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94 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Mora, M. A.
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1.
Artículo
Biological attributes of diapausing and non-diapausing Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a parasitoid of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera, Tephritidae) fruit flies
Cruz Bustos, Jassmin (autora) ; Montoya, Pablo (autor) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (autora) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (autor) ; Liedo Fernández, Pablo (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Journal of Hymenoptera Research Número 78 (August 2020), páginas 41-56 ISSN: 1070-9428
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti), a solitary endoparasitoid native to the Neotropics, attacks eggs and early instar larvae of Anastrepha fruit flies, and can enter diapause under tropical and subtropical conditions. We aimed to test if biological attributes, such as size, flight ability, starvation resistance, longevity and fecundity of diapausing individuals differ from those of non-diapausing ones. Parasitoids were obtained from a laboratory colony reared on Anastrepha ludens (Loew) larvae. Parasitized host puparia were sorted in two cohorts according to their diapause condition. Developmental time from egg to adult ranged from 18 to 31 days in non-diapausing parasitoids, and 70 to 278 days for diapausing individuals. Pupal weight and adult measurements were higher in non-diapausing than in diapausing parasitoids. There were no differences in adult longevity, starvation resistance, and emergence between diapausing and non-diapausing wasps. Flight ability and fecundity rates were greater in the non-diapausing than in the diapause cohort. The proportion of female offspring was greater in the non-diapausing cohort (42.5%), whereas in the diapausing cohort the male offspring proportion was greater (62.4%). Both cohorts produced diapause offspring, but the non-diapausing cohort produced more (26.6%) than the diapausing one (9.1%). Maternal age had a significant effect on the proportion of diapause offspring: in 26 to 34 days old non-diapausing females, 78.9% of their offspring entered into diapause. These results confirmed that diapause affects the biological attributes of D. areolatus. The observed differences contribute to better understand the diapause influence on the colonization and rearing process of this species and its use as biocontrol agent.


2.
Artículo
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Population status, connectivity, and conservation action for the endangered Baird's tapir
Schank, Cody J. (autor) ; Cove, Michael V. (autor) ; Arima, Eugenio Y. (autor) ; Brandt, Laroy S. E. (autor) ; Brenes Mora, Esteban (autor) ; Carver, Andrew (autor) ; Diaz Pulido, Angelica (autora) ; Estrada, Nereyda (autora) ; Foster, Rebecca J. (autora) ; Godínez Gómez, Oscar (autor) ; Harmsen, Bart J. (autor) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (autor) ; Keitt, Timothy H. (autor) ; Kelly, Marcella J. (autora) ; Sáenz Méndez, Joel (autor) ; Mendoza Ramírez, Eduardo (autor) ; Meyer, Ninon France Victoire (autora) ; Pozo Montuy, Gilberto (autor) ; Naranjo Piñera, Eduardo Jorge (autor) (1963-) ; Nielsen, Clayton K. (autor) ; O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina (autora) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (autor) ; Rivero Hernández, Crysia Marina (autora) ; Carvajal Sánchez, José Pablo (autor) ; Singleton, Maggie (autora) ; Torre, J. Antonio de la (autor) ; Wood, Margot A. (autora) ; Young, Kenneth R. (autor) ; Miller, Jennifer A. (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Biological Conservation Volumen 245, número 108501 (May 2020), p. 1-12 ISSN: 0006-3207
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Although many large mammals currently face significant threats that could lead to their extinction, resources for conservation are often scarce, resulting in the need to develop efficient plans to prioritize conservation actions. We combined several methods in spatial ecology to identify the distribution of the endangered Baird's tapir across its range from southern Mexico to northern Colombia. Twenty-eight habitat patches covering 23% of the study area were identified, harboring potentially 62% or more of the total population for this flagship species. Roughly half of the total area is under some form of protection, while most of the remaining habitat (~70%) occurs in indigenous/local communities. The network with maximum connectivity created from these patches contains at least one complete break (in Mexico between Selva El Ocote and Selva Lacandona) even when considering the most generous dispersal scenario. The connectivity analysis also highlighted a probable break at the Panama Canal and high habitat fragmentation in Honduras. In light of these findings, we recommend the following actions to facilitate the conservation of Baird's tapir: 1) protect existing habitat by strengthening enforcement in areas already under protection, 2) work with indigenous territories to preserve and enforce their land rights, and help local communities maintain traditional practices; 3) re-establish connections between habitat patches that will allow for connectivity across the species' distribution; 4) conduct additional noninvasive surveys in patches with little or no species data; and 5) collect more telemetry and genetic data on the species to estimate home range size, dispersal capabilities, and meta-population structure.


3.
Artículo
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Precipitous decline of white-lipped peccary populations in Mesoamerica
Thornton, Daniel (autor) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (autor) ; Perera Romero, Lucy (autora) ; Radachowsky, Jeremy (autor) ; Hidalgo Mihart, Mircea Gabriel (autor) ; García Anleu, Rony (autor) ; McNab, Roan (autor) ; Mcloughlin, Lee (autor) ; Foster, Rebecca (autora) ; Harmsen, Bart (autor) ; Moreira Ramírez, José Fernando (autor) ; Diaz Santos, Fabricio (autor) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (autor) ; Salom Pérez, Roberto (autor) ; Meyer, Ninon France Victoire (autor) ; Castañeda, Franklin (autor) ; Elvir Valle, Fausto Antonio (autor) ; Ponce Santizo, Gabriela (autora) ; Amit, Ronit (autora) ; Arroyo Arce, Stephanny (autora) ; Thomson, Ian (autor) ; Moreno, Ricardo (autor) ; Schank, Cody J. (autor) ; Arroyo Gerala, Paulina (autora) ; Bárcenas, Horacio V. (autor) ; Brenes Mora, Esteban (autor) ; Calderón, Ana Patricia (autora) ; Cove, Michael V. (autor) ; Gómez Hoyos, Diego (autor) ; González Maya, José F. (autor) ; Guy, Danny (autor) ; Hernández Jiménez, Gerobuam (autor) ; Hofman, Maarten (autor) ; Kays, Roland (autor) ; King, Travis (autor) ; Martinez Menjivar, Marcio Arnoldo (autor) ; Maza, Javier de la (autor) ; León Pérez, Rodrigo (autor) ; Ramos, Víctor Hugo (autor) ; Rivero Hernández, Crysia Marina (autora) ; Romo Asunción, Sergio (autor) ; Juárez López, Rugieri (autor) ; Jesús de la Cruz, Alejandro (autor) ; De la Torre, Jesús Antonio (autor) ; Towns, Valeria (autora) ; Schipper, Jan (autor) ; Portillo Reyes, Hector Orlando (autor) ; Artavia, Adolfo (autor) ; Hernández Pérez, Edwin Luis Oswaldo (autor) ; Martínez, Wilber (autor) ; Urquhart, Gerald R. (autor) ; Quigley, Howard (autor) ; Pardo, Lain E. (autor) ; Sáenz, Joel C. (autor) ; Sanchez, Khiavett (autora) ; Polisar, John (autor) ;
Contenido en: Biological Conservation Vol. 242, no. 108410 (2020), p. 1-12 ISSN: 0006-3207
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Large mammalian herbivores are experiencing population reductions and range declines. However, we lack regional knowledge of population status for many herbivores, particularly in developing countries. Addressing this knowledge gap is key to implementing tailored conservation strategies forspecies whose population declines are highly variable across their range. White-lipped peccaries (Tayassupecari) are important ecosystem engineers in Neotropical forests and are highly sensitive to human disturbance. Despite maintaining a wide distributional range, white-lipped peccaries are experiencing substantial population declines in some portions of their range.We examined the regional distribution and population status of the species in Mesoamerica. We used a combination of techniques, including expert-based mapping and assessment of population status, and data-driven distribution modelling techniques to determine the status and range limits of white-lipped peccaries. Our analysis revealed declining and highly isolated populations of peccaries across Mesoamerica, with a range reduction of 87% from historic distribution and 63% from current IUCN range estimates for the region. White-lipped peccary distribution is affected by indices of human influence and forest cover, and more restricted than other sympatric large herbivores, with their largest populations confined to transboundary reserves. To conserve white-lipped peccaries in Mesoamerica, transboundary efforts will be needed that focus on both forest conservation and hunting management, increased cross-border coordination, and reconsideration of country and regional conservation priorities. Our methodology to detail regional white-lipped peccary status could be employed on other poorly-known large mammals.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates.

This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests
Rozendaal, Danaë M. A. (autora) ; Bongers, Frans (coaut.) ; Aide, T. Mitchell (coaut.) ; Álvarez Dávila, Esteban (autor) ; Ascarrunz, Nataly (autora) ; Balvanera, Patricia (autora) ; Becknell, Justin M. (coaut.) ; Bentos, Tony V. (coaut.) ; Brancalion, Pedro H. S. (autor) ; Cabral, George A. L. (coaut.) ; Calvo Rodríguez, Sofía (autora) ; Chave, Jerome (coaut.) ; César, Ricardo G. (autor) ; Chazdon, Robin L. (autor) ; Condit, Richard (autor) ; Dallinga, Jorn S. (coaut.) ; Almeida Cortez, Jarcilene Silva (coaut.) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (autor) ; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de (autor) ; Denslow, Julie S. (autor) ; Dent, Daisy H. (coaut.) ; DeWalt, Saara J. (autora) ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel (autor) ; Durán, Sandra M. (autora) ; Dutrieux, Loïc P. (coaut.) ; Espírito Santo, Mario M. (autor) ; Fandino, María C. (autora) ; Fernandes, G. Wilson (autor) ; Finegan, Bryan (coaut.) ; García, Hernando (autor) ; González Valdivia, Noel Antonio (autor) ; Granda Moser, Vanessa (autora) ; Hall, Jefferson S. (autor) ; Hernández Stefanoni, José Luis (autor) ; Hubbell, Stephen (autor) ; Jakovac, Catarina C. (autora) ; Hernández, Alma Johanna (autora) ; Junqueira, André B. (autor) ; Kennard, Deborah (coaut.) ; Larpin, Denis (autora) ; Letcher, Susan G. (autora) ; Licona, Juan Carlos (autor) ; Lebrija Trejos, Edwin (autor) ; Marín Spiotta, Erika (autora) ; Martínez Ramos, Miguel (autor) ; Massoca, Paulo E. S. (autor) ; Meave, Jorge A. (autor) ; Mesquita, Rita C. G. (autora) ; Mora Ardila, Francisco (autor) ; Müller, Sandra C. (autora) ; Muñoz, Rodrigo (autor) ; Nolasco de Oliveira Neto, Silvio (autor) ; Norden, Natalia (autora) ; Nunes, Yule R. F. (coaut.) ; Ochoa Gaona, Susana (autora) ; Ortiz Malavassi, Edgar (autor) ; Ostertag, Rebecca (autora) ; Peña Claros, Marielos (autor) ; Pérez García, Eduardo A. (autor) ; Piotto, Daniel (autor) ; Powers, Jennifer S. (autora) ; Aguilar Cano, José (autor) ; Rodríguez Buritica, Susana (autora) ; Rodríguez Velázquez, Jorge (autor) ; Romero Romero, Marco Antonio (autor) ; Ruíz, Jorge (autor) ; Sánchez Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo (autor) ; Silva de Almeida, Arlete (autor) ; Silver, Whendee L. (coaut.) ; Schwartz, Naomi B. (coaut.) ; Thomas, William Wayt (coaut.) ; Toledo, Marisol (autora) ; Uriarte, María (autora) ; Valadares de Sá Sampaio, Everardo (autor) ; van Breugel, Michiel (autor) ; Van Der Wal, Hans (coaut.) ; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio (autor) ; Veloso, María D. M. (autor) ; Vester, Hans F. M. (coaut.) ; Vicentini, Alberto (autor) ; Vieira, Ima C. G. (coaut.) ; Villa, Pedro (autor) ; Williamson, G. Bruce (autor) ; Zanini, Kátia J. (autora) ; Zimmerman, Jess (coaut.) ; Poorter, Lourens (coaut.) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Science Advances Vol. 5, no. 3, eaau3114 (March 2019), p. 1-10 ISSN: 2375-2548
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during secondary succession across gradients in environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbance in an unprecedented multisite analysis for the Neotropics. Secondary forests recover remarkably fast in species richness but slowly in species composition. Secondary forests take a median time of five decades to recover the species richness of old-growth forest (80% recovery after 20 years) based on rarefaction analysis. Full recovery of species composition takes centuries (only 34% recovery after 20 years). A dual strategy that maintains both old-growth forests and species-rich secondary forests is therefore crucial for biodiversity conservation in human-modified tropical landscapes.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Does Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) affect the survival and fecundity of the parasitoid Coptera haywardi (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae)?
Martínez Barrera, Olga Yaneth (autora) ; Toledo, Jorge (autor) ; Liedo Fernández, Pablo (autor) ; Gómez Ruiz, Jaime (autor) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (autor) ; Cancino Díaz, Jorge Luis (autor) ; Montoya Gerardo, Pablo Jesús (autor) ;
Contenido en: Environmental Entomology Vol. 48, no. 1 (February 2019), p. 156–162 ISSN: 0046-225X
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Resumen en español

Se estudió bajo condiciones de laboratorio el efecto del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin sobre el desarrollo de estados inmaduros, supervivencia y fecundidad de los adultos de Coptera haywardi (Oglobin). El hongo se aplicó como conidio seco sobre pupas de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitadas y en adultos de dos grupos de edad (1–4 d y 5–10 d). El hongo no ocasionó efectos negativos en el desarrollo de los estados inmaduros, dado que en la emergencia de adultos no hubo diferencias con el testigo. Ambos sexos y grupos de edades de los adultos fueron susceptibles al hongo. Los machos tuvieron una vida más corta que las hembras incluso en los individuos no tratados. La infección del hongo incrementó la mortalidad, pero no hubo efecto sobre la fecundidad durante los primeros 18 días de vida adulta, ya que la fecundidad neta fue de 26.7 y 26.3 parasitoides por hembra tratada y no tratada, respectivamente. Nuestros resultados sugieren que dada la baja susceptibilidad de la pupa parasitada y el no efecto sobre la fecundidad neta durante los primeros 18 días de vida adulta, es posible desarrollar estrategias de manejo usando estos dos enemigos naturales en el control biológico de A. obliqua.

Resumen en inglés

The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin on the development of immature stages, and survival and fecundity of Coptera haywardi (Oglobin) adults was studied under laboratory conditions. The fungus was applied as dry conidia on parasitized pupae of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and on parasitoid adults of two different age groups (1- to 4-d-old, and 5- to 10-d-old). The fungus caused no negative effects on the development of the immature stages, since there were no differences on the emergence of adults compared with the untreated control. Adults were susceptible to the fungus on both sexes and age groups. Males showed shorter lifespan than females, even in untreated individuals. Despite the increased adult mortality produced by the fungus there was no effect on fecundity during first 18 d of adult life, as the net fecundity was 26.7 and 26.3 parasitoids per female treated and untreated, respectively. Our results suggest that, given the low susceptibility of parasitized pupae and the no effect on fecundity during the first 18 d of adult life, it is possible to develop management strategies using these two natural enemies in the biological control against A. obliqua.


7.
Artículo - Nota científica con arbitraje
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Effect of spinosad combined with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under laboratory conditions
Morales, Arcadio D. (autor) ; Castillo Vera, Alfredo (autor) ; Cisneros Hernández, Juan (autor) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (autor) ; Gómez Ruiz, Jaime (autor) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Entomological Science Vol. 54, no. 1 (January 2019), p. 106-109 ISSN: 0749-8004
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8.
Artículo
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Efficacy of selected insecticides against Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in mango orchards
Lucero, Fidel ; Infante, Francisco (coaut.) ; Pérez López, Elsa Jeanneth (coaut.) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (coaut.) ; Esquinca Avilés, Héctor Armando (coaut.) ; Castillo Vera, Alfredo (coaut.) ; Ortíz, José A. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Entomological Science Vol. 54, no. 2 (April 2019), p. 94-97 ISSN: 1366-638X
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9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Fine-tuned intruder discrimination favors ant parasitoidism
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (autora) ; Rocha, Franklin H. (autor) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (autor) ; Hénaut, Yann (autor) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: PLoS One Vol. 14, no. 1, art. no. e0210739 (January 2019), p. 1-21 ISSN: 0187-6376
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

diversity of arthropods (myrmecophiles) thrives within ant nests, many of them unmolested though some, such as the specialized Eucharitidae parasitoids, may cause direct damage to their hosts. Ants are known to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates, but whether they recognize the strength of a threat and their capacity to adjust their behavior accordingly have not been fully explored. We aimed to determine whether Ectatomma tuberculatum ants exhibited specific behavioral responses to potential or actual intruders posing different threats to the host colony and to contribute to an understanding of complex ant-eucharitid interactions. Behavioral responses differed significantly according to intruder type. Ants evicted intruders that represented a threat to the colony’s health (dead ants) or were not suitable as prey items (filter paper, eucharitid parasitoid wasps, non myrmecophilous adult weevils), but killed potential prey (weevil larvae, termites). The timing of detection was in accordance with the nature and size of the intruder: corpses (a potential source of contamination) were detected faster than any other intruder and transported to the refuse piles within 15 min. The structure and complexity of behavioral sequences differed among those intruders that were discarded. Workers not only recognized and discriminated between several distinct intruders but also adjusted their behavior to the type of intruder encountered.

Our results confirm the previously documented recognition capabilities of E. tuberculatum workers and reveal a very fine-tuned intruder discrimination response. Colony- level prophylactic and hygienic behavioral responses through effective removal of inedible intruders appears to be the most general and flexible form of defense in ants against a diverse array of intruders. However, this generalized response to both potentially lethal and harmless intruders might have driven the evolution of ant-eucharitid interactions, opening a window for parasitoid attack and allowing adult parasitoid wasps to quickly leave the natal nest unharmed.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) es un hongo comúnmente utilizado en el control de nematodos y ha sido reportado como patógeno de insectos. Sin embargo, son poco conocidos los efectos que causa sobre los insectos. Aquí se evaluó la patogenicidad de nueve aislamientos y la virulencia y efectos subletales de dos aislamientos en adultos de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Los ensayos demostraron que los nueve aislamientos fueron patogénicos, y causaron porcentajes de mortalidad que oscilaron entre 28.8 y 52.4% y un TL50 de 18 d o más. La cepa CFFSUR-A53 fue más virulenta que la cepa CFFSUR-A60, con valores de CL50 de 7.62 × 106 y 5.2 × 109 conidios por mL, respectivamente. Ambos aislamientos redujeron en 65 y 37% la esperanza de vida de las moscas, disminuyeron en 78 y 36% la fecundidad de las hembras, y en 31.4 y 18.5% la eclosión de los huevos, respectivamente.

Resumen en inglés

Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) is a fungus commonly used for controlling nematodes, and also has been reported as an insect pathogen. However, little is known about its effects on insects. Here, the pathogenicity of 9 isolates and the virulence and sublethal effects of 2 isolates were evaluated to control adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the 9 isolates were pathogenic, with mortality percentages ranging from 28.8 to 52.4% and LT50 values were 18 d or more. The strain CFFSUR-A53 was more virulent than CFFSUR-A60, with LC50 values of 7.62 × 106 and 5.2 × 109 conidia per mL, respectively. The isolates reduced the life expectancy of the flies by 65 and 37%, decreased fecundity by 78 and 36%, and reduced egg hatching by 31.4 and 18.5%, respectively.