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Large scale patterns of abundance and distribution of parasites in Mexican bumblebees
Gallot Lavallée, Marie ; Schmid Hempel, Regula (coaut.) ; Vandame, Rémy (coaut.) ; Vergar, Carlos H. (coaut.) ; Schmid Hempel, Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology Vol. 133 (January 2016), p. 73–82 ISSN: 0022-2011
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Resumen en: Inglés |
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Bumblebees are highly valued for their pollination services in natural ecosystems as well as for agricultural crops. These precious pollinators are known to be declining worldwide, and one major factor contributing to this decline are infections by parasites. Knowledge about parasites in wild bumblebee populations is thus of paramount importance for conservation purposes. We here report the geographical distribution of Crithidia and Nosema, two common parasites of bumblebees, in a yet poorly investigated country: Mexico. Based on sequence divergence of the Cytochrome b and Glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate deshydrogenase (gGPDAH) genes, we discovered the presence of a new Crithidia species, which is mainly distributed in the southern half of the country. It is placed by Bayesian inference as a sister species to C. bombi. We suggest the name Crithidia mexicana for this newly discovered organism. A population of C. expoeki was encountered concentrated on the flanks of the dormant volcanic mountain, Iztaccihuatl, and microsatellite data showed evidence of a bottleneck in this population. This study is the first to provide a large-scale insight into the health status of endemic bumblebees in Mexico, based on a large sample size (n = 3,285 bees examined) over a variety of host species and habitats.

Evolutionary parasitology: the integrated study of infections, immunology, ecology, and genetics / Paul Schmid-Hempel
Schmid Hempel, Paul ;
Oxford, England : Oxford University Press , 2011
Clasificación: 574.5249 / S2
Bibliotecas: Chetumal
SIBE Chetumal
ECO030007606 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Parasites are everywhere, affecting almost every aspect imaginable in the life of their hosts including physiology, behaviour, life histories and, by implication, the structure of entire ecosystems. To cope with these constant threats, host immune defences have evolved to become one of the most sophisticated natural systems known. Despite this, parasites have found their own ways to overcome defences and exploit their hosts. Consequently, hosts and parasites have been constantlyforced to adapt to one another; sometimes changes have occurred very rapidly, whilst others have taken eons. This evolutionary arms race has had far-reaching consequences for the biology of both parties. Over the last decade, principles from evolution and ecology have increasingly been applied to the fields of parasitology and immunology in an attempt to foster a common conceptual framework that uses a priori principles to unravel the diversity of host-parasite phenomena. This has led to the emergence of some of the most important, highly successful and inter-disciplinary areas of modern biology - the as yet separated fields of ecological immunology and evolutionary studies of parasitism. Thisnovel book provides the first comprehensive overview of the many facets of host-parasite interactions, from the molecular bases to adaptive strategies and their ecological and evolutionary consequences. It is informed by the very latest progress in the field. No longer do we view well-adaptedparasites as becoming ultimately harmless. To the contrary, parasite virulence is determined both by the processes that lead to harm and by the evolutionary costs and benefits of this damage. Similarly, parasitism is no longer regarded as being inevitably deleterious; rather it can be a major factor maintaining diversity in populations and communities, selecting for beautiful plumages of birds, or even making us more social.

Evolutionary Parasitology integrates material from a wide range of topics including immunology, genetics, sexual selection, population ecology, behavioural ecology, and evolutionary biology. Graduate students and researchers from different fields and with different backgrounds will find this book a valuable reference to meet their interests and to expand their insights into neighbouring disciplines.