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2 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Osborn, Karen J.
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Since its founding, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) has pioneered unique capabilities for accessing the deep ocean and its inhabitants through focused peer relationships between scientists and engineers. This focus has enabled breakthroughs in our understanding of life in the sea, leading to fundamental advances in describing the biology and the ecology of open-ocean and deep-sea animals. David Packard’s founding principle was the application of technological advances to studying the deep ocean, in part because he recognized the critical importance of this habitat in a global context. Among other fields, MBARI’s science has benefited from applying novel methodologies in molecular biology and genetics, imaging systems, and in situ observations. These technologies have allowed MBARI’s bioluminescence and biodiversity laboratory and worldwide collaborators to address centuries-old questions related to the biodiversity, behavior, and bio-optical properties of organisms living in the water column, from the surface into the deep sea. Many of the most interesting of these phenomena are in the midwater domain—the vast region of ocean between the sunlit surface waters and the deep seafloor.


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Pteropods are a widespread group of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs and are uniquely suitable for study of long-term evolutionary processes in the open ocean because they are the only living metazoan plankton with a good fossil record. Pteropods have been proposed as bioindicators to monitor the impacts of ocean acidification and in consequence have attracted considerable research interest, however, a robust evolutionary framework for the group is still lacking. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and examine the evolutionary history of pteropods based on combined analyses of Cytochrome Oxidase I, 28S, and 18S ribosomal rRNA sequences and a molecular clock calibrated using fossils and the estimated timing of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. Euthecosomes with uncoiled shells were monophyletic with Creseis as the earliest diverging lineage, estimated at 41–38 million years ago (mya). The coiled euthecosomes (Limacina, Heliconoides, Thielea) were not monophyletic contrary to the accepted morphology-based taxonomy; however, due to their high rate heterogeneity no firm conclusions can be drawn. We found strong support for monophyly of most euthecosome genera, but Clio appeared as a polyphyletic group, and Diacavolinia grouped within Cavolinia, making the latter genus paraphyletic. The highest evolutionary rates were observed in Heliconoides inflatus and Limacina bulimoides for both 28S and 18S partitions.

Using a fossil-calibrated phylogeny that sets the first occurrence of coiled eutheco- somes at 79–66 mya, we estimate that uncoiled euthecosomes evolved 51–42 mya and that most extant uncoiled genera originated 40–15 mya. These findings are congruent with a molecular clock analysis using the Isthmus of Panama formation as an independent calibra- tion. Although not all phylogenetic relationships could be resolved based on three molecular markers, this study provides a useful resource to study pteropod diversity and provides gen- eral insight into the processes that generate andmaintain their diversity in the open ocean.