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2 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Restrepo, B. I.
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

We investigated the distribution of comorbidities among adult tuberculosis (TB) patients in Chiapas, the poorest Mexican state, with a high presence of indigenous population, and acorridor for migrants from Latin America. Secondary analysis on 5508 new adult TB patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 revealed that the most prevalent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (DM; 19.1%) and undernutrition (14.4%). The prevalence of DM in these TB patients was significantly higher among middle aged (41–64 years) compared witholder adults (>65 years) (38.6% vs. 23.2%; P< 0.0001). The prevalence of undernutrition was lower among those with DM, and higher in communities with high indigenous presence. Immigrants only comprised 2% of all TB cases, but were more likely to have unfavourable TB treatment outcomes (treatment failure, death and default) when compared with those born in Chiapas (29.5% vs. 11.1%; P< 0.05). Unfavourable TB outcomes were also more prevalent among the TB patients with undernutrition, HIV or older age, but not DM (P< 0.05). Our study in Chiapas illustrates the challenges of other regions worldwide where social (e.g. indigenous origin, poverty, migration) and host factors (DM, undernutrition, HIV, older age) are associated with TB. Further understanding of these critical factors will guide local policy makers and health providers to improve TB management.

Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The objective of this study was to determine methane (CH4) yield by crossbred cattle fed tropical grasses. A total of 66 individual determinations of dry matter intake (DMI) and 42 determinations of organic matter intake (OMI) in relation to the production of enteric CH4 were carried out. Methane measurements in heifers were performed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Heifers (Bos indicus×B. taurus) with an average live weight of 288.5 ± 55.7 kg fed tropical grasses as basal ration were used. An average intake of 8.22 and 7.80 kg of DM and OM per day were recorded. An average enteric CH4 production of 88.0 g/heifer/day was determined. It was found that DMI and OMI in relation to CH4 production have a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.73 and 0.70 respectively, to predict CH4 emissions. It is concluded that the methane yield (18.07 g CH4/kg DM intake) predicted by regressing DM intake against methane production represents a reliable value to be used for the estimation of enteric CH4 inventories for cattle grazing in the tropical regions of Mexico.