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34 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

En México y en el mundo, la incorporación de la comunidad científica (entre ellos los ecólogos) a la generación de conocimientos que coadyuven a solucionar los graves problemas ambientales, y avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad, requiere de una visión diferente en la investigación. Más aún, se requiere de herramientas novedosas para acoplar el trabajo de la comunidad científica con el resto de la sociedad. Los ecólogos tienen el reto devolverse innovadores y creadores de nuevos modelos, procesos de colaboración, métodos y herramientas de investigación, básica y aplicada, entemas como la agricultura, la forestería, la ganadería y el uso de los recursos naturales. Para enfrentar este reto, los ecólogos en México necesitan amalgamar su quehacer con el de otros actores académicos y no académicos para impulsar en conjunto procesos de mejoramiento ambiental con beneficios sociales. En esta contribución se revisan retos y perspectivas que se tienen en México en el campo de innovación ecotecnológica. Se propone fomentar el trabajo de investigación en laboratorios sin muros, en los cuales grupos flexibles de actores diseñen, prueben y evalúen innovaciones tecnológicas que respondan a problemáticas ambientales y socioecológicas locales y regionales específicas.

Resumen en inglés

In Mexico and in the world, the incorporation of the scientific community (among them ecologists) to the generation of knowledge that contributes to solving the serious environmental problems, and advancing towards the sustainability, requires a different research vision. Moreover, innovative tools are needed to couple the work of the scientific community with the rest of the society. Ecologists are challenged to become innovators and creators of new models, collaborative processes, methods and research tools, basic and applied, in topics such as agriculture, forestry, livestock andthe use of natural resources. To meet this challenge, ecologists in Mexico need to amalgamate their work with other academic and non-academic actors to jointly promote environmental improvement processes with social benefits. This contribution examines challenges and perspectives of ecotechnological innovation in Mexico. We suggest to foster the research work in this field in laboratories without walls, in which flexible groups of actors design, test, and evaluate ecotechnological innovations that respond to specific local and regional socio-ecological and environmental problems.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Introdução
Astier Calderón, Marta ; García Barrios, Luis Enrique (coaut.) ; González Esquivel, Carlos Ernesto (coaut.) ; Larrondo Posadas, Lourdes Georgina (coaut.) ; López Ridaura, Santiago (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agricultura Familiar. Pesquisa, Formação e Desenvolvimento Vol. 11, no. 01 2015 (jun-jun. 2017), p. 9-16 ISSN: 1414-0810
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3.
Libro
Siguiendo la huella: el impacto de las actividades humanas / Mireya Ímaz Gispert, Marjory González Vivanco, Dalia Ayala Islas, Ana Beristain Aguirre, Gian Carlo Delgado Ramos, Carlos García Bustamente, Cynthia Armendáriz Arnez y Omar Masera Cerutti
Ímaz Gispert, Mireya ; González Vivanco, Marjory (coaut.) ; Ayala Islas, Dalia Elizabeth (coaut.) ; Beristain Aguirre, Ana (coaut.) ; Delgado Ramos, Gian Carlo (coaut.) ; García Bustamente, Carlos (coaut.) ; Armendáriz Arnez, Cynthia (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ;
Distrito Federal, México : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Dirección General de Divulgación de la Ciencia. Programa Universitario de Estrategias para la Sustentabilidad :: Siglo XXI Editores , c2015
Clasificación: 333.715 / S54
Bibliotecas: Campeche
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040006539 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1

4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Sustainability assessment oriented to improve current systems and practices is urgently needed, particularly in the context of small farmer natural resource management systems (NRMS). Unfortunately, social-ecological systems (SES) theory, sustainability evaluation frameworks, and assessment methods are still foreign not only to farmers but to many researchers, students, NGOs, policy makers/operators, and other interested groups. In this paper we examine the main achievements and challenges of the MESMIS Program (Spanish acronym for Indicator-based Sustainability Assessment Framework), a 15-year ongoing effort with impact in 60 case studies and 20 undergraduate and graduate programs mainly in Ibero-America that is attempting to cope with the stated challenges. The MESMIS experience shows that it is possible to conduct sustainability assessments in the context of small farmers through a long-term, participatory, interdisciplinary, and multi-institutional approach that integrates a solid theoretical background, a field-tested operational framework, learning tools specifically devised to facilitate the understanding of sustainability as a multidimensional and dynamic concept, and a growing set of case studies to apply to and get feedback from users.

Specifically, through the dissemination of the MESMIS assessment framework in a large set of case studies in a contrasting set of social-ecological contexts, we have been able to: (a) characterize the NRMS, their subsystems, and their main interactions; (b) link attributes, i.e., general systemic properties, with sustainability indicators to assess critical socioeconomic and environmental aspects of the NRMS; (c) integrate indicators through multicriteria tools and to expose the multidimensional aspects of sustainability; (d) propose an initial multiscale assessment to articulate processes and actors at different spatial scales; (e) develop multimedia learning tools, i.e., Interactive-MESMIS, to help users understand dynamic concepts, trade-offs, and counter-intuitive behavior; and (f) promote participatory processes through role-playing games and agent-based simulation models. Key challenges are related to the need to conduct long-term longitudinal studies that fully capture system dynamic properties while at the same time actively involving relevant stakeholders through creative and lasting participative processes. We outline an improved assessment framework that should help move the program in this direction.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation in arid zones: the case of the Tehuacán Valley, Central México
Moreno Calles, A. ; Casas, A. (coaut.) ; Blancas, J. (coaut.) ; Torres, I. (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ; Caballero, J. (coaut.) ; García Barrios, Luis Enrique (coaut.) ; Pérez Negrón, E. (coaut.) ; Rangel Landa, S. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 80, no. 3 (September 2010), p. 315-331 ISSN: 0167-4366
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The role of agroforestry systems in biodiversity conservation was investigated in the semiarid Tehuacán Valley, Central México. Richness and diversity of native plant species were compared between agroforestry systems (6 sampling sites) and the following forests (6 sampling sites) dominated by columnar cacti: (i) ‘‘chichipera’’ dominated by Polaskia chichipe; (ii) ‘‘jiotillal’’ dominated by Escontria chiotilla; and (iii) ‘‘garambullal’’ dominated by Myrtillocactus schenckii. Our information on genetic variation of dominant arboreal species in the study sites was reviewed and included in the analysis. Factors influencing household’s decisions to maintain vegetation cover were compiled through a survey and interviews and analyzed. All the samples of the agroforestry systems studied maintained on average nearly 59% plant species and 94% genetic variation of dominant cacti occurring in the forests, although their ability to preserve endemic rare species is limited. Social factors favoring maintenance of perennial species in agricultural plots include collective rules, households traditions, use of the plants maintained in the systems, and the environmental information gathered from NGOs, the local Biosphere Reserve, and researchers.However, agroforestry systems are losing their capability to maintain vegetation cover, mainly because of (i) decreasing amount of land managed by households, determined by a progressive fragmentation of the land area given to new families, (ii) adoption of technologies to intensify agriculture, and (iii) governmental programs penalizing the presence of vegetation patches within agricultural lands since they are considered ‘‘useless’’ areas. Necessary policies to stop degradation of the agroforestry systems and to improve their conservation capacity are discussed.


6.
Artículo
Greenhouse gas emissions between 1993 and 2002 from land-use change and forestry in Mexico
De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph ; Carlos, Carlos (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ; Olguín Álvarez, Marcela Itzel (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Forest Ecology and Management Vol. 260, no. 10 (October 2010), p. 1689-1701 ISSN: 0378-1127
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In this paper we present the Mexican inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the land-use sector. It involved integration of forest inventory, land-use and soil data in a GIS to estimate the net flux of GHG between 1993 and 2002. The net GHG flux of 86.9 (±34.4%) Tg CO2 y−1 resulted from the balance of emissions of 64.5 (±12%) Tg CO2 y−1 from biomass loss, 4.9 (±259%) Tg CO2 y−1 from managed forests, and 30.3 (±106%) Tg CO2 y−1 from mineral soils, and the removals of 12.9 (±36%) Tg CO2 y−1 in abandoned lands. Main sources of uncertainty include lack of integrated soil and biomass data and the impact of the various management practices on biomass. Key factors are identified to improve GHG inventories and to reduce uncertainty.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Neotropical forest conservation, agricultural intensification, and rural out-migration: the mexican experience
García Barrios, Luis Enrique ; Galván Miyoshi, Yankuic Masatzugo (coaut.) ; Valdivieso Pérez, Ingrid Abril (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ; Bocco, Gerardo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: BioScience Vol. 59, no. 10 (November 2009), p. 863-873 ISSN: 0006-3568
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
7012-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Forest loss in the tropics is one of the most critical contemporary environmental problems. Understanding the complex sociopolitical and ecological forces operative in producing this problem has thus become an important scientific mandate. Some recent literature has suggested that modern market economy trends in Latin America—namely, rural out-migration and policies strongly favoring high-input, industry-based agriculture—have helped curtail and sometimes revert the net loss of tropical forests, mainly through afforestation of land abandoned by smallholders. Government in Mexico, a megadiverse country with one of the biggest out-migration and remittance economies in the world, has excelled in applying free-market policies and in discouraging historical smallholder agriculture. Our analysis of Mexico's development path and of recent deforestation and reforestation trends at the national, regional, and local levels shows that, contrary to expectations, net deforestation is still occurring, and that other development, agricultural, and reforestation strategies are needed.


8.
Libro
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Evaluación de sustentabilidad. Un enfoque dinámico y multidimensional / Marta Astier, Omar R. Masera, Yankuic Galván-Miyoshi, coordinadores
Astier Calderón, Marta (coord.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coord.) ; Galván Miyoshi, Yankuic Masatzugo (coord.) ;
Valencia, España : Sociedad Española de Agricultura Ecológica :: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Centro de Investigaciones en Geografía Ambiental :: El Colegio de la Frontera Sur :: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas :: Grupo Interdisciplinario de Tecnología Rural Apropiada :: Mundi-Prensa México , 2008
Clasificación: EE/333.715 / E9
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en español

El libro “Evaluación de sustentabilidad. Un enfoque dinámico y multidimensional” es el cuarto volumen de la colección Evaluación de Sustentabilidad, mediante la cual se busca poner al alcance de un conjunto amplio de lectores materiales de referencia para profundizar en el concepto de sustentabilidad, su evaluación y su puesta en práctica para el fortalecimiento y rediseño de sistemas de manejo de recursos naturales. Este volumen es una lectura esencial para los interesados en el tema de sustentabilidad y su aplicación a los sistemas de manejo de recursos naturales. Presenta la oportunidad poco común de acceder tanto a una revisión detallada de los principales temas de frontera en las evaluaciones de sustentabilidad como de aprender de la experiencia práctica de 10 años de aplicación del marco MESMIS (Marco de Evaluación de Sistemas de Manejo de Recursos Naturales incorporando Indicadores de Sustentabilidad) en más de 40 estudios de caso a lo largo de Iberoamérica. Como complemento al texto, y dando respuesta a la carencia crítica de materiales didácticos en la literatura sobre evaluaciones de sustentabilidad, este volumen incluye también un CD, “MESMIS Interactivo”, con programas amistosos de simulación interactiva que ayudan a entender la naturaleza dinámica del concepto de sustentabilidad y la compleja interdependencia entre sus dimensiones social, económica y ambiental.


9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal
Assessing implications of land-use and land-cover change dynamics for conservation of a highly diverse tropical rain forest
Flamenco Sandoval, Alejandro Fidel ; Martínez Ramos, Miguel (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ;
Clasificación: AR/333.75137 / F5
Contenido en: Biological conservation Vol. 138, nos. 1-2 (August 2007), p. 131-145 ISSN: 0006-3207
Bibliotecas: Chetumal
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
44179-20 (Disponible) , ECO030004802 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 2
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The Selva El Ocote Biosphere Reserve is located within the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot for global conservation. The area, poorly known relative to other humid tropical areas within Mexico, shows a mosaic of several types of forests, contains over 2000 species of vascular plants and 97 species of mammals, and plays a key role within Mexican tropical forests. We analyze the process of land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) within a 5755 km2 area which includes the reserve. Viability of conservation of the area was assessed by an integrated multi-temporal analysis of the LUCC process. Three cartographical data bases – from 1986, 1995 and 2000 – were used to assess rates and trends in LUCC for seven land cover types: agriculture/pasture (A/P); four types of second-growth forest (SGF); and two types of mature forest (tropical and temperate). Even when taking into account pathways of regeneration, results show a fast net loss of primary and secondary forests, primarily due to the establishment of A/P.

For the entire area of study, the annual deforestation rate of tropical mature forests was 1.2% during the period 1986–1995, increasing to 6.8% for the period 1995–2000. For both periods, the annual deforestation rate was appreciably lower within the reserve (0.21% and 2.54%) than outside it (2.15% and 12.4%). The annual rate of conversion of tropical SGF to A/P was 1% during the first period and increased sixfold for the second period. Three future scenarios on forest cover were constructed using a Markovian model and annualizing LUCC transition matrices. Results show that between 29% and 86% of remaining forest may be lost within the next 23 years. Urgent action is necessary to reduce loss of biodiversity within this region. Particular attention must be paid to tropical SGF, which are rapidly being deforested.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Although forest conservation activities, particularly in the tropics, offer significant potential for mitigating carbon (C) emissions, these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena caused by the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle, particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has two main components: the projected land-use change and the corresponding carbon stocks in applicable pools in vegetation and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult to address analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparing three models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of past trends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth to more complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicit models of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomic factors.

The three models used for making baseline projections of tropical deforestation at the regional scale are: the Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use and Carbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD) model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropical regions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions, population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) Santa Cruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana´ State, Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico; (5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoaca´n, Mexico.A comparison of all model outputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quite different deforestation baselines. In general, the simplest FAC model, applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highest amount of forest loss (four out of six regions) and the LUCS model the least amount of loss (four out of five regions).

Based on simulations of GEOMOD, we found that readily observable physical and biological factors as well as distance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as important as either sociological/ demographic or economic/infrastructure factors (less observable) in explaining empirical land-use patterns.We propose from the lessons learned, a methodology comprised of three main steps and six tasks can be used to begin developing credible baselines. We also propose that the baselines be projected over a 10-year period because, although projections beyond 10 years are feasible, they are likely to be unrealistic for policy purposes. In the first step, an historic land-use change and deforestation estimate is made by determining the analytic domain (size of the region relative to the size of proposed project), obtaining historic data, analyzing candidate baseline drivers, and identifying three to four major drivers. In the second step, a baseline of where deforestation is likely to occur–a potential land-use change (PLUC) map—is produced using a spatial model such as GEOMOD that uses the key drivers from step one.

Then rates of deforestation are projected over a 10-year baseline period based on one of the three models. Using the PLUC maps, projected rates of deforestation, and carbon stock estimates, baseline projections are developed that can be used for project GHG accounting and crediting purposes: The final step proposes that, at agreed interval (e.g., about 10 years), the baseline assumptions about baseline drivers be re-assessed. This step reviews the viability of the 10-year baseline in light of changes in one or more key baseline drivers (e.g., new roads, new communities, new protected area, etc.). The potential land-use change map and estimates of rates of deforestation could be re-done at the agreed interval, allowing the deforestation rates and changes in spatial drivers to be incorporated into a defense of the existing baseline, or the derivation of a new baseline projection.