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3 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: McGill, Brian J.
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1.
Libro
Community ecology / Gary G. Mittelbach and Brian J. McGill
Mittelbach, Gary G. ; McGill, Brian J. (autor) ;
Oxford, England, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press , 2019
Clasificación: 574.524 / M5
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010019788 (Prestado)
Disponibles para prestamo: 0
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Community ecology has undergone a transformation in recent years, from a discipline largely focused on processes occurring within a local area to a discipline encompassing a much richer domain of study, including the linkages between communities separated in space (metacommunity dynamics), niche and neutral theory, the interplay between ecology and evolution (eco-evolutionary dynamics), and the influence of historical and regional processes in shaping patterns of biodiversity. To fully understand these new developments, however, students continue to need a strong foundation in the study of species interactions and how these interactions are assembled into food webs and other ecological networks. This new edition fulfils the book's original aims, both as a much-needed up-to-date and accessible introduction to modern community ecology, and in identifying the important questions that are yet to be answered. This research-driven textbook introduces state-of-the-art community ecology to a new generation of students, adopting reasoned and balanced perspectives on as-yet-unresolved issues. Community Ecology is suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers seeking a broad, up-to-date coverage of ecological concepts at the community level.

Índice

1 Community ecology's roots
What is a community?
The ecological niche
Whither competition theory?
New directions
Part I The Big Picture: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences of Biodiversity
2 Patterns of biological diversity
Assessing biological diversity
Alpha, beta, and gamma diversity
Patterns of biological diversity
Area and species richness
The distribution of species abundance
Productivity and species richness
The latitudinal diversity gradient
A null model: geometric constraints and the "mid-domain effect"
Ecological hypotheses: climate and species richness
Historical hypotheses: the time-integrated area hypothesis and the concept of tropical niche conservatism
Evolutionary hypotheses: do rates of diversification differ across latitude?
Conclusion
Summary
3 Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning
Diversity and productivity
Mechanisms underlying the diversity-productivity relationship
Diversity, nutrient cycling, and nutrient retention
Diversity and stability
Temporal stability
Diversity and invasibility
Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality
Unanswered questions (revisited)
Multiple trophic levels
Community assembly or species loss?
Global extinction and local ecosystem functioning: is there a mismatch of spatial scales?
The invasion paradox
How important are diversity effects in nature?
The two sides of diversity and productivity
Conclusion
Summary
Part II The Nitty-Gritty: Species Interactions in Simple Modules
4 Population growth and density dependence
Exponential population growth
Logistic population growth
The debate over density dependence
Evidence for density dependence in nature
Bottom-up or top-down density dependence? and other questions
Positive density dependence and Allee effects
Community-level regulation of abundance and richness
Density dependence, rarity, and species richness

Conclusion
Summary
5 The fundamentals of predator-prey interactions
Predator functional responses
The Lotka-Volterra model
Isocline analysis
Adding more realism to the Lotka-Volterra model
The Rosenzweig-MacArthur model
The suppression-stability trade-off
Density-dependent predators
Herbivory and parasitism
Herbivory
Parasitism and disease
Summary
6 Selective predators and responsive prey
Predator preference
Optimal foraging theory leads to a model of predator diet choice
Consequences of selective predation for species coexistence
Predator movement and habitat choice
The non-consumptive effects of predators
Habitat use and habitat shifts
Life history evolution
Activity levels and vigilance
Morphology
The relative importance of consumptive and non-consumptive effects
Looking ahead
Summary
7 The fundamentals of competitive interactions
Defining interspecific competition
The Lotka-Volterra competition model
Another way to look at the Lotka-Volterra competition model
Modification to the Lotka-Volterra competition model
Consumer-resource models of competition
What are resources?
One consumer and one resource: the concept of R*
Two consumers competing for one resource
Coexistence on a single, fluctuating resource
Competition for multiple resources
Competition for two essential resources
Competition for two substitutable resources
Spatial heterogeneity and the coexistence of multiple consumers
Testing the predictions of resource competition theory
Apparent competition
Conclusion
Summary
8 Species coexistence and niche theory
Revisiting the origins of the notion of competitive exclusion
How are the assumptions of simple theory violated in nature?
Spatial variation in the environment can promote species coexistence
Temporal variation in the environment can also promote species coexistence

Ways in which dispersal and immigration can promote species coexistence
How do we tell if the strength of intraspecific competition is greater than interspecific competition (aְ> aֶ)?
Predation and coexistence
Conclusion
Summary
9 Beneficial interactions in communities: mutualism and facilitation
Mutualism and facilitation: definitions
A brief look at the evolution of mutualism and facilitation
Incorporating beneficial interactions into community theory
Mutualisms may be context-dependent
Interactions may change from positive to negative across life stages
Combining positive and negative effects
The stress gradient hypothesis for plant facilitation
Looking ahead
Summary
Part III Putting the Pieces Together: Food Webs, Ecological Networks and Community Assembly
10 Species interactions in ecological networks
Food webs
Connectedness webs
Energy flow webs
Functional webs
Keystone species
Body size, foraging models, and food web structure
Species traits and the structure of ecological networks
Indirect effects
Other types of ecological networks
Mutualistic networks
Parasites and parasitoids
Complexity and stability
Conclusion
Summary
11 Food chains and food webs: controlling factors and cascading effects
Why is the World Green?
What determines abundance at different trophic levels?
A simple thought experiment illustrates the duality of top-down and bottom-up control
Some conclusions
Testing the predictions
Effects of productivity on tropic-level abundances
Food chains with parallel pathways of energy flow
Trophic cascades and the relative importance of predator and resource limitation
How common are trophic cascades in different ecosystems?
Trophic cascades and non-consumptive (trait-mediated) effects
What determines food-chain length?
Conclusion
Summary
12 Community assembly and species traits
Species pools

Three assembly processes limit membership in the local community
Pattern-based assembly rules
Comparisons between local and regional species richness
Trait-based community assembly
A focus on species traits
Traits and limited community membership
Traits and abiotic processes
Traits and biotic processes
Assessment and prospectus of trait-based assembly research
Functional diversity
Phylogeny as a proxy for functional traits
Regional pool processes
Community assembly as an organizing framework for ecological theory
Conclusions
Summary
Part IV Spatial Ecology: Metapopulations and Metacommunities
13 Patchy environments, metapopulations, and fugitive species
Metapopulations
The classic Levins metapopulation model
Implications of the metapopulation model for conservation biology
Parallels between metapopulation models and epidemiology
Empirical examples of metapopulation dynamics
Fugitive species: competition and coexistence in a patchy environment
The competition/colonization trade-off
Consequences of patch heterogeneity
Conclusion
Summary
14 Metacommunities
Metacommunities in homogeneous environments
The patch dynamics perspective
The neutral perspective
Metacommunities in heterogeneous environments
The species sorting perspective: "Traditional" community ecology in a metacommunity framework
The mass effects perspective: diversity patterns in source-sink metacommunities
Measuring dispersal in metacommunities
The neutral perspective
Assumptions of the neutral theory
Testing the predictions of the neutral theory
The value of the neutral theory
Niche-based and neutral processes in communities
Conclusion
Summary
Part V Species in Changing Environments: Ecology and Evolution

15 Species in variable environments
Ecological succession
The intermediate disturbance hypothesis
Fluctuation-dependent mechanisms of species coexistence
The storage effect
Regime shifts and alternative stable states
. Conclusion
Summary
16 Evolutionary community ecology
Rapid evolution and eco-evolutionary dynamics
Rapid evolution, and its consequences for population dynamics and species interactions
Eco-evolutionary feedbacks and predator-prey cycles
Eco-evolutionary feedbacks in nature
Quantifying the ecological consequences of rapid evolution
Eco-evolutionary dynamics in diverse communities
Evolutionary rescue
Community phylogenetics
Assumption #2A: are closely related species stronger competitors?
Patterns of phylogenetic structure in communities
Phylogenetic niche conservatism (assumption #1)
Evolutionary processes that structure regional species pools
Speciation and community assembly in island-like systems
Building a mainland regional species pool
Conclusions
Summary
17 Some concluding remarks and a look ahead
Looking ahead: issues to ponder
Metacommunities and the integration of local and regional processes
Drivers of regional biodiversity
Community assembly and functional traits
Pathogens, parasites, and natural enemies
Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning
Changing technology will change how we collect data
Eco-evolutionary feedbacks and regional pool processes
Climate change, and its effects on species distributions and species interactions
The role of time
In closing, we would like to say…
Literature cited
Author index
Subject index


2.
Libro
Biological diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment / edited by Anne E. Magurran and Brian J. McGill
Magurran, Anne E. (ed.) (1955-) ; McGill, Brian J. (coaut.) ;
New York : Oxford University Press , 2011
Clasificación: 578.7 / B5
Bibliotecas: Campeche , San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040004731 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010008310 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Biological Diversity provides an up to date, authoritative review of the methods of measuring and assessing biological diversity, together with their application. The book's emphasis is on quantifying the variety, abundance, and occurrence of taxa, and on providing objective and clear guidance for both scientists and managers. This is a fast-moving field and one that is the focus of intense research interest. However the rapid development of new methods, the inconsistent and sometimes confusing application of old ones, and the lack of consensus in the literature about the best approach, means that there is a real need for a current synthesis. Biological Diversity covers fundamental measurement issues such as sampling, re-examines familiar diversity metrics (including species richness, diversity statistics, and estimates of spatial and temporal turnover), discusses species abundance distributions and how best to fit them, explores species occurrence and the spatial structure of biodiversity, and investigates alternative approaches used to assess trait, phylogenetic, and genetic diversity. The final section of the book turns to a selection of contemporary challenges such as measuring microbial diversity, evaluating the impact of disturbance, assessing biodiversity in managed landscapes, measuring diversity in the imperfect fossil record, and using species density estimates in management and conservation.


3.
Artículo
Simplification of a coffee foliage-dwelling beetle community under low-shade management
Gordon, Caleb E. ; McGill, Brian J. (coaut.) ; Ibarra Núñez, Guillermo (coaut.) ; Greenberg, Russell (coaut.) ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Basic and Applied Ecology Vol. 10, no. 3 (May 2009), p. 246-254 ISSN: 1439-1791
PDF
Resumen en: Inglés | Alemán |
Resumen en inglés

Coffee agroforests may be structurally and floristically complex and may contain a significant fraction of species from biodiverse and threatened tropical montane forest biotas; hence, understanding the dynamics of tropical forest biodiversity in coffee agroecosystems has emerged as a centrally important area of tropical conservation biology research. We conducted a morphospecies analysis on foliage-dwelling beetles collected from coffee plants on four coffee farms in southern Chiapas, Mexico, to characterize variation in the abundance, species richness, and species composition of this mega-diverse taxon in relation to coffee cultivation system, spatio-temporal variation, and predator removal. We constructed thirty-two cages to exclude birds and bats on four farms, each enclosing 7–10 coffee plants and paired with an adjacent uncaged control plot, and then collected beetles from coffee foliage with D-Vac aspirators in each plot once every 3 months for one year.

We classified the 2662 beetles collected into 293 morphospecies, representing 42 families of beetles. Extrapolation and interpolation analyses revealed a very high level of species richness, with no plateau and only a slight leveling trend observed in our species accumulation curves. We found that low-shade systems contain equal or higher beetle abundance, lower species richness, more highly homogenized species composition, and higher abundance of coffee berry borer pests on coffee foliage than do high-shade systems. We observed no effect of flying vertebrate exclusion on the coffee foliage beetle assemblage, but did find significant variation in abundance, species richness, and species composition of coffee foliage beetles across seasons and study sites. The increased beetle biodiversity of high-shade coffee cultivation systems has important implications both for the preservation of native biodiversity in coffee growing regions and for the control of agricultural pests such as the coffee berry borer.

Resumen en alemán

Kaffee-Agrarwälder können strukturell und floristisch komplex sein und können einen signifikanten Anteil von Arten aus biodiversen und gefährdeten tropischen montanen Waldbiotopen enthalten. Deshalb hat sich das Verständnis der Dynamik der tropischen Waldbiodiversität in Kaffee-Agrarökosystemen als ein zentrales Gebiet der Forschung in der tropischen Naturschutzbiologie entwickelt. Wir führten eine Morphospezies-Untersuchung an laubbewohnenden Käfern durch, die auf Kaffeepflanzen in vier Kaffeefarmen im südlichen Chiapas, Mexiko, gesammelt wurden, um die Variation in der Abundanz, im Artenreichtum und in der Artenzusammensetzung dieses megadiversen Taxons in Bezug zu setzen zum Kaffee-Anbausystem, zur raumzeitlichen Variation und zur Entfernung der Prädatoren. Wir konstruierten 32 Käfige um Vögel und Fledermäuse auf vier Farmen auszuschließen, von denen jeder 7-10 Kaffeepflanzen enthielt, und bildeten Paare mit naheliegenden, nicht eingeschlossenen Kontrollflächen. Wir sammelten dann in jeder Fläche über ein Jahr lang einmal in drei Monaten die Käfer mit einem D-Vac-Saugapparat von den Kaffeeblättern. Wir klassifizierten die 2662 gesammelten Käfer in 293 Morphospecies, die 42 Käferfamilien repräsentierten.

Extrapolations- und Intrapolationsanalysen ließen einen sehr hohen Grad des Artenreichtums erkennen, und die Artenakkumulationskurven verliefen ohne Plateau und nur mit einer leicht abfallenden Steigung. Wir fanden, dass Systeme mit wenig Schatten eine ähnliche oder höhere Käferabundanz, einen geringeren Artenreichtum, eine viel stärker homogene Artenzusammensetzung und eine höhere Abundanz von Schädlingen, die sich in Kaffeebohnen vermehren, aufweisen als Systeme mit viel Schatten. Wir fanden keine Auswirkung des Ausschlusses von fliegenden Vertebraten auf die Käferzusammensetzung auf den Kaffeeblättern. Wir fanden jedoch eine signifikante Veränderung in der Abundanz, im Artenreichtum und in der Artenzusammensetzung der Käfer auf den Kaffeeblättern mit der Jahreszeit und in den Untersuchungsgebieten. Die erhöhte Käferdiversität der schattigen Kaffeepflanzungen hat wichtige Implikationen sowohl für die Erhaltung der vorhandenen Biodiversität in Kaffeeanbauregionen, als auch für die Kontrolle von landwirtschaftlichen Schädlingen, wie dem Kaffeebohnenbohrer.