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66 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Macías Sámano, J. E
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1.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Discrimination of odors associated with conspecific and heterospecific frass by sibling species Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
Niño Domínguez, Alicia ; Sullivan, Brian T. (coaut.) ; López Urbina, José Higinio (coaut.) ; Macías Sámano, J. E. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Environmental Entomology Vol. 47, no. 6 (December 2018), p. 1532-1540 ISSN: 0046-225X
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In the Central American region, the aggressive, sibling bark beetles Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano & Sullivan (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonize pines concurrently, and in nature they avoid heterospecific pairing, although it can be produced in the lab. We performed walking arrestment bioassays in the lab to examine the capacity of both sexes of both species to discriminate odors from frass expelled from gallery entrances of either solitary females or conspecific pairs of either species. Males of both species strongly preferred odors of frass from solitary, conspecific females over those of heterospecific females or pairs of either species. Female D. frontalis did not discriminate among these frass categories, whereas female D. mesoamericanus preferred frass of conspecific females. In gas chromatography–electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses, we determined that males of both species could sense a nearly identical spectrum of approximately 16 host- and beetle-produced compounds present in frass of females of one or both species. Only two of these compounds, endo-brevicomin and ipsdienol, which were present in frass of female D. mesoamericanus and pairs of either species but absent in frass of solitary D. frontalis females, qualitatively distinguished these categories. Several known attractants and synergists for either species declined in concentration postpairing. Our results complement earlier research and indicate how semiochemical composition and concentration in frass might mediate male discrimination of attack sites of conspecific, unpaired females. Furthermore, our data indicate that semiochemical responses for walking females differ from those of males and between species.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In southern Mexico and Central America, the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonizes host trees simultaneously with Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armend ariz-Toledano and Sullivan, a recently described sibling species. We hypothesized that cross-species pheromone responses by host-seeking beetles might mediate joint mass attack, bole partitioning, and reproductive isolation between the species. Previous studies had indicated that D. frontalis females produce frontalin and that female D. mesoamericanus produce frontalin, endo-brevicomin, and ipsdienol (males of both species produce endo-brevicomin and possibly ipsdienol). In field trapping trials in the Mexican state of Chiapas, D. frontalis was attracted to the lure combination of turpentine and racemic frontalin; racemic endobrevicomin enhanced this response. In a single test, D. mesoamericanus was attracted in low numbers to the combination of turpentine, racemic frontalin, and racemic endo-brevicomin after the addition of racemic ipsdienol; in contrast, racemic ipsdienol reduced responses of D. frontalis. Inhibition of D. frontalis was generated in both sexes by (+)- and racemic ipsdienol, but by (-)-ipsdienol only in females. Logs infested with D. mesoamericanus females (the pioneer sex in Dendroctonus) attracted both species in greater numbers than either D. frontalis female-infested or uninfested logs. Our data imply that D. frontalis may be more attracted to pioneer attacks of D. mesoamericanus females, and that this could be owing to the presence of endo-brevicomin in the latter. Possible intra- and inter-specific functions of semiochemicals investigated in our experiments are discussed.


3.
- Libro con arbitraje
Guía de campo para la identificación de árboles de la vertiente Pacífico de Chiapas / Jorge E. Macías-Sámano, Susana Ochoa-Gaona, Luis Felipe Zamora-Cornelio, Miguel Martínez- Icó, Walter Peters-Grether
Macías Sámano, J. E. (coaut.) ; Ochoa Gaona, Susana (coaut.) ; Zamora Cornelio, Luis Felipe (coaut.) ; Martínez Icó, Miguel (coaut.) ; Peters Grether, Walter (coaut.) ;
San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2015
Clasificación: EE/582.16097275 / G9
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040006099 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
ECO030008349 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010017964 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013325 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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SIBE Villahermosa
ECO050005928 (Disponible)
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Resumen en español

Esta guía tiene la finalidad de proveer un apoyo técnico, científicamente fundamentado, pero sencillo a la vez, de las especies nativas más comunes y características de la región de la vertiente Pacífico de la Sierra Madre de Chiapas. Dado que la mayoría de estas especies presentan una distribución amplia en el trópico mexicano, su utilidad se extiende a toda la región sureste de México y parte de Centro América. Está ampliamente ilustrado por más de 500 fotografías de 124 especies de árboles nativos y 20 exóticos que son comunes en la vertiente Pacífico de la Sierra Madre de Chiapas. La obra contiene información basada en el acervo científico y en investigación propia, además de material fotográfico original del primer autor, Jorge E. Macías-Sámano.

Índice

Introducción
El desarrollo agrosilvícola de la vertiente Pacífico de Chiapas
La vegetación de la vertiente Pacífico de Chiapas
Como usar esta guía
Terminología utilizada en las claves de identificación
Claves de identificación de los grupos de especies nativas Descritas
Listas de especies nativas
Listas de especies exóticas
Fichas descriptivas de las especies nativas
Fichas de las especies exóticas
Literatura consultada
Semblanza de cada autor


4.
Artículo - Suscripción
Pheromone-mediated mate location and discrimination by two syntopic sibling species of dendroctonus bark beetles in Chiapas, Mexico
Niño Domínguez, Alicia ; Sullivan, Brian T. (coaut.) ; López Urbina, José Higinio (coaut.) ; Macías Sámano, J. E. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Chemical Ecology Vol. 41, no. 8 (August 2015), p. 746-756 ISSN: 1573-1561
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Where their geographic and host ranges overlap, sibling species of tree-killing bark beetles may simultaneously attack and reproduce on the same hosts. However, sustainability of these potentially mutually beneficial associations demands effective prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms between the interacting species. The pine bark beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is syntopic in the Central American region with a recently described sibling species, Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano and Sullivan, but mechanisms for their reproductive isolation are uncertain. We investigated whether semiochemicals mediate species discrimination by mate-seeking males of both species. In olfactometer bioassays, walking males of both species strongly preferred odors from gallery entrances of conspecific females. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry isolated 16 olfactory stimulants for males in these odors, but only two, ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin (both from D. mesoamericanus females), differed in quantity in female-associated odors between the species. In olfactometer bioassays, with 10, 1, or 0.1 female entrance equivalents of synthetic semiochemicals, the combination of ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin inhibited responses of male D. frontalis and enhanced responses of male D. mesoamericanus to two compounds associated with female entrances of both species (the pheromone component frontalin and host odor α-pinene). We conclude that ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin, pheromone components produced by females of just one of the two species (D. mesoamericanus), mediate interspecific mate discrimination by males of both species and provide an apparently symmetrical reproductive isolation mechanism.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula
Respuesta de insectos descortezadores de pino y de sus depredadores a semioquímicos en el sur de México
Macías Sámano, J. E. (autor) ; Rivera Granados, Martha Laura (autora) ; Jones, Robert (autor) ; Ibarra Núñez, Guillermo (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Madera y Bosques Vol. 20, no. 3 (Otoño 2014), p. 41-47 ISSN: 1405-0471
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal , Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
6588-30 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
6588-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Se documenta la atracción en campo de insectos descortezadores (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, scolytinae) de pino y sus depredadores, a trampas multiembudos cebadas con formulaciones comerciales que contenían una de tres combinaciones de a-pineno con frontalina, ipsenol o con ipsdienol en el sur de México. El descortezador Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann fue atraído únicamente a frontalina + a-pineno. El descortezador Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), los depredadores Enoclerus ablusus Barr (Coleoptera: Cleridae) y Elacatis sp. (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Salpingidae) fueron atraídos a las combinaciones de ipsenol + a-pineno e ipsdienol + a-pineno; el depredador Temnochila chlorodia Mannerheim (Coleoptera: Trogositidae) respondió a todos los tratamientos. Los depredadores Tenebroides corticalis (Melsheimer) (Coleoptera: Trogositidae) y Temnochila virescens (F.) fueron capturados en números muy bajos. Los resultados de este estudio indican que el depredador T. chlorodia, reconoce y se orienta a los semioquímicos producidos tanto por las especies de descortezador, D. frontalis e I. grandicollis, mientras que los depredadores E. ablusus y Elacatis sp son atraídos exclusivamente por los producidos por las especies de Ips. Las diferentes respuestas de los insectos atrapados son discutidas a la luz de trabajos similares, enfatizando las variaciones encontradas en la asociación descortezador-depredador y la respuesta a los semioquímicos entre las poblaciones de Estados Unidos y las del sur de México para el manejo de los mismos.

Resumen en inglés

Field responses to multiple-funnel traps baited with commercial a-pinene plus either frontalin, ipsenol or ipsdienol were recorded for bark beetles and their associates in southern Mexico. Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) was attracted only to frontalin plus a-pineno. Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), Enoclerus ablusus Barr (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Elacatis sp. (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Salpingidae) were attracted to both combinations of ipsenol and ipsdienol plus a-pineno, Temnochila chlorodia Mannerheim (Coleoptera: Trogositidae) responded to all treatments. Tenebroides corticalis (Melsheimer) (Coleoptera: Trogositidae) and Temnochila virescens (F.) were also captured in small numbers. From these results, the predator T. chlorodia tuned to semiochemicals known to be produced by either D. frontalis or I. grandicollis species, whereas the predators E. ablusus and Elacatis sp were attracted exclusively to semiochemicals known to be produced by Ips species. Differences in response are discussed in the light of similar works, stressing the variations found between bark beetle-predator guilds and semiochemical response from North American and South Mexico.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Review of the geographical distribution of Dendroctonus vitei (Curculionidae: scolytinae) based on geometric morphometric of the seminal rod
Armendáriz Toledano, Francisco ; Niño Domínguez, Alicia (coaut.) ; Macías Sámano, J. E. (coaut.) ; Zúñiga Bermúdez, Gerardo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Annals of the Entomological Society of America Vol. 107, no. 4 (July 2014), p. 748-755 ISSN: 0013-8746
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
53606-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The known distribution of the bark beetle Dendroctonus vitei Wood has been basically restricted to species-type location in Patzun, Guatemala, and in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico. There are also reports of the species in Veracruz, Oaxaca, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. This bark beetle cannot be confidently distinguished from its sibling species Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, Dendroctonus mexicanus Hopkins, and Dendroctonus sp. nov. by morphological characteristics (e.g., color and pronotum width). It has been proposal that the seminal rod is a useful characteristic to distinguish these species; however, its robustness has not been assessed quantitatively. The goal of the present work was to analyze the seminal rod from 601 specimens of the D. frontalis complex, collected in 89 locations from Mexico and Guatemala, using geometric morphometrics to clarify and update the distribution of D. vitei. Our results confirmed the presence of this species not only in the previously recognized locations (Patzun, Guatemala; San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas; Perote Veracruz, and Chipinque, Nuevo Leon) but also in seven new ones. The analyzed specimens of D. vitei and other D. frontalis complex species showed a strong differentiation in seminal rod shape among them. The accumulated information indicates that D. vitei is distributed across the entire Sierra Madre Oriental, the east Trans-Mexican volcanic belt, the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, and the Cordillera Central of Guatemala.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Two species within dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): evidence from morphological, karyological, molecular, and crossing studies
Armendáriz Toledano, Francisco ; Niño Domínguez, Alicia (coaut.) ; Sullivan, Brian T. (coaut.) ; Macías Sámano, J. E. (coaut.) ; Víctor, Javier (coaut.) ; Clarke, Stephen R. (coaut.) ; Zúñiga Bermúdez, Gerardo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Annals of the Entomological Society of America Vol. 107, no. 1 (Jan 2014), p. 11-27 ISSN: 0013-8746
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
53180-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann is considered one of the most important economic and ecological forest pests in the United States, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, two apparent morphological variants of this species were discovered occurring syntopically in Central America and southern Mexico. Morphotype A beetles lack a series of Þne parallel ridges on the episternal area of the prothorax that are present on morphotype B. The goal of the present work was to clarify the taxonomic status of the morphotypes of the D. frontalis species complex. Geometric morphometric analyses of seminal rod and spermatheca shape together with the characterization of 16 attributes of external morphology revealed differences in quantitative and qualitative characters that distinguished adults of the two morphotypes from each other as well as from the closely related species Dendroctonus vitei Wood and Dendroctonus mexicanus Hopkins. Karyotype analysis of morphotype B revealed a chromosomal formula (5AA Xyp) distinct from that found in morphotype A previously reported for D. frontalis (7AA Xyp). In the laboratory, forced intermorphotype crosses produced F1 progeny but at lower frequency than intramorphotype pairings, and dissections of spermatheca revealed a lower frequency of insemination at least one type of heterotypic cross. Phylogenetic analysis of the D. frontalis species complex based on 786 bp of the cytochrome oxidase I gene indicated that morphotypes B and A are two independent groups with 98% nodal support within D. frontalis. These data provide compelling evidence that the two syntopic morphotypes represent two distinct sibling species.


8.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca SIBE-Tapachula
2-undercyloxy-1-ethanol in combination with other semiochemicals attracts three Monochamus species (Coleoptera: cerambycidae) in British Columbia, Canada
Macías Sámano, J. E. (autor) ; Wakarchuk, David (autor) ; Millar, Jocelyn G. (autor) ; Hanks, Lawrence M. (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: The Canadian Entomologist Vol. 144, no. 6 (December 2012), p. 821-825 ISSN: 0008-347X
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
52536-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca SIBE-Tapachula
Resumen en: Inglés | Alemán |
Resumen en inglés

Two species in the genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) have recently been shown to have the same male-produced sex pheromone, 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol (monochamol), suggesting that other congeners may share the same pheromone. We tested that hypothesis by conducting field bioassays of monochamol, in combination with bark-beetle pheromones and the host plant volatiles ethanol and α-pinene, in southern British Columbia, Canada. We captured 603 Monochamus clamator (LeConte), 63 Monochamus obtusus Casey, 245 Monochamus scutellatus (Say) (tribe Monochamini), and 42 Acanthocinus princeps (Walker) (tribe Acanthocinini). All three Monochamus species were significantly attracted to the combination of monochamol and host plant volatiles, whereas bark-beetle pheromones plus plant volatiles and plant volatiles alone were minimally attractive. Adding bark-beetle pheromones to the monochamol plus plant volatiles treatment synergised attraction of M. clamator, but not the other two Monochamus species. Acanthocinus princeps was most strongly attracted to the combination of bark-beetle pheromones and plant volatiles, and did not appear to be affected by the presence or absence of monochamol in baits. We conclude that monochamol is a likely pheromone component for the three Monochamus species, and that monochamol plus host plant volatiles is an effective attractant for these and perhaps other North American Monochamus species.

Resumen en alemán

On a démontré récemment que deux espèces du genre Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) possédaient la même phéromone sexuelle mâle, le 2-undécyloxy-1-éthanol (monochamol), ce qui laisse croire que d'autres congénères pourraient aussi avoir cette même phéromone. Nous avons testé cette hypothèse par des bioessais de monochamol en nature en combinaison avec des phéromones de scolytes et des produits volatils de la plante-hôte, l’éthanol et l’ α-pynène, dans le sud de la Colombie-Britannique, Canada. Nous avons capturé 603 Monochamus clamator (LeConte), 63 Monochamus obtusus Casey, 245 Monochamus scutellatus (Say) (tribu des Monochamini) et 42 Acanthocinus princeps (Walker) (tribu des Acanthocinini). Les trois espèces de Monochamus sont fortement attirées par la combinaison de monochamol et de produits volatils de la plante-hôte, alors que les phéromones de scolytes additionnées de produits volatils de la plante hôte et les produits volatils de la plante hôte seuls exercent très peu d'attraction. L'addition de phéromones de scolytes à la combinaison de monochamol et de produits volatils de la plante hôte a un effet synergique d'attraction chez M. clamator, mais non chez les deux autres espèces de Monochamus. Acanthocinus princeps est le plus fortement attiré par la combinaison de phéromones de scolytes et de produits volatils de plante et ne semble pas être affecté par la présence ou l'absence de monochamol dans les appâts. Nous concluons que le monochamol est vraisemblablement l'une des composantes de la phéromone des trois espèces de Monochamus et que la combinaison de monochamol et de produits volatils de la plante hôte a un pouvoir efficace d'attraction chez ces espèces et peut-être chez d'autres espèces nord-américaines de Monochamus.


9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Biochemical evidence that Dendroctonus frontalis consists of two sibling species in Belize and Chiapas, Mexico
Sullivan, Brian T. ; Niño Domínguez, Alicia (coaut.) ; Moreno Castillo, Benjamín (coaut.) ; Brownie, Cavell (coaut.) ; Macías Sámano, J. E. (coaut.) ; Clarke, Stephen R. (coaut.) ; Kirkendall, Lawrence R. (coaut.) ; Zúñiga Bermúdez, Gerardo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Annals of the Entomological Society of America Vol. 105, no. 6 (2012), p. 817-831 ISSN: 0013-8746
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
35895-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a major economic pest of pines in the United States, Mexico, and Central America. We report biochemical investigations relevant to the taxonomic status and semiochemistry of two distinct morphotypes of D. frontalis recently detected in the Central American region. Morphotype A beetles (pre-episternal area of prothorax of both sexes smooth, bulging callus on anterolateral margin of prothorax of females) and morphotype B beetles (pre-episternal area of prothorax of both sexes with fine ridges, reduced female callus) collected in infestations in Chiapas, Mexico differed significantly in their production of 10 behaviorally-active compounds occurring in the genus Dendroctonus, including the major pheromone components for D. frontalis. Notably, host-attacking morphotype B females produced hundreds of nanograms of both endo-brevicomin and frontalin, whereas morphotype A females produced similar amounts of frontalin but subnanogram quantities of endo-brevicomin. Reanalysis of a published D. frontalis trapping study in Chiapas indicated that both morphotypes responded in greatest numbers when frontalin and endo-brevicomin baits were both present. In addition, we quantified 18 different cuticular hydrocarbons (the methyl-branched alkane components) from both morphotypes collected in Belize and Chiapas as well as morphotype A beetles from the southeastern United States, and principal component analysis revealed nonoverlapping clusters associated with either morphotype. This evidence of two distinct, complex phenotypes coexisting in the same sites and host trees supports the hypothesis that the D. frontalis morphotypes represent separate species and consequently indicates that the taxonomy of D. frontalis should be re-evaluated in the Central American region.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the bark beetle dendroctonus rhizophagus to volatiles from host pines and conspecifics
Cano Ramírez, Claudia ; Armendáriz Toledano, Francisco (coaut.) ; Macías Sámano, J. E. (coaut.) ; Sullivan, Brian T. (coaut.) ; Zúñiga Bermúdez, Gerardo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Chemical Ecology Vol. 38, no. 5 (2012), p. 512-524 ISSN: 0098-0331
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
5250-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus is endemic to northwestern Mexico where it kills immature pines < 3 m tall. We report the first investigation of the chemical ecology of this pest of forest regeneration. We used GC-EAD to assess olfactory sensitivity of this species to volatile compounds from: resin of a major host, Pinus arizonica; mid/hindguts of single, gallery-initiating females; and mate-paired males within galleries of attacked host trees in the field. Antennae of both sexes responded to monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene and 3-carene as well as to the beetle-derived oxygenated monoterpenes fenchyl alcohol, myrtenal, cis-verbenol, trans-verbenol, verbenone, and myrtenol. These monoterpenes were quantified from pre-emerged D. rhizophagus adults forced to attack host tissue in the laboratory, and from individuals dissected from naturally-attacked hosts at different stages of colonization. In both bioassays, myrtenol and trans-verbenol were the most abundant volatiles, and trans-verbenol was the only one produced in significantly greater quantities by females than males in a naturally-colonized host. Two field experiments were performed to evaluate behavioral responses of D. rhizophagus to antennally-active monoterpenes. Results show that 3-carene was significantly attractive either alone or in a ternary (1:1:1) combination with α-pinene and β-pinene, whereas neither α-pinene nor β-pinene alone were attractive. None of the beetle-associated oxygenated monoterpenes enhanced the attractiveness of the ternary mixture of monoterpenes, while verbenone either alone or combined with the other five oxygenated terpenes reduced D. rhizophagus attraction to the ternary mixture. The results suggest that attraction of D. rhizophagus to the host tree P. arizonica is mediated especially by 3-carene. There was no conclusive evidence for an aggregation or sex attractant pheromone.