Términos relacionados

2 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Filho, Elias de Melo Virginio
  • «
  • 1 de 1
  • »
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Evapotranspiration and energy partitioning are complex to estimate because they result from the interaction of many different processes, especially in multi-species and multi-strata ecosystems. We used MAESPA model, a mechanistic, 3D model of coupled radiative transfer, photosynthesis, and balances of energy and water, to simulate the partitioning of energy and evapotranspiration in homogeneous tree plantations, as well as in heterogeneous multi-species, multi-strata agroforests with diverse spatial scales and management schemes. The MAESPA model was modified to add (1) calculation of foliage surface water evaporation at the voxel scale; (2) computation of an average within-canopy air temperature and vapour pressure; and (3) use of (1) and (2) in iterative calculations of soil and leaf temperatures to close ecosystem-level energy balances. We tested MAESPA model simulations on a simple monospecific Eucalyptus stand in Brazil, and also in two complex, heterogeneous Coffea agroforests in Costa Rica. MAESPA satisfactorily simulated the daily and seasonal dynamics of net radiation (RMSE=29.6 and 28.4Wm−²; R²=0.99 and 0.99 for Eucalyptus and Coffea sites respectively) and its partitioning between latent-(RMSE=68.1 and 37.2Wm−²; R²=0.87 and 0.85) and sensible-energy (RMSE=54.6 and 45.8Wm−²; R²=0.57 and 0.88) over a one-year simulation at half-hourly time-step.

After validation, we use the modified MAESPA to calculate partitioning of evapotranspiration and energy between plants and soil in the above-mentioned agro-ecosystems. In the Eucalyptus plantation, 95% of the outgoing energy was emitted as latent-heat, while the Coffea agroforestry system’s partitioning between sensible and latent-heat fluxes was roughly equal. We conclude that MAESPA process-based model has an appropriate balance of detail, accuracy, and computational speed to be applicable to simple or complex forest ecosystems and at different scales for energy and evapotranspiration partitioning.

Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Background and Aims In Costa Rica, coffee (Coffea arabica) plants are often grown in agroforests. However, it is not known if shade-inducing trees reduce coffee plant biomass through root competition, and hence alter overall net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated biomass and NPP at the stand level, taking into account deep roots and the position of plants with regard to trees. Methods Stem growth and root biomass, turnover and decomposition were measured in mixed coffee/tree (Erythrina poeppigiana) plantations. Growth ring width and number at the stem base were estimated along with stem basal area on a range of plant sizes. Root biomass and fine root density were measured in trenches to a depth of 4 m. To take into account the below-ground heterogeneity of the agroforestry system, fine root turnover was measured by sequential soil coring (to a depth of 30 cm) over 1 year and at different locations (in full sun or under trees and in rows/inter-rows). Allometric relationships were used to calculate NPP of perennial components, which was then scaled up to the stand level. Key Results Annual ring width at the stem base increased up to 2·5 mm yr−1 with plant age (over a 44-year period). Nearly all (92 %) coffee root biomass was located in the top 1·5 m, and only 8 % from 1·5 m to a depth of 4 m. Perennial woody root biomass was 16 t ha−1 and NPP of perennial roots was 1·3 t ha−1 yr−1. Fine root biomass (0–30 cm) was two-fold higher in the row compared with between rows. Fine root biomass was 2·29 t ha−1 (12 % of total root biomass) and NPP of fine roots was 2·96 t ha−1 yr−1 (69 % of total root NPP). Fine root turnover was 1·3 yr−1 and lifespan was 0·8 years.

Conclusions Coffee root systems comprised 49 % of the total plant biomass; such a high ratio is possibly a consequence of shoot pruning. There was no significant effect of trees on coffee fine root biomass, suggesting that coffee root systems are very competitive in the topsoil.