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7 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Jordan, Christopher A
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1.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Effectiveness of Panama as an intercontinental land bridge for large mammals
Meyer, Ninon France Victoire (autora) ; Moreno, Ricardo (autor) ; Sutherland, Christopher (autor) ; De la Torre, José Antonio (autor) ; Esser, Helen J. (autora) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (autor) ; Olmos, Melva (autora) ; Ortega, Josué (autor) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (autor) ; Valdes, Samuel (autor) ; Jansen, Patrick A. (autor) ;
Contenido en: Conservation Biology Vol. 34, no. 1 (2020), p. 207–219 ISSN: 1434-4483
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PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Habitat fragmentation is a primary driver of wildlife loss, and establishment of biological corridors is a common strategy to mitigate this problem. A flagship example is the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC), which aims to connect protected forest areas between Mexico and Panama to allow dispersal and gene flow offorest organisms. Because forests across Central America have continued to degrade, the functioning of the MBC has been questioned, but reliable estimates of species occurrence were unavailable. Large mammals are suitable indicators of forest functioning, so we assessed their conservation status across the Isthmus of Panama, the narrowest section of the MBC. We used large-scale camera-trap surveys and hierarchical multispecies occupancy models in a Bayesian framework to estimate the occupancy of 9 medium to large mammals and developed an occupancy-weighted connectivity metric to evaluate species-specific functional connectivity. White-lippedpeccary (Tayassu pecari), jaguar (Panthera onca), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), white-tailed deer(Odocoileus virginianus), and tapir (Tapirus bairdii) had low expected occupancy along the MBC in Panama. Puma (Puma concolor), red brocket deer (Mazama temama), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), which are more adaptable, had higher occupancy, even in areas with low forest cover near infrastructure. However, the majority of species were subject to > 1 gap that was larger than their known dispersal distances, suggesting poor connectivity along the MBC in Panama. Based on our results, forests in Darien, Donoso–Santa Fe, and La Amistad International Park are critical for survival of large terrestrial mammals in Panama and 2 areas need restoration.


2.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Population status, connectivity, and conservation action for the endangered Baird's tapir
Schank, Cody J. (autor) ; Cove, Michael V. (autor) ; Arima, Eugenio Y. (autor) ; Brandt, Laroy S. E. (autor) ; Brenes Mora, Esteban (autor) ; Carver, Andrew (autor) ; Diaz Pulido, Angelica (autora) ; Estrada, Nereyda (autora) ; Foster, Rebecca J. (autora) ; Godínez Gómez, Oscar (autor) ; Harmsen, Bart J. (autor) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (autor) ; Keitt, Timothy H. (autor) ; Kelly, Marcella J. (autora) ; Sáenz Méndez, Joel (autor) ; Mendoza Ramírez, Eduardo (autor) ; Meyer, Ninon France Victoire (autora) ; Pozo Montuy, Gilberto (autor) ; Naranjo Piñera, Eduardo Jorge (autor) (1963-) ; Nielsen, Clayton K. (autor) ; O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina (autora) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (autor) ; Rivero Hernández, Crysia Marina (autora) ; Carvajal Sánchez, José Pablo (autor) ; Singleton, Maggie (autora) ; Torre, J. Antonio de la (autor) ; Wood, Margot A. (autora) ; Young, Kenneth R. (autor) ; Miller, Jennifer A. (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Biological Conservation Volumen 245, número 108501 (May 2020), p. 1-12 ISSN: 0006-3207
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Although many large mammals currently face significant threats that could lead to their extinction, resources for conservation are often scarce, resulting in the need to develop efficient plans to prioritize conservation actions. We combined several methods in spatial ecology to identify the distribution of the endangered Baird's tapir across its range from southern Mexico to northern Colombia. Twenty-eight habitat patches covering 23% of the study area were identified, harboring potentially 62% or more of the total population for this flagship species. Roughly half of the total area is under some form of protection, while most of the remaining habitat (~70%) occurs in indigenous/local communities. The network with maximum connectivity created from these patches contains at least one complete break (in Mexico between Selva El Ocote and Selva Lacandona) even when considering the most generous dispersal scenario. The connectivity analysis also highlighted a probable break at the Panama Canal and high habitat fragmentation in Honduras. In light of these findings, we recommend the following actions to facilitate the conservation of Baird's tapir: 1) protect existing habitat by strengthening enforcement in areas already under protection, 2) work with indigenous territories to preserve and enforce their land rights, and help local communities maintain traditional practices; 3) re-establish connections between habitat patches that will allow for connectivity across the species' distribution; 4) conduct additional noninvasive surveys in patches with little or no species data; and 5) collect more telemetry and genetic data on the species to estimate home range size, dispersal capabilities, and meta-population structure.


3.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Precipitous decline of white-lipped peccary populations in Mesoamerica
Thornton, Daniel (autor) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (autor) ; Perera Romero, Lucy (autora) ; Radachowsky, Jeremy (autor) ; Hidalgo Mihart, Mircea Gabriel (autor) ; García Anleu, Rony (autor) ; McNab, Roan (autor) ; Mcloughlin, Lee (autor) ; Foster, Rebecca (autora) ; Harmsen, Bart (autor) ; Moreira Ramírez, José Fernando (autor) ; Diaz Santos, Fabricio (autor) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (autor) ; Salom Pérez, Roberto (autor) ; Meyer, Ninon France Victoire (autor) ; Castañeda, Franklin (autor) ; Elvir Valle, Fausto Antonio (autor) ; Ponce Santizo, Gabriela (autora) ; Amit, Ronit (autora) ; Arroyo Arce, Stephanny (autora) ; Thomson, Ian (autor) ; Moreno, Ricardo (autor) ; Schank, Cody J. (autor) ; Arroyo Gerala, Paulina (autora) ; Bárcenas, Horacio V. (autor) ; Brenes Mora, Esteban (autor) ; Calderón, Ana Patricia (autora) ; Cove, Michael V. (autor) ; Gómez Hoyos, Diego (autor) ; González Maya, José F. (autor) ; Guy, Danny (autor) ; Hernández Jiménez, Gerobuam (autor) ; Hofman, Maarten (autor) ; Kays, Roland (autor) ; King, Travis (autor) ; Martinez Menjivar, Marcio Arnoldo (autor) ; Maza, Javier de la (autor) ; León Pérez, Rodrigo (autor) ; Ramos, Víctor Hugo (autor) ; Rivero Hernández, Crysia Marina (autora) ; Romo Asunción, Sergio (autor) ; Juárez López, Rugieri (autor) ; Jesús de la Cruz, Alejandro (autor) ; De la Torre, Jesús Antonio (autor) ; Towns, Valeria (autora) ; Schipper, Jan (autor) ; Portillo Reyes, Hector Orlando (autor) ; Artavia, Adolfo (autor) ; Hernández Pérez, Edwin Luis Oswaldo (autor) ; Martínez, Wilber (autor) ; Urquhart, Gerald R. (autor) ; Quigley, Howard (autor) ; Pardo, Lain E. (autor) ; Sáenz, Joel C. (autor) ; Sanchez, Khiavett (autora) ; Polisar, John (autor) ;
Contenido en: Biological Conservation Vol. 242, no. 108410 (2020), p. 1-12 ISSN: 0006-3207
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Large mammalian herbivores are experiencing population reductions and range declines. However, we lack regional knowledge of population status for many herbivores, particularly in developing countries. Addressing this knowledge gap is key to implementing tailored conservation strategies forspecies whose population declines are highly variable across their range. White-lipped peccaries (Tayassupecari) are important ecosystem engineers in Neotropical forests and are highly sensitive to human disturbance. Despite maintaining a wide distributional range, white-lipped peccaries are experiencing substantial population declines in some portions of their range.We examined the regional distribution and population status of the species in Mesoamerica. We used a combination of techniques, including expert-based mapping and assessment of population status, and data-driven distribution modelling techniques to determine the status and range limits of white-lipped peccaries. Our analysis revealed declining and highly isolated populations of peccaries across Mesoamerica, with a range reduction of 87% from historic distribution and 63% from current IUCN range estimates for the region. White-lipped peccary distribution is affected by indices of human influence and forest cover, and more restricted than other sympatric large herbivores, with their largest populations confined to transboundary reserves. To conserve white-lipped peccaries in Mesoamerica, transboundary efforts will be needed that focus on both forest conservation and hunting management, increased cross-border coordination, and reconsideration of country and regional conservation priorities. Our methodology to detail regional white-lipped peccary status could be employed on other poorly-known large mammals.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates.

This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.


5.
Tesis - Doctorado
*En proceso técnico. Solicítelo con el bibliotecario de SIBE-Campeche
Comportamiento y movimiento de los grandes mamíferos terrestres en paisajes fragmentados: implicaciones para el diseño de corredores biológicos / Ninon France Victoire Meyer
Meyer, Ninon France Victoire ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (Director) ; Martínez Morales, Miguel Ángel (Asesor) (-2020) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (Asesor) ; Balkenhol, Niko (Asesor) ;
Lerma, Campeche, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2018
Clasificación: TE/599 / M4
Bibliotecas: Campeche
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040006893 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En proceso técnico. Solicítelo con el bibliotecario de SIBE-Campeche
PDF
Índice | Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

La fragmentación de hábitat es uno de los principales conductores de pérdida de biodiversidad, incluso los mamíferos grandes en ambientes tropicales. Los corredores biológicos, tal como el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano (CBM), constituyen una herramienta de conservación para restaurar la conectividad funcional en los paisajes fragmentados. El Istmo de Panamá es la última y más estrecha porción del CBM y ha servido desde miles de años como puente terrestre entre América del Norte y América del Sur para el movimiento y flujo de genes de muchas especies. Sin embargo, la funcionalidad de los bosques panameños como corredores de fauna ha sido puesta en duda y nunca ha sido cuantificada de manera adecuada. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la efectividad del CBM para los mamíferos grandes de Panamá, e identificar áreas importantes para los movimientos y la conservación a largo plazo de dichas especies. Existen muchos enfoques para identificar áreas con alto potencial de conectividad, pero no hay conceso claro sobre el método más correcto y efectivo. En este trabajo use una combinación de datos de ocupación derivados de muestreos de cámaras trampa a gran escala, y datos de movimiento de collares GPS, para investigar el uso de hábitat y los patrones de movimiento de nueve especies de mamíferos grandes, y estimar la resistencia del paisaje, el insumo primario en la modelación de conectividad. Primero, los resultados mostraron que no todas las áreas protegidas en Panamá albergan un ensamblaje intacto de ungulados. También encontré que el jaguar, tapir de Bairdii, pecarí de labios blancos, y oso hormiguero gigante tienen una ocupación baja y que hay muchos vacíos en su distribución a lo largo de Panamá, lo cual sugiere que América del Norte y Sur ya no están conectadas de manera efectiva para algunas especies silvestres.

Basado en este análisis, se identificó al Parque Nacional Darién como una zona de suma importancia para todas las especies focales, en particular el pecarí de labios blancos. Ahí, se encontró que las manadas de esta especie alcanzan a menudo 80 – 100 individuos, y que usan la misma área todo el año, lo cual indica que los bosques del Darién proveen suficiente recursos para soportar los requisitos ecológicos de manadas grandes. Por último, los escenarios de conectividad que se desarrollaron entre zonas núcleos de áreas protegidas para un grupo de especies sensibles a la perturbación de hábitat fueron más estrechos y menos numerosos que los corredores desarrollados para un grupo de especies más tolerantes. Los datos de ocupación también tenían una tendencia a subestimar la conectividad funcional en comparación con los datos de movimiento. Estos hallazgos destacan la importancia de adoptar un enfoque multi-especies, y de considerar el comportamiento durante los movimientos para asegurar una planificación efectiva de corredor. Este estudio indica que para promover la conservación de los grandes mamíferos a largo plazo en Panamá y en la región Centroamericana, los esfuerzos de restauración tienen que ser diseñados a nivel del paisaje, pero que el éxito de los corredores biológicos dependerá en gran parte de consideraciones sociopolíticas y económicas.

Resumen en inglés

Habitat fragmentation is a primary driver of wildlife loss, especially large mammals in the tropics. Wildlife corridor such as the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC), is a common conservation tool to restore functional connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The Isthmus of Panama is the last and narrowest link of the MBC and has served as a land bridge between North and South America for movement and gene flow of numerous species since thousands of years. However, the current effectiveness of Panama’s forests as corridor was put into question, and has never been adequately quantified. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the MBC for large terrestrial mammals in Panama, and identify important areas for their movement and long-term conservation. Many modeling approaches exist to identify areas with high potential connectivity, but there is no clear consensus on the most accurate, cost-effective method. I used a combination of occupancy data from large-scale camera trapping surveys, and movement data from GPS collars to investigate the habitat use and movement patterns of multiple species of large mammals, and derive landscape resistance, the primary input for connectivity modeling. Results first showed that not all of the protected areas in Panama harbor intact assemblage of ungulates. I also found that the jaguar, Baird’s tapir, whitelipped peccary and giant anteater had low occupancy levels and clear gaps in their distribution throughout Panama, suggesting that Mesoamerica and South America are no longer effectively connected for some forest species. Based on this analysis, the Darien was identified as a stronghold for all the focal species, in particular for the white-lipped peccary.

There, I found that the herds often reach 80-100 individuals, and that they use the same area all year long, indicating that the Darien forest provides sufficient resources to support the ecological requirements of large herds. Finally, the multi-species connectivity scenarios that were developed between core areas for a group of species sensitive to habitat disturbance were narrower and fewer than those developed for a group of tolerant species. The occupancy data also tend to underestimate functional connectivity in comparison with when using movement data. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a multi-species approach, and considering movement behavior to ensure effective corridor planning. Finally, this study highlights that in order to promote the long-term conservation of large mammals in Panama and beyond, restoration efforts must be taken at the landscape level, but the success of wildlife corridors also largely relies on sociopolitical and economic considerations.

Índice

Agradecimientos & Acknowledgments
Resumen
Abstract
I. Introducción
Modelar la resistencia
Corredores para varias especies
Objetivos
Área de Estudio
Estructura de la Tesis
I. Introduction
II. Do Protected Areas in Panama Support Intact Assemblages of Ungulates?
Abstract
Introducción
Material and Methods
Data Analysis
Results
Discussion
Conclusión
Acknowledgments
References
III. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Panama as an Ecological Bridge Between Two Continents for Large Mammals
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Study area
Camera trapping surveys
Environmental variables
Focal species
Occupancy Models - Data Analysis
Results
Discussion
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
IV. Spatial Ecology of a Large and Endangered Tropical Mammal : the White-Lipped Peccary in Darien, Panama
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Study area
Capture and collaring of WLPs
Data Analysis And Home Range
Results
Captures, GPS fix rate, and data period transmission
Home range
Discussion
Acknowledgments
References
V. Towards the Restoration of The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in Panama : a Multi-Species Approach
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Study area
Focal species
Environmental variables
Animal locations and movement data
Data Analysis
Occupancy and movement models
Estimating the resistance
From single to multi-species connectivity scenarios
Results
Animal locations and scale of analysis
Occupancy and movement models
Multi-species connectivity scenarios
Discussion
Multi-species scenarios
Effect of data source
Limitations and suggestions
Implications for long-term mammal conservation in Panama
Acknowledgments
References

VI. Conclusión
Estado de Conservación de los Mamíferos, Movimiento y Conectividad Funcional
Sugerencias Para Mejorar Estudios de Fauna Silvestre y Diseños de Conectividad
Perspectivas Para la Conservación de los Mamíferos Grandes en un País de Rápido Crecimiento
VI. Conclusión
Literatura Citada


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Using a novel model approach to assess the distribution and conservation status of the endangered Baird’s tapir
Schank, Cody J. ; Cove, Michael V. (coaut.) ; Kelly, Marcella J. (coaut.) ; Mendoza Ramírez, Eduardo (coaut.) ; O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina (coaut.) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (coaut.) ; Meyer, Ninon France Victoire (coaut.) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (coaut.) ; González Maya, José F. (coaut.) ; Lizcano, Diego J. (coaut.) ; Moreno, Ricardo (coaut.) ; Dobbins, Michael T. (coaut.) ; Montalvo, Víctor (coaut.) ; Sáenz Bolaños, Carolina (coaut.) ; Carillo Jiménez, Eduardo (coaut.) ; Estrada, Nereyda (coaut.) ; Cruz Díaz, Juan Carlos (coaut.) ; Sáenz, Joel (coaut.) ; Spínola, Manuel (coaut.) ; Carver, Andrew (coaut.) ; Fort, Jessica (coaut.) ; Nielsen, Clayton K. (coaut.) ; Botello, Francisco (coaut.) ; Pozo Montuy, Gilberto (coaut.) ; Rivero Hernández, Crysia Marina (coaut.) ; De la Torre, José Antonio (coaut.) ; Brenes Mora, Esteban (coaut.) ; Godínez Gómez, Oscar (coaut.) ; Wood, Margot A. (coaut.) ; Gilbert, Jessica (coaut.) ; Miller, Jennifer A. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Diversity and Distributions Vol. 23, no. 12 (December 2017), p. 1459–1471 ISSN: 1809-127X
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Aim: We test a new species distribution modelling (SDM) framework, while comparing results to more common distribution modelling techniques. This framework allows for the combination of presence-only (PO) and presence-absence (PA) data and accounts for imperfect detection and spatial bias in presence data. The new framework tested here is based on a Poisson point process model, which allows for predictions of population size. We compared these estimates to those provided by experts on the species. Species and Location: Presence data on Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) throughout its range from southern México to northern Colombia were used in this research, primarily from the years 2000 to 2016. Methods: Four SDM frameworks are compared as follows: (1) Maxent, (2) a presence-only (PO) SDM based on a Poisson point process model (PPM), (3) a presence-absence (PA) SDM also based on a PPM and (4) an Integrated framework which combines the previous two models. Model averaging was used to produce a single set of coefficient estimates and predictive maps for each model framework. A hotspot analysis (Gi*) was used to identify habitat cores from the predicted intensity of the Integrated model framework. Results: Important variables to model the distribution of Baird’s tapir included land cover, human pressure and topography. Accounting for spatial bias in the presence data affected which variables were important in the model. Maxent and the Integrated model produced predictive maps with similar patterns and were considered to be more in agreement with expert knowledge compared to the PO and PA models.

Main conclusions: Total abundance as predicted by the model was higher than expert opinion on the species, but local density estimates from our model were similar to available independent assessments. We suggest that these results warrant further validation and testing through collection of independent test data, development of more precise predictor layers and improvements to the model framework.


7.
Libro
Monitoring animal populations and their habitats: a practitioner's guide / Brenda McComb, Benjamin Zuckerberg, David Vesely, Christopher Jordan
McComb, Brenda ; Zuckerberg, Benjamin (coaut.) ; Vesely, David (coaut.) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (coaut.) ;
Boca Raton, Florida : Taylor and Francis Group , 2010
Clasificación: 639.90973 / M65
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010014755 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In the face of so many unprecedented changes in our environment, the pressure is on scientists to lead the way toward a more sustainable future. Written by a team of ecologists, Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats: A Practitioner’s Guide provides a framework that natural resource managers and researchers can use to design monitoring programs that will benefit future generations by distilling the information needed to make informed decisions. In addition, this text is valuable for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses that are focused on monitoring animal populations. With the aid of more than 90 illustrations and a four-page color insert, this book offers practical guidance for the entire monitoring process, from incorporating stakeholder input and data collection, to data management, analysis, and reporting. It establishes the basis for why, what, how, where, and when monitoring should be conducted; describes how to analyze and interpret the data; explains how to budget for monitoring efforts; and discusses how to assemble reports of use in decision-making. The book takes a multi-scaled and multi-taxa approach, focusing on monitoring vertebrate populations and upland habitats, but the recommendations and suggestions presented are applicable to a variety of monitoring programs. Lastly, the book explores the future of monitoring techniques, enabling researchers to better plan for the future of wildlife populations and their habitats. Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats: A Practitioner’s Guide furthers the goal of achieving a world in which biodiversity is allowed to evolve and flourish in the face of such uncertainties as climate change, invasive species proliferation, land use expansion, and population growth.

Índice

Preface
The Authors
Chapter 1. Introduction
Monitoring Resources of High Value
Economic Value
Social, Cultural, and Educational Value
Economic Accountability
Monitoring as a Part of Resource Planning
Monitoring in Responso to a Crisis
Monitoring in Response to Legal Challenges
Adaptive Management
An Example of Monitoring and Use of Adaptive Management
Summary
References
Chapter 2. Lessons Learned from Current Monitoring Programs
Federal Monitoring Programs
The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST)
What Is the Goal of the Monitoring Program and How Is It to Be Achieved?
Where to Monitor?
What to Monitor?
The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS)
What Is the Goal of the Monitoring Program?
Where and How to Monitor?
What to Monitor?
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)
What Is the Goal of the Monitoring Program?
Where and How to Monitor?
What to Monitor?
Nongovernmental Organizations and Initiatives
Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE)
What Is the Goal of the Monitoring Program?
Where and How to Monitor?
What to Monitor?
Learning from Citizen-Based Monitoring
What Is the Goal of the Monitoring Program?
Where and How to Monitor?
What lo Monitor?
Sunimary
References
Chapter 3. Community-Based Monitoring
A Conflict Over Benefits
Designing and Implementing a Community-Based Monitoring Program
Suggestions for Scientists
Summary
References
Chapter 4. Goals and Objectives Now and Into the Future
Targeted Versus Surveillance Monitoring
Incorporating Stakeholder Objectives
Identifying Information Needs
The Anatomy of an Effective Monitoring Objective
Articulating the Scales of Population Monitoring
Data Collected to Meet the Objectives
Which Species Should be Monitored?
Intended Users of Monitoring Plans
Summary
References

Chapter 5. Designing a Monitoring Plan
Articulating Questions to be Answered
Inventory, Monitoring, and Research
Are Data Already Available?
Types of Monitoring Designs
Beginning the Monitoring Plan
Summary
References
Chapter 6. Factors to Consider When Designing the Monitoring Plan
Use of Existing Data to Inform Sampling Design
Cost
Stratification of Samples
Adaptive Sampling
Peer Review
Summary
References
Chapter 7. Putting Monitoring to Work on the Ground
Creating a Standardized Sampling Scheme
Selection of Sample Sites
Logistics
Biological Study Ethics
Voucher Specimens
Schedule and Coordination Plan
Qualifications for Personnel
Sampling Unit Marking and Monuments
Documenting Field Monitoring Plans
Critical Areas for Standardization
Budgets
Summary
References
Chapter 8. Field Techniques for Population Sampling and Estimation
Data Requirements
Spatial Extent
Frequently Used Techniques for Sampling Animals
Life History and Population Characteristics
Effects of Terrain and Vegetation
Merits and Limitations of Indices Compared to Estimators
Estimating Community Structure
Standardization and Protocol Review
Budget Constraints
Summary
References
Chapter 9. Techniques for Sampling Habitat
Selecting an Appropriate Scale
Remotely Sensed Data
Consistent Documentation of Sample Sites
Ground Measurements of Habitat Elements
Methods for Ground-Based Sampling of Habitat Elements
Using Estimates of Habitat Elements to Assess Habitat Availability
Using Estimates of Habitat Elements to Assess Habitat Suitability
Assessing the Distribution of Habitat Across the Landscape
Linking Inventory Data to Satellite Imagery and GIS
Measuring Landscape Structure and Change
Summary
References
Chapter 10. Database Management
The Basics of Database Management
The General Structure of a Monitoring Database

Digital Databases
Data Forms
Data Storage
Metadata
Consider a Database Manager
An Example of a Database Management System: FAUNA
Summary
References
Chapter 11. Data Analysis in Monitoring
Data Visualization I: Getting to Know Your Data
Data Visualization II: Getting to Know Your Model
Possible Remedies if Parametric Assumptions Are Violated
Statistical Distribution of the Data
Abundance and Counts
Analysis of Species Occurrences and Distribution
Analysis of Trend Data
Analysis of Cause-and-Effect Monitoring Data
Paradigms of Inference: Saying Something with Your Data and Models
Retrospective Power Analysis
Summary
References
Chapter 12. Reporting
Format of a Monitoring Report
Summary
References
Chapter 13. Uses of the Data: Synthesis, Risk Assessment, and Decision Making
Thresholds and Trigger Points
Forecasting Trends
Predicting Patterns Over Space and Time
Synthesis of Monitoring Data
Risk Analysis
Decision Making
Summary
References
Chapter 14. Changing the Monitoring Approach
General Precautions to Changing Methodology
When to Make a Change
Summary
References
Chapter 15. The Future of Monitoring
Emerging Technologies
A New Conceptual Framework for Monitoring
Summary
References
Appendix. Scientific Names of Species Mentioned in the Text
Index