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5 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Salánki, Tamás
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1.
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Biogenic transport of glyphosate in the presence of LDPE microplastics: a mesocosm experiment
Yang, Xiaomei ; Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza (coaut.) ; Bemani, Akram (coaut.) ; Gertsen, Hennie (coaut.) ; Salánki, Tamás (coaut.) ; Guo, Xuetao (coaut.) ; Fu, Haimei (coaut.) ; Xue, Sha (coaut.) ; Ritsema, Coen (coaut.) ; Geissen Geissen, Violette (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Environmental Pollution Vol. 245 (February 2019), p. 829-835 ISSN: 1873-6424
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Resumen en: Inglés |
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The accumulation of plastic debris and herbicide residues has become a huge challenge and poses many potential risks to environmental health and soil quality. In the present study, we investigated the transport of glyphosate and its main metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) via earthworms in the presence of different concentrations of light density polyethylene microplastics in the litter layer during a 14-day mesocosm experiment. The results showed earthworm gallery weight was negatively affected by the combination of glyphosate and microplastics. Glyphosate and AMPA concentrated in the first centimetre of the top soil layer and the downward transport of glyphosate and AMPA was only detected in the earthworm burrows, ranging from 0.04 to 4.25 μg g−¹ for glyphosate and from 0.01 (less than limit of detection) to 0.76 μg g−¹ for AMPA. The transport rate of glyphosate (including AMPA) from the litter layer into earthworm burrows ranged from 6.6 ± 4.6% to 18.3 ± 2.4%, depending on synergetic effects of microplastics and glyphosate application. The findings imply that earthworm activities strongly influence pollutant movement into the soil, which potentially affects soil ecosystems. Further studies focused on the fate of pollutants in the microenvironment of earthworm burrows are needed.


2.
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Decay of low-density polyethylene by bacteria extracted from earthworm's guts: a potential for soil restoration
Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza (autor) ; Thapa, Binita (coaut.) ; Yang, Xiaomei (coaut.) ; Gertsen, Hennie (coaut.) ; Salánki, Tamás (coaut.) ; Geissen Geissen, Violette (coaut.) ; Garbeva, Paolina (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Science of the Total Environment Vol. 624 (May 2018), p. 753-757 ISSN: 0048-9697
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Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is the most abundant source of microplastic pollution worldwide. A recent study found that LDPE decay was increased and the size of the plastic was decreased after passing through the gut of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta). Here, we investigated the involvement of earthworm gut bacteria in the microplastic decay. The bacteria isolated from the earthworm's gut were Gram-positive, belonging to phylum Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. These bacteria were used in a short-term microcosm experiment performed with gamma-sterilized soil with or without LDPE microplastics (MP). We observed that the LDPE-MP particle size was significantly reduced in the presence of bacteria. In addition, the volatile profiles of the treatments were compared and clear differences were detected. Several volatile compounds such as octadecane, eicosane, docosane and tricosane were measured only in the treatments containing both bacteria and LDPE-MP, indicating that these long-chain alkanes are byproducts of bacterial LDPE-MP decay.


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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Although plastic pollution happens globally, the micro- (<5 mm) and macroplastic (5–150 mm) transfer of plastic to terrestrial species relevant to human consumption has not been examined. We provide first-time evidence for micro- and macroplastic transfer from soil to chickens in traditional Mayan home gardens in Southeast Mexico where waste mismanagement is common. We assessed micro- and macroplastic in soil, earthworm casts, chicken feces, crops and gizzards (used for human consumption). Microplastic concentrations increased from soil (0.87 ± 1.9 particles g−¹), to earthworm casts (14.8 ± 28.8 particles g−¹), to chicken feces (129.8 ± 82.3 particles g−¹). Chicken gizzards contained 10.2 ± 13.8 microplastic particles, while no microplastic was found in crops. An average of 45.82 ± 42.6 macroplastic particles were found per gizzard and 11 ± 15.3 macroplastic particles per crop, with 1–10 mm particles being significantly more abundant per gizzard (31.8 ± 27.27 particles) compared to the crop (1 ± 2.2 particles). The data show that micro- and macroplastic are capable of entering terrestrial food webs.


4.
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Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris
Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza (coaut.) ; Gertsen, Hennie (coaut.) ; Gooren, Harm (coaut.) ; Peters, Piet (coaut.) ; Salánki, Tamás (coaut.) ; van der Ploeg, Martine (coaut.) ; Besseling, Ellen (coaut.) ; Koelmans, Albert A. (coaut.) ; Geissen Geissen, Violette (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Environmental Pollution Vol. 220, part A (January 2017), p. 523–531 ISSN: 0269-7491
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Resumen en: Inglés |
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Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows. Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics.

The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg-¹) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport of plastic-associated organic contaminants in soil.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en inglés

Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm) in litter at concentrations of 7, 28, 45, and 60% dry weight, percentages that, after bioturbation, translate to 0.2 to 1.2% in bulk soil. Mortality after 60 days was higher at 28, 45, and 60% of microplastics in the litter than at 7% w/w and in the control (0%). Growth rate was significantly reduced at 28, 45, and 60% w/w microplastics, compared to the 7% and control treatments. Due to the digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of <50 μm in the original litter, 90 percent of the microplastics in the casts was <50 μm in all treatments, which suggests size-selective egestion by the earthworms. These concentration-transport and size-selection mechanisms may have important implications for fate and risk of microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.