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11 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina
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1.
Artículo
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Population status, connectivity, and conservation action for the endangered Baird's tapir
Schank, Cody J. (autor) ; Cove, Michael V. (autor) ; Arima, Eugenio Y. (autor) ; Brandt, Laroy S. E. (autor) ; Brenes Mora, Esteban (autor) ; Carver, Andrew (autor) ; Diaz Pulido, Angelica (autora) ; Estrada, Nereyda (autora) ; Foster, Rebecca J. (autora) ; Godínez Gómez, Oscar (autor) ; Harmsen, Bart J. (autor) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (autor) ; Keitt, Timothy H. (autor) ; Kelly, Marcella J. (autora) ; Sáenz Méndez, Joel (autor) ; Mendoza Ramírez, Eduardo (autor) ; Meyer, Ninon France Victoire (autora) ; Pozo Montuy, Gilberto (autor) ; Naranjo Piñera, Eduardo Jorge (autor) (1963-) ; Nielsen, Clayton K. (autor) ; O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina (autora) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (autor) ; Rivero Hernández, Crysia Marina (autora) ; Carvajal Sánchez, José Pablo (autor) ; Singleton, Maggie (autora) ; Torre, J. Antonio de la (autor) ; Wood, Margot A. (autora) ; Young, Kenneth R. (autor) ; Miller, Jennifer A. (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Biological Conservation Volumen 245, número 108501 (May 2020), p. 1-12 ISSN: 0006-3207
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Although many large mammals currently face significant threats that could lead to their extinction, resources for conservation are often scarce, resulting in the need to develop efficient plans to prioritize conservation actions. We combined several methods in spatial ecology to identify the distribution of the endangered Baird's tapir across its range from southern Mexico to northern Colombia. Twenty-eight habitat patches covering 23% of the study area were identified, harboring potentially 62% or more of the total population for this flagship species. Roughly half of the total area is under some form of protection, while most of the remaining habitat (~70%) occurs in indigenous/local communities. The network with maximum connectivity created from these patches contains at least one complete break (in Mexico between Selva El Ocote and Selva Lacandona) even when considering the most generous dispersal scenario. The connectivity analysis also highlighted a probable break at the Panama Canal and high habitat fragmentation in Honduras. In light of these findings, we recommend the following actions to facilitate the conservation of Baird's tapir: 1) protect existing habitat by strengthening enforcement in areas already under protection, 2) work with indigenous territories to preserve and enforce their land rights, and help local communities maintain traditional practices; 3) re-establish connections between habitat patches that will allow for connectivity across the species' distribution; 4) conduct additional noninvasive surveys in patches with little or no species data; and 5) collect more telemetry and genetic data on the species to estimate home range size, dispersal capabilities, and meta-population structure.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates.

This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Using a novel model approach to assess the distribution and conservation status of the endangered Baird’s tapir
Schank, Cody J. ; Cove, Michael V. (coaut.) ; Kelly, Marcella J. (coaut.) ; Mendoza Ramírez, Eduardo (coaut.) ; O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina (coaut.) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (coaut.) ; Meyer, Ninon France Victoire (coaut.) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (coaut.) ; González Maya, José F. (coaut.) ; Lizcano, Diego J. (coaut.) ; Moreno, Ricardo (coaut.) ; Dobbins, Michael T. (coaut.) ; Montalvo, Víctor (coaut.) ; Sáenz Bolaños, Carolina (coaut.) ; Carillo Jiménez, Eduardo (coaut.) ; Estrada, Nereyda (coaut.) ; Cruz Díaz, Juan Carlos (coaut.) ; Sáenz, Joel (coaut.) ; Spínola, Manuel (coaut.) ; Carver, Andrew (coaut.) ; Fort, Jessica (coaut.) ; Nielsen, Clayton K. (coaut.) ; Botello, Francisco (coaut.) ; Pozo Montuy, Gilberto (coaut.) ; Rivero Hernández, Crysia Marina (coaut.) ; De la Torre, José Antonio (coaut.) ; Brenes Mora, Esteban (coaut.) ; Godínez Gómez, Oscar (coaut.) ; Wood, Margot A. (coaut.) ; Gilbert, Jessica (coaut.) ; Miller, Jennifer A. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Diversity and Distributions Vol. 23, no. 12 (December 2017), p. 1459–1471 ISSN: 1809-127X
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Aim: We test a new species distribution modelling (SDM) framework, while comparing results to more common distribution modelling techniques. This framework allows for the combination of presence-only (PO) and presence-absence (PA) data and accounts for imperfect detection and spatial bias in presence data. The new framework tested here is based on a Poisson point process model, which allows for predictions of population size. We compared these estimates to those provided by experts on the species. Species and Location: Presence data on Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) throughout its range from southern México to northern Colombia were used in this research, primarily from the years 2000 to 2016. Methods: Four SDM frameworks are compared as follows: (1) Maxent, (2) a presence-only (PO) SDM based on a Poisson point process model (PPM), (3) a presence-absence (PA) SDM also based on a PPM and (4) an Integrated framework which combines the previous two models. Model averaging was used to produce a single set of coefficient estimates and predictive maps for each model framework. A hotspot analysis (Gi*) was used to identify habitat cores from the predicted intensity of the Integrated model framework. Results: Important variables to model the distribution of Baird’s tapir included land cover, human pressure and topography. Accounting for spatial bias in the presence data affected which variables were important in the model. Maxent and the Integrated model produced predictive maps with similar patterns and were considered to be more in agreement with expert knowledge compared to the PO and PA models.

Main conclusions: Total abundance as predicted by the model was higher than expert opinion on the species, but local density estimates from our model were similar to available independent assessments. We suggest that these results warrant further validation and testing through collection of independent test data, development of more precise predictor layers and improvements to the model framework.


Resumen en español

La vida en grupos en ungulados ha evolucionado principalmente en especies que viven en áreas abiertas, tales como sabanas y pastizales, mientras que solamente algunas especies de ungulados que viven en bosques forman grupos, y estos tienden a ser pequeños. Por esta razón, el pecarí de labios blancos (Tayassu pecari), un ungulado Neotropical clasificado como Vulnerable por la UICN, representa una fenómeno social único, ya que vive en grandes grupos cohesivos, a pesar de habitar bosques tropicales densos. Se han observado grandes variaciones en los tamaños de grupo en su distribución, con reportes de manadas que varían de menos de 10 a más de 300 individuos. En este estudio examinamos los factores que pueden estar causando esta variación, incluyendo variables ecológicas y antropogénicas. Hicimos una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura y usamos nuestros datos originales para compilar información de tamaños de grupo a lo largo de su rango. Construimos modelos estadísticos para cuantificar generalizaciones para tamaños de grupos distinguiendo datos de áreas con alta presión humana (i.e. cacería) y áreas que no han recibido presión humana importante en por al menos 20 años. Encontramos que los tamaños de grupos son afectados por una combinación de la distancia al asentamiento humano más cercano y la cantidad de lluvia y su estacionalidad. Los resultados de los sitios con poca presión humana indican que los grupos más grandes se encuentran en áreas con mayor precipitación. Nuestros resultados contribuyen a entender porque los tamaños de grupo varían en diferentes ambientes que están sujetos a diferentes condiciones ecológicas y humanas. La información de estas relaciones es clave para avanzar en nuestro conocimiento de las estrategias socio-ecológicas de especies que viven en grupos.

Resumen en inglés

Group living among ungulates has evolved mainly in species living in open habitats, such as grasslands and savannas, whereas in the forest, few ungulate species form groups and these tend to be small. Therefore, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a Neotropical ungulate listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN, represents an almost unique social occurrence as it lives in large and cohesive groups, yet it inhabits dense tropical forests. Large variations in group sizes have been observed throughout the species range, with reports of herds with less than 10 to around 300 individuals. We examined factors that might cause variation in group size in white-lipped peccary, including ecological and anthropogenic variables. We conducted an extensive literature review and used our original data to compile information on white-lipped peccary's group size across its range. We built models to quantitate generalizations for group sizes distinguishing data from areas with high human influence, and areas that have not been significantly disturbed by humans for at least the last 20 years. We found that white-lipped peccary's group size for all sites was most strongly predicted by a combination of the distances to the nearest human settlement and rainfall and its seasonality. Results from the undisturbed sites indicated that group size is positively influenced by rainfall. Our results contribute to understand why group size varies in different environments that are subjected to different ecological and human conditions. Information on these relationships is a key to advance our understanding of the socio-ecological strategies of animal species living in groups.


5.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
Large terrestrial mammals
Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel ; O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina (coaut.) ; Chávez Tovar, Cuauhtémoc (coaut.) ; Serio Silva, Juan Carlos (coaut.) ; Castillo Vela, Guillermo Edgardo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biodiversity and conservation of the Yucatan Peninsula New York : Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2015 p. 227-255 ISBN:978-3-319-06528-1
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
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SIBE San Cristóbal
SAA008098 (Disponible)
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The Yucatan Peninsula contains some of the largest tracts of tropical forest in Mexico. These forests host six species of ungulates, including the largest and last survivor of the Neotropical megafauna, the Central American Tapir; one of the rarest ungulate species in Mexico, the White-lipped Peccary; and one endemic species of deer, the Gray Brocket. The Yucatan Peninsula is also home to another peccary species, two more deer species, five felid species, including the jaguar and the puma, and three species of primates. Most of these species face serious conservation threats, as their habitat is increasingly fragmented and because they are among the preferred targets of subsistence hunters. Some of these species require large areas of habitat in good conservation status to fulfill their basic needs for survival. Several research projects undertaken in the past years, and some currently being carried out, have addressed a lack of basic ecological information in this region. Among the ungulates, ecological research has focused on tapir, white-lipped peccary and the three deer species. For felids, scientific attention has been focused on the two largest species, the jaguar and puma; and all three primate species have received scientific attention recently, although more studies have focused on the black howler monkey. This chapter is an attempt to summarize what is currently known about these, the largest mammal species of the Yucatan Peninsula, and to point out gaps in the existing information. Such information is absolutely necessary to design conservation and management plans for these highly interesting and endangered species.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Landscape connectivity is considered a priority for ecosystem conservation because it may mitigate the synergistic effects of climate change and habitat loss. Climate change predictions suggest changes in precipitation regimes, which will affect the availability of water resources, with potential consequences for landscape connectivity. The Greater Calakmul Region of the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) has experienced a 16% decrease in precipitation over the last 50 years, which we hypothesise has affected water resource connectivity. We used a network model of connectivity, for three large endangered species (Baird’s tapir, white-lipped peccary and jaguar), to assess the effect of drought on waterhole availability and connectivity in a forested landscape inside and adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. We used reported travel distances and home ranges for our species to establish movement distances in our model. Specifically, we compared the effects of 10 drought scenarios on the number of waterholes (nodes) and the subsequent changes in network structure and node importance. Our analysis revealed that drought dramatically influenced spatial structure and potential connectivity of the network. Our results show that waterhole connectivity and suitable habitat (area surrounding waterholes) is lost faster inside than outside the reserve for all three study species, an outcome that may drive them outside the reserve boundaries. These results emphasize the need to assess how the variability in the availability of seasonal water resource may affect the viability of animal populations under current climate change inside and outside protected areas.


7.
Tesis - Maestría
Abundancia relativa, selección de hábitat y distribución potencial del tapir centroamericano en la Península de Yucatán: estudio a escala local y regional / Natalia Lucia Carrillo Reyna
Carrillo Reyna, Natalia Lucia ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (directora) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (asesor) ; Calmé, Sophie (asesora) ; O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina (asesora) ; Nickl Alcocer, Elsa Cristina (asesora) ;
Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2013
Clasificación: TE/599.727097264 / C3
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Índice | Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la abundancia relativa y la selección de hábitat de Tapirus bairdii en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Calakmul y en la Reserva Estatal de Balam Kú en el estado de Campeche, así como evaluar la distribución potencial de la especie en la península de Yucatán y determinar las variables climáticas que influencian dicha distribución. Para ello, se establecieron 30 km de transectos que se recorrieron durante los meses de abril a julio del 2012, donde se registró el índice de abundancia relativa (IAR) a través del registro de huellas del tapir y variables del hábitat como disponibilidad de alimento y tipos de vegetación. El IAR se reforzó con la instalación de cámaras-trampa en nueve aguadas. Para conocer la distribución potencial del tapir en la península de Yucatán, se aplicó un Modelo de Máxima Entropía (Maxent). Los resultados sugieren que la Reserva de Balam Kú tiene menos recursos alimenticios que la Reserva de Calakmul; sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en el IAR entre ambas reservas y tampoco se registró una preferencia del tapir por el tipo de vegetación. Maxent predijo un área de distribución potencial extra a la distribución actual de 1,997,621 ha. De acuerdo a la influencia de las variables climáticas, la mayor probabilidad de encontrar tapires en la península de Yucatán se da en lugares donde llueve mucho y las temperaturas no son muy altas. Este trabajo aporta conocimiento sobre la abundancia del tapir en la Reserva de Calakmul y la Reserva de Balam Kú, zonas donde existen pocos estudios al respecto. Sugiere, además, que los tapires pueden distribuirse en zonas más secas. Adicionalmente, se identifican zonas de distribución potencial donde se requieren estudios para confirmar su presencia y la posibilidad de integrarlas a planes de conservación.

Índice

Resumen
Introducción
Antecedentes
El tapir en las Reservas de Calakmul y Balam Kú
La escala espacial en el estudio de hábitat
Biología del tapir centroamericano
Área de estudio
Materiales y métodos
Transectos
Abundancia relativa de huellas
Cámaras-trampa
Abundancia relativa de foto-capturas
Caracterización del hábitat
Modelo de distribución potencial


8.
Artículo - Nota científica con arbitraje
Effective dispersal of large seeds by Baird's tapir: a large-scale field experiment
O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina ; Calmé, Sophie (coaut.) ; Sengupta, Raja (coaut.) ; González, Andrew (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Tropical Ecology Vol. 28, no. 1 (January 2012), p. 119-122 ISSN: 0266-4674
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Even though the full process of seed dispersal is the combination of movement mode and distance, deposition, successful germination and survival (Nathan 2006, Westcott et al. 2005), relatively few studies have documented the role of mammals as facilitators of germination and survival (Paine & Harms 2009). In particular, the effectiveness of large terrestrial mammals (>50 kg) as effective dispersers of large seeds is poorly known, but has been linked to the treatment of the seeds in their digestive system, the deposition of viable seeds in nutrient-rich environments (faeces) and favourable sites. Other aspects related to long-distance movements, defecation patterns and home-range size are frequently cited as factors that favour the deposition of seeds far from parent trees, which is expected to reduce predation and intraspecific competition, and enhance fitness (Schupp et al. 2002). We addressed these issues through a large-scale field experiment.


9.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula
Las aguadas de Calakmul: reservorios de vida silvestre y de la riqueza natural de México [Recurso electrónico]
Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel ; O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina (coaut.) ; Andrade, María (coaut.) ; Padilla, Angélica (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biodiversitas No. 93 (noviembre-diciembre 2010), p. 2-6 ISSN: 1870-1760
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Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula
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10.
- Artículo de divulgación
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula, SIBE-Villahermosa
Interacciones en peligro: el caso del tapir y el zapote
O´Farril Cruz, Elsa Georgina ; Calmé, Sophie (coaut.) ; González, Andrew (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: ECOfronteras No. 31 (agosto 2007), p. 18-20
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SIBE Tapachula
44366-20 (Disponible)
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SIBE Villahermosa
44366-50 (Disponible)
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Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal, SIBE-Tapachula, SIBE-Villahermosa
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