems have capacity to withstand volatility and shocks is a growing concern. Given the complex processes involved, multi-scalar, multi-stressor analyses of critical food systems are needed. This paper presents a multi-scalar analysis of the Mexican maize system to provide insight into the sector’s evolution. The literature suggests that, over the last 30 years, climate trends, domestic and international market dynamics, and domestic policy changes have affected Mexico’s maize sector. In contrast, this study finds no conclusive evidence of wide-spread abandonment of maize. In addition, while economic globalization and climatic changes are often presented as the primary drivers of change in Mexico’s maize sector, results of this study show that domestic policy has been equally, if not more, influential in the sector’s evolution. More than international market integration, the relatively recent geographic concentration of commercial supplies within Mexico has increased national sensitivity to idiosyncratic shocks affecting the dominant supply region. In this light, smallholder persistence across Mexico may represent an underutilized strategic asset in policy efforts to enhance both domestic food security and national-level resilience. The Mexican case illustrates the potential role for proactive domestic policy in shaping sensitivities in the national food system to both internal and exogenous shocks.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Correlates of maize land and livelihood change among maize farming households in Mexico
Eakin, Hallie Catherine (1970-) ; Appendini, Kirsten Albrechtsen de (coaut.) ; Sweeney, Stuart (coaut.) ; Perales Rivera, Hugo Rafael (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: World Development Vol. 70 (June 2015), p. 78-91 ISSN: 0305-750X
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

We use classification tree analysis to identify the primary predictors of a suite of maize land use and livelihood outcomes for smallholder farmers in three regions of Mexico (Sinaloa, Mexico state, and Chiapas). Our analysis identifies regionally specific correlates with change in maize area, yield, and income, spanning demographic, environmental, and social development factors. Our results indicate that there may be opportunities for surplus production and market participation in some rain fed areas. We confirm the significance of regional and inter-regional heterogeneity in farmers’ responses and strategies, underscoring the value of regionally specific policy interventions.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Adaptation in a multi-stressor environment: perceptions and responses to climatic and economic risks by coffee growers in Mesoamerica
Eakin, Hallie Catherine (1970-) ; Tucker, Catherine M. (coaut.) ; Castellanos, Edwin (coaut.) ; Díaz Porras, Rafael (coaut.) ; Barrera, Juan F. (coaut.) ; Morales, H. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Environment, Development and Sustainability Vol. 16, no. 1 (February 2014), p. 123-139 ISSN: 1387-585X
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

While climate change adaptation policy has tended to focus on planned adaptation interventions, in many vulnerable communities, adaptation will consist of autonomous, “unplanned” actions by individuals who are responding to multiple simultaneous sources of change. Their actions are likely not only to affect their own future vulnerability, but, through changes in livelihoods and resource use, the vulnerability of their community and resource base. In this paper, we document the autonomous changes to livelihood strategies adopted by smallholder coffee farmers in four Mesoamerican countries (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica). Our aim is to gain insight into the process of autonomous adaptation by proxy: through an assessment of how farmers explain their choices in relation to distinct stressors; and an understanding of the set of choices available to farmers. We find that climatic stress is a feature in decision making, but not the dominant driver. Nevertheless, the farmers in our sample are evidently flexible, adaptive, and experimental in relation to changing circumstances. Whether their autonomous responses to diverse stressors will result in a reduction in risk over time may well depend on the extent to which policy, agricultural research, and rural investments build on the inherent logic of these strategies.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Selling maize in Mexico: the persistence of peasant farming in an era of global markets
Eakin, Hallie Catherine (1970-) ; Perales Rivera, Hugo Rafael (coaut.) ; Appendini, Kirsten Albrechtsen de (coaut.) ; Sweeney, Stuart (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Development and Change Vol. 45, no. 1 (January 2014), p. 133–155 ISSN: 1467-7660
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The last decade of the twentieth century was heralded as the ‘end of agrarian reform’ in Mexico and the initiation of a new era of market-led agricultural policy and practice. The impact of neoliberalism and the North American Free Trade Agreement on smallholder maize production has been widely conceived as negative, associated with ecological degradation, rural emigration and cultural erosion. Yet, some twenty years later, all evidence suggests that smallholder maize production is continuing in Mexico, albeit in evolving structures and forms. This article uses a farm-level survey implemented in three Mexican states to assess the current condition of maize farming in Mexico. The authors revisit past categorizations of Mexican farmers and apply similar approaches to explore what maize-producing households are doing with their maize, and what current patterns of production imply for future Mexican maize policy. They find evidence of greater persistence and adaptability in Mexican maize farming than is often presented. On the basis of their analysis, they advocate for a reconsideration of the underlying assumptions of public policy, highlighting the heterogeneity of the maize landscape and the unrealized and generally unrecognized potential this heterogeneity represents.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Assessing the adaptation strategies of farmers facing multiple stressors: lessons from the coffee and global changes project in Mesoamerica
Castellanos, Edwin J. ; Tucker, Catherine (coaut.) ; Eakin, Hallie (coaut.) ; Morales, H. (coaut.) ; Barrera, Juan F. (coaut.) ; Díaz, Rafael (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Environmental Science and Policy Vol. 26 (February 2013), p. 19–28 ISSN: 1462-9011
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities entailed in the design, implementation and dissemination of an interdisciplinary project that evolved into a knowledge co-production effort. The project explored the livelihood strategies of coffee growers in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Costa Rica facingmultiple stressors of economic (market shocks and price volatility) and physical nature (climate variability and pest incidence). Our objective was to determine the factors that influence farmers’ decisions and the implications of those decisions for the people and the landscapes of the region. To achieve this objective, we intended to engage farm communities and sector representatives in the research process, and to a large extent this intent was realized. Nevertheless, the project illustrates the difficulties in achieving knowledge “co-production” with stakeholders whose day-to-day existence focuses on issues largely outside the domain of the research program. We adopted decision-analysis tools to integrate our knowledge and hypotheses to find a common language and structure for our research design. In relation to regional and national policy makers and sector experts, we aimed to communicate the decision–environment of the smallholder producer to enhance awareness of the institutional opportunities and constraints in the adaptation process. For the farmers themselves, we aimed to serve as conduits and mirrors of their own knowledge, rather than serving as external authorities on issues that appeared to be of little interest to them.

Through the course of the project, we experimented with diverse modes of stakeholder interaction and, through collaboration with local experts in communication strategies, identified a set of tools for successful dissemination of results. The credibility and direct ties of the participating research organizations and collaborating institutes with the local communities were often an asset, sometimes a complication, but always a critical factor in the process of stakeholder interaction. The messages constructed from the collective knowledge of local farmers in distinct regions in four countries with different social and institutional histories represent crucial information for policy makers who are looking to support the adaptation processes of rural people facingchanges of a global nature. However, communicating these messages in a usable and useful way to decision makers at various levels proved to be challenging.


6.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
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Coffe, disasters and social-ecological resilience in Guatemala and Chiapas, México
Eakin, Hallie ; Morales, H. (coaut.) ; Castellanos, Edwin (coaut.) ; Cruz Bello, Gustavo M. (coaut.) ; Barrera, Juan F. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Natural disasters and adaptation to climate changeedited Cambridge, England : Cambridge University Press, 2013 p. 174-180 ISBN:978-110-7010-16-1
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7.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Coffee, disasters and social-ecological resilience in Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico
Eakin, Hallie Catherine (1970-) ; Morales, H. (coaut.) ; Castellanos, Edwin (coaut.) ; Cruz Bello, Gustavo M. (coaut.) ; Barrera, Juan F. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Natural Disasters and Adaptation to Climate Change New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, 2013 p. 174-180 ISBN:978-110-7010-16-1
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8.
- Libro con arbitraje
Natural disasters and adaptation to climate change / edited by Sarah Boulter, Jean Palutikof, David John Karoly, Daniela Guitart
Boulter, Sarah (ed.) (1970-) ; Palutikof, Jean P. (coed.) ; Karoly, David John (coed.) (1955-) ; Guitart, Daniela (coed.) (1988-) ;
Cambridge, England : Cambridge University Press , 2013
Clasificación: 363.34 / N3
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ECO040005886 (Disponible)
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SIBE Villahermosa
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Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

This volume presents eighteen case studies of natural disasters from Australia, Europe, North America and developing countries. By comparing the impacts, it seeks to identify what moves people to adapt, which adaptive activities succeed and which fail, and the underlying reasons, and the factors that determine when adaptation is required and when simply bearing the impact may be the more appropriate response. Much has been written about the theory of adaptation, and high-level, especially international, policy responses to climate change. This book aims to inform actual adaptation practice - what works, what does not, and why. It explores some of the lessons we can learn from past disasters and the adaptation that takes place after the event in preparation for the next. This volume will be especially useful for researchers and decision makers in policy and government concerned with climate change adaptation, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, environmental policy and planning.

Índice

Contributors
Preface
1 Introduction
2 Climate change and disaster risk management: challenges and opportunities
Part I Case Studies from North America
3 Hurricane Katrina and the city of New Orleans
4 A brief history of flooding and flood control measures along the Mississippi River basin
5 The 2003 and 2007 wildfires in southern California
6 Adapting to extreme heat events: thirty years of lessons learned from the Kansas City, Missouri, extreme heat program
Part II Case Studies from Australia
7 Drought and water in the Murray-Darling basin: from disaster policy to adaptation
8 After ‘Black Saturday’: adapting to bushfires in a changing climate
9 Cyclone Tracy and the road to improving wind-resistant design
10 Adaptation and resilience in two flood-prone Queensland communities
Part III Case Studies from Europe
11 Windstorms, the most costly natural hazard in Europe
12 The 2003 heatwave: impacts, public health adaptation and response in France
13 Lessons from river floods in central Europe, 1997–2010
14 Lessons learned from the North Sea flooding disaster in the Netherlands, 1953
Part IV Case Studies from the Developing World
15 Adapting to drought in the West African Sahel
16 The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Sri Lankan experience
17 Recovery efforts: the case of the 2007 cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh
18 Coffee, disasters and social-ecological resilience in Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico
19 Responding to floods in the Nile basin: a case study of the 1997–1998 floods in the Upper White Nile
20 Floods in the Yangtze River basin, China

Part V Synthesis Chapters
21 Disasters and development
22 What next? Climate change as a game-changer for policy and practice
23 Barriers and limits to adaptation: cautionary notes
24 Lessons learned for adaptation to climate change
25 Afterword: floods, storms, fire and pestilence – disaster risk in Australia during 2010–2011
Index


9.
Artículo
Livelihoods and landscapes at the threshold of change: disaster and resilience in a Chiapas coffee community
Eakin, Hallie Catherine (1970-) ; Benessaiah, Karina (coaut.) ; Barrera, Juan F. (coaut.) ; Cruz Bello, Gustavo M. (coaut.) ; Morales, H. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Regional Environmental Change Vol. 12, no. 3 (2012), p. 475-48 ISSN: 436-3798
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In 2005, torrential rains associated with Hurricane Stan devastated farm systems in southern Mexico. We present a case study on the impacts of and responses to Hurricane Stan by coffee households in three communities in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of illuminating the linkages between household vulnerability and resilience. We analyze data from 64 household surveys in a cluster analysis to link household impacts experienced to post-Stan adaptive responses and relate these results with landscape-level land-cover changes. The degree of livelihood change was most significant for land-constrained households whose specialization in coffee led to high exposure and sensitivity to Stan and little adaptive capacity. Across the sample, the role of coffee in livelihood strategies declined, as households sought land to secure subsistence needs and diversified economically after Stan. Nevertheless, livelihoods and landscape outcomes were not closely coupled, at least at the temporal and spatial scale of our analysis: We found no evidence of land-use change associated with farmers’ coping strategies. While households held strong attitudes regarding effective resource management for risk reduction, this knowledge does not necessarily translate into capacities to manage resilience at broader scales. We argue that policy interventions are needed to help materialize local strategies and knowledge on risk management, not only to allow individual survival but also to enhance resilience at local, community and landscape scales.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

This paper analyses the responses related to land use of coffee growers in Chiapas, Mexico to the impact of Hurricane Stan (October 2005). A multi-temporal analysis of the effect on land cover was performed through the combination of unsupervised classification of SPOT multispectral images and visual interpretation of panchromatic images (8 months previous to the hurricane, and 2, 14, and 40 months after the hurricane). The information provided by this geographic analysis was interpreted in light of information gathered though household surveys. Although the hurricane wrecked havoc across the region, the main impact in the study area was in the riparian zones where the extent of the loss experienced in terms of coffee harvest and soil was such that, even 14 months after the event, households with land in those areas were struggling to recover. Nevertheless, after 40 months, the zones that had suffered total soil loss began to support soil and vegetation, indicating the possibility of replanting coffee in those areas. Although the hurricane occurred when the coffee sector was particularly fragile as a result of the preceding several years of poor prices, the impact did not trigger extensive land use change. The surveys showed, however, that people are now more informed of the risk of living and farming on the river margins and are now performing soil conservation practices and planting trees to reduce risk.