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15 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier
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1.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Carbon storage in a silvopastoral system compared to that in a deciduous dry forest in Michoacán, Mexico
López Santiago, José Germain (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Díaz Echeverria, Víctor Francisco (autor) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Martínez Zurimendi, Pablo (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ; Chay Canul, Alfonso Juventino (autor) ;
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Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 93, no. 1 (Fabruary 2019), p. 199-211 ISSN: 0167-4366
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Livestock production in the tropics contributes significantly to global greenhouse gas emissions, so better understanding the role of silvopastoral systems (SPS) in mitigating such emissions is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amounts of carbon stored in the biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) components of a Leucaena leucocephala cum Panicum maximum silvopasture system (SPS) compared to a deciduous tropical forest (DTF), and a grass monoculture (GM) in Michoacán, Mexico. The above- and below-ground biomass were measured by destructive sampling in the SPS and GM, while previously reported allometric equations were used to quantify biomass stocks in the DTF. The SOC concentration up to 30 cm was determined by dry combustion method. The SPS and DTF contained more aboveground biomass (41.8 ± 3.30 and 36.7 ± 5.72 Mg DM ha−¹) compared to GM (8.0 ± 0.76 Mg DM ha−¹). However, the SPS exhibited greater belowground biomass (16.4 ± 1.95 Mg DM ha−¹) than the other systems. The DTF had the highest SOC fraction in all depth classes with values ranging from 3.1 ± 0.07% to 3.7 ± 0.06%, respectively, compared to the other systems. The total carbon stocks in SPS was similar to DTF (120.7 ± 10.97 vs. 120.9 ± 6.38 Mg C ha−¹) but was significantly higher than GM (78.2 ± 8.41 Mg C ha−¹). In dry tropical conditions, SPS displays enormous potential for increasing biomass and soil carbon stocks compared to the GM and can thus be used as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in livestock production systems.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Carbon stocks in biomass and soils of woody species fodder banks in the dry tropics of Mexico
Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Petit Aldana, Judith (autora) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (autor) ; Ward, Sheila Emily (autora) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Soil Use and Management Vol. 34, no. 4 (December 2018), p. 500-509 ISSN: 2007-4476
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Understanding carbon (C) dynamics of the silvopastoral systems can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the C concentration and storage in above- and belowground tree biomass as well as in the soils of fodder banks of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia (Lam.) or a combination of the both species. The above- and belowground biomass was quantified by the destructive sampling. We also obtained samples from soil pits, 20-cm deep, and determined bulk density and organic carbon concentration. The mixed species banks produced more foliage dry matter (DM) (6.3 t DM/ha) than the pure fodder banks. The total living biomass stocks ranged from 31.5 to 33.5 t DM/ha and did not differ between fodder bank types. The tissue C concentration was greater in stems (45.1%) and roots (44.9%) compared to the foliage component (43.4%). Total soil carbon (TSC) in the 5–10 cm layer was greater in the fodder banks with legumes alone than in mixed species banks (35.7 vs. 30.8 t C/ha). TSC storage in the 15–20 cm layer was greater in the nonlegume fodder bank than in the legume fodder bank (39.8 vs. 34.5 t C/ha). However, to the 0–20 cm layer, TSC was similar for all fodder banks. Thus, the three types of fodder banks had similar total C storage in plant biomass and soil, but the production of foliage biomass was higher in the mixed species banks.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The objective of this study was to determine methane (CH4) yield by crossbred cattle fed tropical grasses. A total of 66 individual determinations of dry matter intake (DMI) and 42 determinations of organic matter intake (OMI) in relation to the production of enteric CH4 were carried out. Methane measurements in heifers were performed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Heifers (Bos indicus×B. taurus) with an average live weight of 288.5 ± 55.7 kg fed tropical grasses as basal ration were used. An average intake of 8.22 and 7.80 kg of DM and OM per day were recorded. An average enteric CH4 production of 88.0 g/heifer/day was determined. It was found that DMI and OMI in relation to CH4 production have a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.73 and 0.70 respectively, to predict CH4 emissions. It is concluded that the methane yield (18.07 g CH4/kg DM intake) predicted by regressing DM intake against methane production represents a reliable value to be used for the estimation of enteric CH4 inventories for cattle grazing in the tropical regions of Mexico.


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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Los rumiantes contribuyen significativamente a las emisiones de metano en las regiones tropicales. Sin embargo, hay pocas instalaciones disponibles para la medición in vivo de estas emisiones. Por lo anterior, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir el diseño, construcción y operación de cámaras de respiración para la medición in vivo de la producción de metano de bovinos en México. En la construcción se utilizaron materiales disponibles localmente. Las paredes, el techo y las puertas se construyeron de paneles térmicos con dos ventanas de acrílico, en ambos lados, en la parte delantera. Las cámaras tienen un volumen de aire de 9.97 m³. El aire de la cámara se extrae con una bomba de flujo de masas a una velocidad de 500 L/min. El metano mezclado en las muestras de aire se cuantificó con un analizador de infrarrojo. Las cámaras funcionan bajo presión negativa de -500 Pa. La temperatura y humedad relativa se mantiene a 23 °C y 55 %, respectivamente. El funcionamiento de las cámaras se evaluó utilizando ganado Bos indicus, de la raza Nelore, alimentado con pasto de Taiwán (Pennisetum purpureum) y un concentrado con 18 % de proteína cruda; y se realizaron mediciones con las cámaras durante 23 h. La producción de metano fue de 173.2 L/día, mientras que el factor de emisión fue de 17.48 L de metano/kg de materia seca consumida. Se concluye que las cámaras de respiración pueden medir con precisión la producción de metano en ganado Nelore consumiendo raciones tropicales.

Resumen en inglés

Ruminant animals contribute significantly to methane emissions in tropical regions. Nonetheless, there are few facilities available in those regions of the world for in vivo measurement of methane production in cattle. The aim of the present work was to describe the design, construction and operation of respiration chambers for in vivo measurement of methane production in cattle in Mexico. Locally available materials were used in the construction. Walls, roof and doors were constructed of thermic panels with two windows of acrylic at the front so the animal can be observed at all times. Chambers have an air volume of 9.97 m³. Air is drawn from the chamber at a rate of 500 L/min by the effect of mass action flow generators. Methane was measured in air samples with an infrared analyzer. Chambers operate under a slight negative pressure of around -500 Pa. Air temperature inside the chambers is kept at 23 °C with an air conditioner, while relative humidity is maintained at 55 % with a dehumidifier. Functioning of the chambers was evaluated in Bos indicus, Nelore cattle fed Taiwan grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and a concentrate (18 % crude protein), and measurements were made during runs of 23 h duration. Methane production was on average 173.2 L per day, while the emission factor was 17.48 L methane per kilogram o dry matter consumed. It concludes that this respiration facility is capable of measuring methane production accurately in cattle fed tropical rations.


5.
Artículo
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of supplementing ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum in a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass on feed intake, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and protozoa and methane (CH 4) production by hair sheep. Four male sheep (Pelibuey × Katahdin) with a mean live weight of 27.0 kg (SD ± 0.5) were supplemented with 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 kg of dry matter (DM) of E. cyclocarpum pods daily; equivalent to 0.00, 4.35, 8.70, and 13.05 g of crude saponins, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), and molar proportions of propionic acid increased linearly (P <0.05) as pods of E. cyclocarpum in the ration were increased. Higher intakes of DM and OM were found when lambs were fed 0.45 kg DM per day of E. cyclocarpum , and the highest proportion of propionic acid (0.21 and 0.22, respectively) was obtained with 0.15 and 0.30 kg of DM per lamb of E. cyclocarpum, while apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and molar proportion of acetic acid were reduced (P <0.05). Rumen CH 4 production decreased (P < 0.05) when 0.30 and 0.45 kg of DM/lamb/day of E. cyclocarpum were fed (21.8 and 25.3 L CH 4/lamb/day, respectively). These results suggest that to improve the feeding of sheep fed tropical grass, it is advisable to supplement the basal ration with up to 0.30 kg DM of E. cyclocarpum pods.


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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de los taninos condensados (TC) contenidos en el follaje de arbóreas tropicales, sobre el consumo de materia seca y orgánica (CMS, CMO), la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS) y emisiones de metano (CH4) en ovinos alimentados con una ración basal de pasto Pennisetum purpureum. Cuatro ovinos de pelo con un peso vivo promedio de 21.6±2.0 kg se sometieron a cuatro tratamientos en un diseño cuadro latino 4 x 4. Los tratamientos fueron P. purpureum (PP), P. purpureum + Havardia albicans (PPHA), P. purpureum + Bursera simaruba (PPBS), y P. purpureum + Acacia pennatula (PPAP); el follaje de las arbóreas se incluyó en 300 g/kg de MS de la ración. El consumo, la digestibilidad y la producción total de metano entérico se midieron por periodos de 23 h. La producción de metano se midió en cajas de respiración de circuito abierto. El consumo y digestibilidad de la MS y materia orgánica (MO) entre los tratamientos PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP no se afectaron por la inclusión de los follajes de arbóreas en la ración (P>0.05). Cuando la producción de CH4 se expresó en L/kg del CMS, CMO o consumo de fibra detergente neutro los resultados fueron similares entre tratamientos (PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP) (P>0.05). Se concluye que los TC contenidos en el follaje de Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula y Bursera simaruba no afectaron las emisiones de CH4 al nivel de incorporación de 30 % de la MS; tampoco se observaron efectos en el CMS, CMO, DMS y concentración molar de ácidos grasos volátiles.

Resumen en inglés

The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing in the foliage’s on dry matter intake and organic matter (DMI and OMI), dry matter digestibility (DMD) and methane (CH4) emissions in sheep fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass. Four hair sheep with an average live weight of 21.6±2.0 kg were allotted to four treatments in a 4 x 4 latin square design. The treatments were P. purpureum (PP), P. purpureum + Havardia albicans (PPHA), P. purpureum +Bursera simaruba (PPBS), and purpureum + Acacia pennatula (PPAP), the foliage of tree was included 300 g/kg DM of the ration. Intake, digestibility of DM and total methane emissions (L/d) were recorded for periods of 23 h when sheep were housed in open-circuit respiration head boxes. Intake and digestibility of the dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) between treatments PP, PPHA, PPBS and PPAP, were not affected by inclusion the foliage’s of trees in the ration (P>0.05). When the production of methane was expressed in L/kg of DMI, OMI or neutral detergent fiber intake, the results were similar between treatments (PP, PPHA, PPBS, PPAP) (P>0.05). It is concluded that CT contained in the foliage of Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula y Bursera simaruba not affected the CH4 emissions an levels of incorporation as 30 % of ration DM, since there are no effects on DMI, OMI, DMD and molar concentration of volatile fatty acids.


7.
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Energy utilization, nitrogen balance and microbial protein supply in cattle fed Pennisetum purpureum and condensed tannins
Piñeiro Vázquez, Ángel Trinidad (coaut.) ; Canul Solís, Jorge Rodolfo (coaut.) ; Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (coaut.) ; Chay Canul, Alfonso Juventino (coaut.) ; Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier (coaut.) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (coaut.) ; Aguilar Pérez, Carlos Fernando (coaut.) ; Ku Vera, Juan Carlos (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Vol. 101, no. 1 (February 2017), p. 159-169 ISSN: 0931-2439
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, dry matter digestibility, nitrogen balance, supply of microbial protein to the small intestine and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass. Five heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with an average live weight of 295 ± 19 kg were allotted to five treatments consisting of increasing levels of CT (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% CT/kg DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (p > 0.05) between treatments containing 0, 1, 2 and 3% of CT/kg DM and it was reduced (p < 0.05) to 4% CT (5.71 kg DM/day) with respect to that observed with 0% CT (6.65 kg DM/day). Nitrogen balance, purine derivatives excretion in urine, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency of synthesis of microbial nitrogen in the rumen were not affected (p > 0.05) by the increase in the levels of condensed tannins in the ration. Energy loss as CH4 was on average 2.7% of the gross energy consumed daily. Metabolizable energy intake was 49.06 MJ/day in cattle fed low-quality tropical grass with a DMI of 6.27 kg/day. It is concluded that concentrations of CT between 2 and 3% of DM of ration reduced energy loss as CH4 by 31.3% and 47.6%, respectively, without affecting intakes of dry and organic matter; however, digestibilities of dry and organic matter are negatively affected.


8.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The aim of this study was to assess the e ff ect of the inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala on dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum and housed in metabolic crates. Five crossbred ( Bos taurus × Bos indicus ) heifers (BW: 295 ± 6 kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and fi ve increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The intake of DM was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments, with an average of 7.03 kg of DM/ day. While the crude protein intake (CPI) linearly increased (P < 0.001) with the inclusion of L. leucocephala , the DM digestibility (average 492.3 g/kg DM) and OM digestibility (average 501.6 g/kg OM) were not a ff ected (P > 0.05) by the incorporation of L. leucocephala into the ration. The N intake and excretion in the urine increased linearly (P = 0.0001, 0.0001) as the level of L. leucocephala in the ration increased. In addition, methane energy loss as a percentage of that in the control ration, was of only 61% (P = 0.0005) with 80% incorporation of L. leucocephala in the ration. We concluded that the inclusion of L. leucocephala has the capacity to reduce energy losses in the form of methane emissions. Nevertheless, the energy losses in the urine increased with the addition of L. leucocephala to the ration, with the optimal levels of incorporation in the ration fl uctuating between 20 and 40% of the ration DM, which had no e ff ects on the dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI) or the digestibility of dry matter (DMD).


9.
Capítulo de libro - Memoria en extenso sin arbitraje
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Efecto del fruto molido de Enterolobium cyclocarpum Jacq Griseb. sobre la población de protozoarios y la producción de metano en el rumen de ovinos de pelo
Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier ; Albores Moreno, Samuel (coaut.) ; Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (coaut.) ; Aguilar Pérez, Carlos Fernando (coaut.) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ; Magaña Monforte, Juan (coaut.) ; Ku Vera, Juan Carlos (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Primera conferencia de gases de efecto invernadero en sistemas agropecuarios de Latinoamérica Osorno, Chile : Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias : Ministerio de Agricultura, 2014 No. 54, p. 105-160 ISSN: 0717-4810
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10.
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Medición de la producción de metano entérico en toros Bos indicus para cuantificar los gases de efecto invernadero en rumiantes
Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (autor) ; Piñeiro Vázquez, Ángel Trinidad (autor) ; Canul Solís, Jorge Rodolfo (autor) ; Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier (autor) ; Aguilar Pérez, Carlos Fernando (autor) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Ku Vera, Juan Carlos (autor) ;
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Contenido en: Estado actual del conocimiento del ciclo del carbono y sus interacciones en México: síntesis a 2014 / Fernando Paz Pellat y Julio C. Wong González, editores Texcoco, Estado de México, México : Programa Mexicano del Carbono : Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Mérida : Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco, 2015 páginas 583-589 ISBN:978-607-96490-2-9
Bibliotecas: Villahermosa
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
8476-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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Resumen en español

El objetivo del trabajo fue cuantificar las emisiones de metano (CH4) entérico de bovinos Bos indicus confinados en cámaras de respiración, como un método para cuantificar el inventario de CH4 en rumiantes. Se usaron dos bovinos Nelore de 305 y 350 kg de peso vivo que se alojaron por tres días consecutivos en dos cámaras de respiración; con temperatura de 23 °C, 55% de humedad relativa y - 275 Pa de presión barométrica. Los animales consumieron pasto Pennisetum purpureum y recibieron un suplemento de 2.5 kg de concentrado al día. Las emisiones de metano se registraron durante tres períodos de 23 horas con un analizador de metano. Las emisiones totales fueron de 132.0 a 198.6 L/CH4/ d-¹, equivale a 43.0 y 51.7 kg CH4 /animal/ año-¹, o 118.1 y 142.3 kg CO2eq /año-¹. La producción de metano se relacionó con el consumo voluntario de materia seca (MS) de la ración; observándose producciones de 16.9 a 19.3 L/CH4/kg MS. Estos resultados son comparables con otros reportados para bovinos Cebú alimentados en pastoreo de pastos tropicales; sugiriendo que el uso de las cámaras de respiración de circuito abierto puede ser un método apropiado para implementarse en la cuantificación de las emisiones de CH4 entérico y permite mejorar el nivel del método usado actualmente en los inventarios nacionales (nivel 1); además podría generar los factores de conversión (Ym) y de emisión de CH4 , y evaluar el efecto de diversas estrategias de mitigación.

Resumen en inglés

The aim of the experiment was to quantify enteric methane (CH4) emissions from Bos indicus cattle housed in respiration chambers to determine CH4 inventories in ruminants. Two Nellore bulls weighing 305 and 350 kg live weight were confined for three consecutive days in two respiration chambers kept at 23 °C, 55% relative humidity and -275 Pa of internal atmospheric pressure. Cattle were fed chopped Pennisetum purpureum grass plus a 2.5 kg supplementary concentrate per day. Methane production was registered during three periods of 23 hours with an infrared methane analyzer. Total emissions were 132.0 to 198.6 L/CH4/ d-¹, equivalent to 43.0 and 51.7 kg CH4/head/year-¹, or 118.1 and 142.3 kg CO2eq /year-¹. Methane production was related to voluntary dry matter (DM) intake of the ration, registering methane production rates of 16.9 to 19.3 L/CH4/kg DM. These results are comparable to those reported for Zebu cattle grazing tropical pastures; which suggest that the use of open circuit respiration chambers is an appropriate method to measure emissions of enteric CH4 and allows an improvement to be made of the method used at present for the estimation of national inventories (Tier 1 of IPCC); and furthermore this may help to develop conversion (Ym) and emission factors of CH4, alongside with evaluating the effect of diverse strategies of mitigation.