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37 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Perfecto, Ivette
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1.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
Alianza de Mujeres en Agroecología (AMA-AWA): fortaleciendo vínculos entre académicas para el escalamiento de la agroecología
Morales, H. ; Zuluaga Sánchez, Gloria Patricia (coaut.) ; González Santiago, María Virginia (coaut.) ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ; Papuccio de Vidal, Silvia (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroecología en femenino. Reflexiones a partir de nuestras experiencias La Paz, Bolivia : Sociedad Científica Latinoamericana de Agroecología, 2018 página 15-33 ISBN:978-99974-0-310-0
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2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
The Azteca chess experience: learning how to share concepts of ecological complexity with small coffee farmers
García Barrios, Luis Enrique ; Cruz Morales, Juana (coaut.) ; Vandermeer, John (coaut.) ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Ecology and Society Vol. 22, no. 2, Art. 37 (Jun 2017), p. 1-20 ISSN: 1708-3087
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Small-scale coffee farmers understand certain complex ecological processes, and successfully navigate some of the challenges emerging from the ecological complexity on their farms. It is generally thought that scientific knowledge is able to complement farmers’ knowledge. However, for this collaboration to be fruitful, the gap between the knowledge frameworks of both farmers and scientists will need to be closed. We report on the learning results of 14 workshops held in Chiapas, Mexico during 2015 in which 117 small-scale coffee farmers of all genders (30% women) and ages who had little schooling were exposed by researchers to a natural history narrative, a multispecies network representation, a board game, and a series of graphical quizzes, all related to a nine-species complex ecological network with potential for autonomous control of the ongoing and devastating coffee rust epidemic that was affecting them. Farmers’ retention and understanding of direct and indirect bilateral interactions among organisms was assessed with different methods to elucidate the effect of adding Azteca Chess gaming sessions to a detailed and very graphical lecture. Evaluation methods that were better adapted to farmers’ conditions improved learning scores and showed statistically significant age effect (players older than 40 had lower retention scores) and gaming effect (lower retention of interactions included in the lecture but not in the game). The combination of lecture and game sessions helped participants better understand cascades of trait-mediated interactions.

Participants’ debriefings confirmed qualitatively that they learned that beneficial organisms and interactions occur on their farms, and that gaming was enjoyable, motivating, and critical to grasp complex interactions. Many of the farmers concluded that the outcome of these interactions is not unique and not always in favor of rust control but is context dependent. Many concluded that there are feasible things they can do on their farms, derived from what they learned, to favor potential autonomous pest control.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Azteca chess: gamifying a complex ecological process of autonomous pest control in shade coffee
García Barrios, Luis Enrique ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ; Vandermeer, John (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment Vol. 232 (September 2016), p. 190–198 ISSN: 0167-8809
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Science-based board games can help people grasp the ecological complexity of autonomous pest control (APC) in the shade-coffee agroecosystem. Azteca Chess is a board-game that captures in a stylized way the fascinating natural history and the dynamics of a complex network of direct, indirect and cascading trait-mediated interactions among five species of arthropods dwelling in shade coffee bushes (a coffee-scale, an ant, an adult and larval lady beetle, a parasitoid wasp and a parasitoid fly). In exchange for honey-dew, the Azteca ant protects scale-insects that help control the devastating coffee-rust disease. The ant repels the adult ladybeetle but inadvertently protects its larvae, which devour scales to local extinction. The head-hunting fly paralyzes Azteca and opens a window of opportunity for the adult beetle to oviposit under scales, but also for a parasitoid wasp to kill the beetle larvae. Interactions can cascade or not towards APC. Experimental test-driving shows Azteca Chess meets good modeling and game-design standards and is proved statistically to enhance understanding and application of relevant complex ecological processes.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Response of ground spiders to local and landscape factors in a Mexican coffee landscape
Marín, Linda (coaut.) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (coaut.) ; De la Mora, Aldo (coaut.) ; Ibarra Núñez, Guillermo (coaut.) ; Tryban, Stephen (coaut.) ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment Vol. 222, (April 2016), p. 80–92 ISSN: 0167-8809
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In order to secure the provisioning of ecosystem services, detailed analyses of the relationship between biodiversity and agriculture are required. We studied ground spider diversity in a 52 km² coffee landscape in Southern Mexico, and asked the following questions. (1) How do coffee management variables and local microhabitat variables change among coffee agroecosystems and forest sites and across seasons? (2) How does coffee management affect ground spider richness, abundance, and composition? (3) How do local and landscape factors in fl uence ground spider richness and abundance? and (4) What role does seasonality play in shaping ground spider communities? During the dry season and rainy season of 2011 we sampled ground active spiders using pitfall traps from high and low shade coffee agroecosystems (27 sites) and from forest (10 sites). On local scale, for each 20 m × 20 m site we measured leaf litter variables, invertebrate dry biomass, slope of the terrain and elevation, and management variables such as canopy cover, shade tree richness, shade tree density and proportion of Inga trees. At the landscape scale, we measured distance to the nearest forest and percent of forest in buffers of 500 m. Results show that agricultural management had a strong influence on spider richness and abundance. Across seasons, local spider richness and abundance had or tended to have higher values in the low-shade coffee. Spider richness and abundance were strongly in fl uenced by physiographic and local predictors and weakly by landscape predictors. Furthermore, predictors varied with seasonality, with slope of the terrain being the strongest predictor in the dry season and canopy cover being the strongest predictor in the rainy season. We conclude that ground active spiders in this coffee landscape are greatly in fl uenced by coffee management and local characteristics.


5.
Libro
Coffee agroecology: a new approach to unferstanding agricultural biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainable development / Ivette Perfecto and John Vandermeer
Perfecto, Ivette ; Vandermeer, John (coaut.) ;
London : Routledge , 2015
Clasificación: 338.17373 / P4
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal , Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010015515 (Disponible) , ECO010017871 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 2
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013449 (Disponible) , ECO020013225 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 2
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Based on principles of the conservation and optimization of biodiversity and of equity and sustainability, this book focuses on the ecology of the coffee agroecosystem as a model for a sustainable agricultural ecosystem. It draws on the authors’ own research conducted over the last twenty years as well as incorporating the vast literature that has been generated on coffee agroecosystems from around the world. The book uses an integrated approach that weaves together various lines of research to understand the ecology of a very diverse tropical agroforestry system. Key concepts explored include biodiversity patterns, metapopulation dynamics and ecological networks. These are all set in a socioeconomic and political framework which relates them to the realities of farmers’ livelihoods. The authors provide a novel synthesis that will generate new understanding and can be applied to other examples of sustainable agriculture and food production. This synthesis also explains the ecosystem services provided by the approach, including the economic, fair trade and political aspects surrounding this all-important global commodity.

Índice

List of figures
List of tables
Preface
1 Wake up and smell the coffee (or a tale of two farms)
Introduction
Example 1. the farm as a component of industrial eriterpriie
Example 2: the farm as part ofriature
The philosophical/methodo1ogical approach of this book
The coffee agroecosystem as a model system
2 A biodiverse cup of coffee: coffee agroforests as repositories of tropical biodiversity
Background to biodiversity
Taxonomic biases
Geographic bias
The agricultural connection
Not all agriculture is the same
Historical roots of agricultura1 transformation and biodiversity loss
Biodiversity on the farm
Intensification and biodiveriity: coffee as a model system
The intensification gradient in coffee
Costa Rira, coffee intensification and biodiversity: a case study
Three decader of biodiversity research in coffee agoecosystems
Pioneering biodiversity research in the coffee agroecosystem
Biodiversity loss and coffee intensification: what causes the pattern?
Balancing ecological and economic variables: optimality under constan conditions
3 The coffee agroecosystem as a high-quality matrix
The coffee system and biodiversity debates
Bringing dynamics into the picture
Foundational arguments
The ubiquitousness of extinctions
Interfragment migrations
The dynamics of extinctions and migrations in fragmented habitats: a theoretical approach
Landscape structure and interfragment dynamics
The basic elements of the matrix
A meanjield approach to propagating sinks and ephemeral sources
Conclusion
4 Space matters: large-scale spatial ecology within the coffee agroecosystem
What do the spots of the jaguar and the distribution of ants on a coffee plantation have in common?
Spatial patterns, power functions and the Turing process in the ant Azteca
Spatial patterns: Turing on the farm
Pattern and powerfunctions
Implications of spatial patterns for system dynamics

Source-sink populations and metapopulations
Coccus viridis: a metapopulation or a source-sink population?
The great transformation
Population density
The idea of regime change
Changes in spatial patterns of Azteca
Regime change and the assumed Turing suppressor
Alternatives for the suppressive force: food web elements
The Effect of a Fungal Disease on Spatial Patterns
The Effect of a Myrmecophilous Beetle on Spatial Patterns
Summary
5 Who's eating whom and how: trophic and trait-mediated cascades in the coffee agroecosystem
Birds: from icons of biodiversity to functional components of agroecosystems
Omnivory and its place in food web structure
Theoretical framework: omnivory and its relatives
Theoretical framework: coupled oscillators
Herbivores and their arthropod and vertebrate predators
Teasing out the trophir structure in the coffee agroecosystem
Trait-mediated effects in food webs
What is trait mediation?
Conceptualizing trait-mediated effects as fundamental non-linearities
The complicated system of trait-mediated interactions associated with the Azteca ant
Trait-mediated indirect effects as coupling agents in food webs
6 Interactions across spatial scales
Introduction
Small-scale patterns in the ant community
Ecological competition and spatial pattern: the theory
Natural history and spatial pattern: the special case of ants
The major players in small-scale structuring
The nature of the small-scale spatial pattern
Interaction of the two spatial patterns and consequences for biological control
Ants as predators of coffee pests
The dialectics of predation and spatial structure
7 Biodiversity and ecosystem services
Introduction: the nature of ecosystem services
Pest management
Our approach
Vertebrate insectivores
Ants as predators
Azteca and the pest control complex
The Green Coffee Scale and the Myrmecophylous Beetle
The Coffee Rust Disease
The Coffee Leaf Miner

The Pest Control Complex I
Connecting Azteca With the Other ant Predators
The Pest Control Complex II
Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change
Pollination Services
Bees and Coffee Yield
Interactions between Pollinators and Other Organisms
Conclusion
8 Coffee, the agroecological landscape and farmers' livelihoods
The interpenetration of farmers' and biodiversity issues
The historical trajectory of biodiversity conservation in tropical lands
The key biodiversity versus agriculture debates (SLOSS, FT, LSLS)
The key farming debates: the ideology of "intensification"
The matrix quality model
The importance of extinction in the matrix model
What is in the matrix?
Connecting the matrix to broader socioeconomic structures
An alternative framework: the New Rurality
The convergence of food production with nature conservation
9 Syndromes of coffee production: embracing sustainability
Syndromes of production as ecological regimes
Dynamic background for syndromes
The theory
Educating the intuition about Q
The case of coffee syndromes
Self-generating dynamics of agricultural syndromes
Biodiversity and function, conservation and matrix quality: the ecology and political ecology of coffee syndromes
Referentes Index


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
A positive association between ants and spiders and potential mechanisms driving the pattern
Marín, Linda ; Jackson, Doug (coaut.) ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Oikos Vol. 124, no. 8 (August 2015), p. 1078–1088 ISSN: 0030-1299
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Biotic interactions play a central role in determining species distribution and abundance. Some ants act as keystone species affecting the distribution and abundance of other species, including spiders. In coffee plantations Pocobletus sp. spiders are significantly more abundant in coffee plants patrolled by the aggressive arboreal ants Azteca sericeasur. However, it is unknown if other ant species influence this ant–spider association, how these associates are spatially distributed, and which are the potential drivers of this association. Here we examine the influence of ants, Azteca sericeasur and Pheidole synanthropica, and coffee branch density on Pocobletus abundance in a coffee farm in southern Mexico. We also analyze the spatial distribution and abundance of Pocobletus sp., in relation to the spatial distribution of A. sericeasur and P. synanthropica. Finally, we examine prey availability and enemy-free space as potential mechanisms underlying this ant–spider association. Results show that Pocobletus abundance is positively correlated with coffee branch density and A. sericeasur and P. synanthropica presence. Furthermore, the spatial distribution analysis shows that in 20  20 m plots Pocobletus is strongly associated to A. sericeasur, but not to P. synanthropica. Results show that insect abundance in both Pocobletus’s webs and sticky traps was significantly higher in the presence of A. sericeasur whereas the abundance of the predators of Pocobletus decreased in A. sericeasur’s presence; suggesting positive direct and indirect effects of A. sericeasur on Pocobletus. Overall, this study highlights the strong influence of ants and plant characteristics on the abundance and spatial distribution of spiders as well their indirect effects on other taxa.


7.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Effects of agricultural intensification on the assemblage of leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) in a coffee landscape in Chiapas, Mexico
Williams Guillén, Kimberly ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biotropica Vol. 42, no. 5 (September 2010), p. 605-613 ISSN: 0006-3606
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
49945-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The agricultural matrix surrounding forested areas serves critical functions as dispersal corridors and alternate habitat for wildlife. Agricultural intensification, however, can reduce the conservation value of these areas. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on bat assemblages, we studied the abundance and diversity of leaf-nosed bats (family: Phyllostomidae) in southwestern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by shade coffee agroforestry. During 2104 mist-net hour (MNH), we captured 3167 bats of 27 phyllostomid species. Total species richness in each land-use type varied from 24 species in forest fragments to 22 species in commercial shade polycultures. Although the cumulative observed species richness showed little change in response to management intensity, the number of bats captured per MNH declined significantly in the more intensively managed (i.e., low-shade monocultures) plantations. Intensively managed coffee plantations had lower phyllostomid diversity and species similarity, and had lower proportions of nectarivorous and animalivorous bats. Among frugivores, the proportion of large (>25 g) frugivores captured increased with management intensity. Recapture frequency was significantly higher than expected in forest fragments, and lower than expected in more intensively managed coffee. Our results suggest that less intensively managed coffee agroforests can serve as valuable feeding and commuting areas for most leaf-nosed bats, and that maintaining forest fragments in agricultural landscapes contributes to bat diversity. Declines in populations of gleaning insectivores, however, could compromise natural suppression of insect pests in these agricultural areas.



9.
Libro
Nature's matrix: linking agriculture, conservation and food sovereignty / Ivette Perfecto, John Vandermeer and Angus Wright
Perfecto, Ivette ; Vandermeer, John (coaut.) ; Wright, Angus (coaut.) ;
London, England : Earthscan Publications Ltd. , 2009
Clasificación: 333.9516 / P44
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal , Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010017594 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020011487 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Landscapes are frequently seen as fragments of natural habitat surrounded by a "sea" of agriculture. But recent ecological theory shows that the nature of these fragments is not nearly as important for conservation as is the nature of the matrix of agriculture that surrounds them. Local extinctions from conservation fragments are inevitable and must be balanced by migrations if massive extinction is to be avoided. High migration rates only occur in what the authors refer to as "high quality" matrices, which are created by alternative agroecological techniques, as opposed to the industrial monocultural model of agriculture. The authors, including SNRE Professor Ivette Perfecto, argue that the only way to promote such high quality matrices is to work with rural social movements. Their ideas are at odds with the major trends of some of the large conservation organizations that emphasize targeted land purchases of protected areas. They argue that recent advances in ecological research make such a general approach anachronistic and call, rather, for solidarity with the small farmers around the world who are currently struggling to attain food sovereignty. Nature's Matrix proposes a radically new approach to the conservation of biodiversity based on recent advances in the science of ecology plus political realities, particularly in the world's tropical regions.

Índice

List of figures and boxes
Preface
Acknowledgements
List of abbreviations
1 Matrix Matters: An Overview
The Birds of New York and the Coffee of Mesoamerica
The Argument
Towards a New Paradigm
Notes
2 The Ecological Argument
The Fundamental Patterns of Biodiversity
Why the Biodiversity Patterns Matter
The Ecological Background to Biodiversity Studies
Ecological Theory and Political Realities
Notes
3 The Agricultural Matrix
The Development of Agriculture
The Industrial Model
The Alternative Movement
Natural Systems Agriculture
Biodiversity as it Relates to Agro-ecology
Notes
4 The Broad Social Context for Understanding Biodiversity, Conservation and Agriculture
The Importance of the Deep Historical Context
Difficult Socio-political Issues in Practical Conservation Work
Sources of Systematic Bias in Conservation Practice
The Brazilian Amazon: A Case Study in Conservation, Livelihood and Social Movements
The Dependency Trap in Biodiversity Conservation
Grass Roots Social Movements
Notes
5 Coffee, Cacao and Food Crops: Case Studies of Agriculture and Biodiversity
Coffee and the Technical Side of Biodiversity
Cacao and Biodiversity: The Historical Development of a Biodiversity Landscape
The Production of Food and the Biodiversity Connection
Agricultural Potential in the Matrix
Notes
6 The New Paradigm
Recapping the Ecological Argument
Recapping the Agricultural Argument
Recapping the Social Movement Argument
Putting the Three Arguments Together
Notes
References
Index


10.
Artículo
Simplification of a coffee foliage-dwelling beetle community under low-shade management
Gordon, Caleb E. ; McGill, Brian J. (coaut.) ; Ibarra Núñez, Guillermo (coaut.) ; Greenberg, Russell (coaut.) ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Basic and Applied Ecology Vol. 10, no. 3 (May 2009), p. 246-254 ISSN: 1439-1791
PDF
Resumen en: Inglés | Alemán |
Resumen en inglés

Coffee agroforests may be structurally and floristically complex and may contain a significant fraction of species from biodiverse and threatened tropical montane forest biotas; hence, understanding the dynamics of tropical forest biodiversity in coffee agroecosystems has emerged as a centrally important area of tropical conservation biology research. We conducted a morphospecies analysis on foliage-dwelling beetles collected from coffee plants on four coffee farms in southern Chiapas, Mexico, to characterize variation in the abundance, species richness, and species composition of this mega-diverse taxon in relation to coffee cultivation system, spatio-temporal variation, and predator removal. We constructed thirty-two cages to exclude birds and bats on four farms, each enclosing 7–10 coffee plants and paired with an adjacent uncaged control plot, and then collected beetles from coffee foliage with D-Vac aspirators in each plot once every 3 months for one year.

We classified the 2662 beetles collected into 293 morphospecies, representing 42 families of beetles. Extrapolation and interpolation analyses revealed a very high level of species richness, with no plateau and only a slight leveling trend observed in our species accumulation curves. We found that low-shade systems contain equal or higher beetle abundance, lower species richness, more highly homogenized species composition, and higher abundance of coffee berry borer pests on coffee foliage than do high-shade systems. We observed no effect of flying vertebrate exclusion on the coffee foliage beetle assemblage, but did find significant variation in abundance, species richness, and species composition of coffee foliage beetles across seasons and study sites. The increased beetle biodiversity of high-shade coffee cultivation systems has important implications both for the preservation of native biodiversity in coffee growing regions and for the control of agricultural pests such as the coffee berry borer.

Resumen en alemán

Kaffee-Agrarwälder können strukturell und floristisch komplex sein und können einen signifikanten Anteil von Arten aus biodiversen und gefährdeten tropischen montanen Waldbiotopen enthalten. Deshalb hat sich das Verständnis der Dynamik der tropischen Waldbiodiversität in Kaffee-Agrarökosystemen als ein zentrales Gebiet der Forschung in der tropischen Naturschutzbiologie entwickelt. Wir führten eine Morphospezies-Untersuchung an laubbewohnenden Käfern durch, die auf Kaffeepflanzen in vier Kaffeefarmen im südlichen Chiapas, Mexiko, gesammelt wurden, um die Variation in der Abundanz, im Artenreichtum und in der Artenzusammensetzung dieses megadiversen Taxons in Bezug zu setzen zum Kaffee-Anbausystem, zur raumzeitlichen Variation und zur Entfernung der Prädatoren. Wir konstruierten 32 Käfige um Vögel und Fledermäuse auf vier Farmen auszuschließen, von denen jeder 7-10 Kaffeepflanzen enthielt, und bildeten Paare mit naheliegenden, nicht eingeschlossenen Kontrollflächen. Wir sammelten dann in jeder Fläche über ein Jahr lang einmal in drei Monaten die Käfer mit einem D-Vac-Saugapparat von den Kaffeeblättern. Wir klassifizierten die 2662 gesammelten Käfer in 293 Morphospecies, die 42 Käferfamilien repräsentierten.

Extrapolations- und Intrapolationsanalysen ließen einen sehr hohen Grad des Artenreichtums erkennen, und die Artenakkumulationskurven verliefen ohne Plateau und nur mit einer leicht abfallenden Steigung. Wir fanden, dass Systeme mit wenig Schatten eine ähnliche oder höhere Käferabundanz, einen geringeren Artenreichtum, eine viel stärker homogene Artenzusammensetzung und eine höhere Abundanz von Schädlingen, die sich in Kaffeebohnen vermehren, aufweisen als Systeme mit viel Schatten. Wir fanden keine Auswirkung des Ausschlusses von fliegenden Vertebraten auf die Käferzusammensetzung auf den Kaffeeblättern. Wir fanden jedoch eine signifikante Veränderung in der Abundanz, im Artenreichtum und in der Artenzusammensetzung der Käfer auf den Kaffeeblättern mit der Jahreszeit und in den Untersuchungsgebieten. Die erhöhte Käferdiversität der schattigen Kaffeepflanzungen hat wichtige Implikationen sowohl für die Erhaltung der vorhandenen Biodiversität in Kaffeeanbauregionen, als auch für die Kontrolle von landwirtschaftlichen Schädlingen, wie dem Kaffeebohnenbohrer.