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29 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Vandermeer, John
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1.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Syndromes of production and tree-cover dynamics of Neotropical grazing land
Valencia Mestre, Mariana C.. autora ; Ferguson, Bruce G. (autor) (1967-) ; Vandermeer, John (autor) ;
Contenido en: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems Vol. 43, no. 4 (2019), p. 362–385 ISSN: 2168-3573
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

This paper provides a conceptual framework for analyzing the dynamics of tree cover transformations in the cattle pastures across the Neotropics. It proposes that tree cover variability across cattle pastures can be envisioned as a set of‘syndromes of production, ’among which transformations may be linear, non-linear, or multivalued. Our framework is informed by a review of the literature from which we define the components that make up tree coverand the socioecological drivers of tree cover in cattle pastures. We propose that the drivers of tree cover are the continuum between two economies: the peasant and the capitalist.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
The Azteca chess experience: learning how to share concepts of ecological complexity with small coffee farmers
García Barrios, Luis Enrique ; Cruz Morales, Juana (coaut.) ; Vandermeer, John (coaut.) ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Ecology and Society Vol. 22, no. 2, Art. 37 (Jun 2017), p. 1-20 ISSN: 1708-3087
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Small-scale coffee farmers understand certain complex ecological processes, and successfully navigate some of the challenges emerging from the ecological complexity on their farms. It is generally thought that scientific knowledge is able to complement farmers’ knowledge. However, for this collaboration to be fruitful, the gap between the knowledge frameworks of both farmers and scientists will need to be closed. We report on the learning results of 14 workshops held in Chiapas, Mexico during 2015 in which 117 small-scale coffee farmers of all genders (30% women) and ages who had little schooling were exposed by researchers to a natural history narrative, a multispecies network representation, a board game, and a series of graphical quizzes, all related to a nine-species complex ecological network with potential for autonomous control of the ongoing and devastating coffee rust epidemic that was affecting them. Farmers’ retention and understanding of direct and indirect bilateral interactions among organisms was assessed with different methods to elucidate the effect of adding Azteca Chess gaming sessions to a detailed and very graphical lecture. Evaluation methods that were better adapted to farmers’ conditions improved learning scores and showed statistically significant age effect (players older than 40 had lower retention scores) and gaming effect (lower retention of interactions included in the lecture but not in the game). The combination of lecture and game sessions helped participants better understand cascades of trait-mediated interactions.

Participants’ debriefings confirmed qualitatively that they learned that beneficial organisms and interactions occur on their farms, and that gaming was enjoyable, motivating, and critical to grasp complex interactions. Many of the farmers concluded that the outcome of these interactions is not unique and not always in favor of rust control but is context dependent. Many concluded that there are feasible things they can do on their farms, derived from what they learned, to favor potential autonomous pest control.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Azteca chess: gamifying a complex ecological process of autonomous pest control in shade coffee
García Barrios, Luis Enrique ; Perfecto, Ivette (coaut.) ; Vandermeer, John (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment Vol. 232 (September 2016), p. 190–198 ISSN: 0167-8809
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Science-based board games can help people grasp the ecological complexity of autonomous pest control (APC) in the shade-coffee agroecosystem. Azteca Chess is a board-game that captures in a stylized way the fascinating natural history and the dynamics of a complex network of direct, indirect and cascading trait-mediated interactions among five species of arthropods dwelling in shade coffee bushes (a coffee-scale, an ant, an adult and larval lady beetle, a parasitoid wasp and a parasitoid fly). In exchange for honey-dew, the Azteca ant protects scale-insects that help control the devastating coffee-rust disease. The ant repels the adult ladybeetle but inadvertently protects its larvae, which devour scales to local extinction. The head-hunting fly paralyzes Azteca and opens a window of opportunity for the adult beetle to oviposit under scales, but also for a parasitoid wasp to kill the beetle larvae. Interactions can cascade or not towards APC. Experimental test-driving shows Azteca Chess meets good modeling and game-design standards and is proved statistically to enhance understanding and application of relevant complex ecological processes.


4.
Libro
Coffee agroecology: a new approach to unferstanding agricultural biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainable development / Ivette Perfecto and John Vandermeer
Perfecto, Ivette ; Vandermeer, John (coaut.) ;
London : Routledge , 2015
Clasificación: 338.17373 / P4
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal , Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010015515 (Disponible) , ECO010017871 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 2
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013449 (Disponible) , ECO020013225 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 2
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Based on principles of the conservation and optimization of biodiversity and of equity and sustainability, this book focuses on the ecology of the coffee agroecosystem as a model for a sustainable agricultural ecosystem. It draws on the authors’ own research conducted over the last twenty years as well as incorporating the vast literature that has been generated on coffee agroecosystems from around the world. The book uses an integrated approach that weaves together various lines of research to understand the ecology of a very diverse tropical agroforestry system. Key concepts explored include biodiversity patterns, metapopulation dynamics and ecological networks. These are all set in a socioeconomic and political framework which relates them to the realities of farmers’ livelihoods. The authors provide a novel synthesis that will generate new understanding and can be applied to other examples of sustainable agriculture and food production. This synthesis also explains the ecosystem services provided by the approach, including the economic, fair trade and political aspects surrounding this all-important global commodity.

Índice

List of figures
List of tables
Preface
1 Wake up and smell the coffee (or a tale of two farms)
Introduction
Example 1. the farm as a component of industrial eriterpriie
Example 2: the farm as part ofriature
The philosophical/methodo1ogical approach of this book
The coffee agroecosystem as a model system
2 A biodiverse cup of coffee: coffee agroforests as repositories of tropical biodiversity
Background to biodiversity
Taxonomic biases
Geographic bias
The agricultural connection
Not all agriculture is the same
Historical roots of agricultura1 transformation and biodiversity loss
Biodiversity on the farm
Intensification and biodiveriity: coffee as a model system
The intensification gradient in coffee
Costa Rira, coffee intensification and biodiversity: a case study
Three decader of biodiversity research in coffee agoecosystems
Pioneering biodiversity research in the coffee agroecosystem
Biodiversity loss and coffee intensification: what causes the pattern?
Balancing ecological and economic variables: optimality under constan conditions
3 The coffee agroecosystem as a high-quality matrix
The coffee system and biodiversity debates
Bringing dynamics into the picture
Foundational arguments
The ubiquitousness of extinctions
Interfragment migrations
The dynamics of extinctions and migrations in fragmented habitats: a theoretical approach
Landscape structure and interfragment dynamics
The basic elements of the matrix
A meanjield approach to propagating sinks and ephemeral sources
Conclusion
4 Space matters: large-scale spatial ecology within the coffee agroecosystem
What do the spots of the jaguar and the distribution of ants on a coffee plantation have in common?
Spatial patterns, power functions and the Turing process in the ant Azteca
Spatial patterns: Turing on the farm
Pattern and powerfunctions
Implications of spatial patterns for system dynamics

Source-sink populations and metapopulations
Coccus viridis: a metapopulation or a source-sink population?
The great transformation
Population density
The idea of regime change
Changes in spatial patterns of Azteca
Regime change and the assumed Turing suppressor
Alternatives for the suppressive force: food web elements
The Effect of a Fungal Disease on Spatial Patterns
The Effect of a Myrmecophilous Beetle on Spatial Patterns
Summary
5 Who's eating whom and how: trophic and trait-mediated cascades in the coffee agroecosystem
Birds: from icons of biodiversity to functional components of agroecosystems
Omnivory and its place in food web structure
Theoretical framework: omnivory and its relatives
Theoretical framework: coupled oscillators
Herbivores and their arthropod and vertebrate predators
Teasing out the trophir structure in the coffee agroecosystem
Trait-mediated effects in food webs
What is trait mediation?
Conceptualizing trait-mediated effects as fundamental non-linearities
The complicated system of trait-mediated interactions associated with the Azteca ant
Trait-mediated indirect effects as coupling agents in food webs
6 Interactions across spatial scales
Introduction
Small-scale patterns in the ant community
Ecological competition and spatial pattern: the theory
Natural history and spatial pattern: the special case of ants
The major players in small-scale structuring
The nature of the small-scale spatial pattern
Interaction of the two spatial patterns and consequences for biological control
Ants as predators of coffee pests
The dialectics of predation and spatial structure
7 Biodiversity and ecosystem services
Introduction: the nature of ecosystem services
Pest management
Our approach
Vertebrate insectivores
Ants as predators
Azteca and the pest control complex
The Green Coffee Scale and the Myrmecophylous Beetle
The Coffee Rust Disease
The Coffee Leaf Miner

The Pest Control Complex I
Connecting Azteca With the Other ant Predators
The Pest Control Complex II
Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change
Pollination Services
Bees and Coffee Yield
Interactions between Pollinators and Other Organisms
Conclusion
8 Coffee, the agroecological landscape and farmers' livelihoods
The interpenetration of farmers' and biodiversity issues
The historical trajectory of biodiversity conservation in tropical lands
The key biodiversity versus agriculture debates (SLOSS, FT, LSLS)
The key farming debates: the ideology of "intensification"
The matrix quality model
The importance of extinction in the matrix model
What is in the matrix?
Connecting the matrix to broader socioeconomic structures
An alternative framework: the New Rurality
The convergence of food production with nature conservation
9 Syndromes of coffee production: embracing sustainability
Syndromes of production as ecological regimes
Dynamic background for syndromes
The theory
Educating the intuition about Q
The case of coffee syndromes
Self-generating dynamics of agricultural syndromes
Biodiversity and function, conservation and matrix quality: the ecology and political ecology of coffee syndromes
Referentes Index


5.
Libro
Population ecology: first principles / John H. Vandermeer, Deborah E. Goldberg
Vandermeer, John (autor) ; Goldberg, Deborah Esther (autora) ;
Princeton, New Jersey, United States : Princeton University Press , 2013
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010019921 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Ecology is capturing the popular imagination like never before, with issues such as climate change, species extinctions, and habitat destruction becoming ever more prominent. At the same time, the science of ecology has advanced dramatically, growing in mathematical and theoretical sophistication. Here, two leading experts present the fundamental quantitative principles of ecology in an accessible yet rigorous way, introducing students to the most basic of all ecological subjects, the structure and dynamics of populations.

Índice

Elementary population dynamics
Projection matrices: structured models
Applications of simple population models
A closer look at the "dynamics" in population dynamics
Patterns and dynamics in space
Predator-prey (consumer-resource) interactions
Disease ecology
Competition
Facilitation and mutualism
What this book was about


6.
Libro
The Ecology of agroecosystems / John H. Vandermeer
Vandermeer, John ;
Sudbury, Mass. : Jones and Bartlett Publishers , c2011
Clasificación: 630.2745 / V3
Bibliotecas: Campeche
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040003055 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1

7.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal
Impacts of coffee agroforestry management on tropical bee communities
Jha, S. ; Vandermeer, John (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biological Conservation Vol. 143, no. 6 (June 2010), p. 1423-1431 ISSN: 0006-3207
Bibliotecas: Chetumal
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
49459-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Though it is undoubted that tropical bees are influenced by habitat composition, few studies have investigated the relative importance of both local and landscape-level habitat parameters in supporting large and diverse bee communities. The conservation of native bee communities within agroforestry landscapes is particularly urgent given the importance of pollination services within these systems. In this study, we examined tropical bee communities within a largely deforested shade coffee-growing region in Chiapas, Mexico. We used regression tree modeling to examine the response of bee functional groups to local and landscape-level habitat management. Our models revealed that the most predictive factors for bee abundance and species richness were the number of tree species, the number of tree species in flower, and the canopy cover of the local agroforestry landscape. Solitary bees were most abundant in habitats with high canopy cover, while social bees were most abundant in habitats with greater tree species richness. Cavity-nesting and wood-nesting bee abundance was positively affected by the amount of canopy cover in the farm, while ground-nesting bees were most abundant in habitats with a large number of tree species in flower. Our results demonstrate that across bee sociality groups, nesting guilds, and tribes, the most critical factor impacting native bee communities was within-farm local vegetation management. These results reveal the important role that agroforestry managers can have on biodiversity conservation, and the potential contribution they can make by creating resource-rich agricultural matrices. Specifically, our findings highlight the importance of diverse overstory tree management in supporting native bee communities within tropical agroforestry systems.



9.
Libro
Nature's matrix: linking agriculture, conservation and food sovereignty / Ivette Perfecto, John Vandermeer and Angus Wright
Perfecto, Ivette ; Vandermeer, John (coaut.) ; Wright, Angus (coaut.) ;
London, England : Earthscan Publications Ltd. , 2009
Clasificación: 333.9516 / P44
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal , Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010017594 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020011487 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Landscapes are frequently seen as fragments of natural habitat surrounded by a "sea" of agriculture. But recent ecological theory shows that the nature of these fragments is not nearly as important for conservation as is the nature of the matrix of agriculture that surrounds them. Local extinctions from conservation fragments are inevitable and must be balanced by migrations if massive extinction is to be avoided. High migration rates only occur in what the authors refer to as "high quality" matrices, which are created by alternative agroecological techniques, as opposed to the industrial monocultural model of agriculture. The authors, including SNRE Professor Ivette Perfecto, argue that the only way to promote such high quality matrices is to work with rural social movements. Their ideas are at odds with the major trends of some of the large conservation organizations that emphasize targeted land purchases of protected areas. They argue that recent advances in ecological research make such a general approach anachronistic and call, rather, for solidarity with the small farmers around the world who are currently struggling to attain food sovereignty. Nature's Matrix proposes a radically new approach to the conservation of biodiversity based on recent advances in the science of ecology plus political realities, particularly in the world's tropical regions.

Índice

List of figures and boxes
Preface
Acknowledgements
List of abbreviations
1 Matrix Matters: An Overview
The Birds of New York and the Coffee of Mesoamerica
The Argument
Towards a New Paradigm
Notes
2 The Ecological Argument
The Fundamental Patterns of Biodiversity
Why the Biodiversity Patterns Matter
The Ecological Background to Biodiversity Studies
Ecological Theory and Political Realities
Notes
3 The Agricultural Matrix
The Development of Agriculture
The Industrial Model
The Alternative Movement
Natural Systems Agriculture
Biodiversity as it Relates to Agro-ecology
Notes
4 The Broad Social Context for Understanding Biodiversity, Conservation and Agriculture
The Importance of the Deep Historical Context
Difficult Socio-political Issues in Practical Conservation Work
Sources of Systematic Bias in Conservation Practice
The Brazilian Amazon: A Case Study in Conservation, Livelihood and Social Movements
The Dependency Trap in Biodiversity Conservation
Grass Roots Social Movements
Notes
5 Coffee, Cacao and Food Crops: Case Studies of Agriculture and Biodiversity
Coffee and the Technical Side of Biodiversity
Cacao and Biodiversity: The Historical Development of a Biodiversity Landscape
The Production of Food and the Biodiversity Connection
Agricultural Potential in the Matrix
Notes
6 The New Paradigm
Recapping the Ecological Argument
Recapping the Agricultural Argument
Recapping the Social Movement Argument
Putting the Three Arguments Together
Notes
References
Index


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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

En junio de 2008 convocamos un foro-taller en Chiapas, México para potencializar alianzas entre organizaciones campesinas, conservacionistas y académicos. Los ponentes trazaron la evolución de las relaciones entre sistemas productivos, bosques y biodiversidad desde la época prehispánica hasta la actual crisis de la economía neoliberal y la agricultura industrial. También delinearon un nuevo paradigma para la conservación en donde los campesinos son protagonistas. En grupos de trabajo, elaboramos propuestas para cimentar una agenda común entre los distintos sectores representados. Las redes de cooperación emergieron como estructuras para coordinar acción y facilitar el intercambio de información y apoyo a distintas escalas geográficas. Los mercados solidarios son la confluencia de diversos intereses en dónde se pueden constituir dichas redes. También identificamos algunos temas específicos de trabajo, entre ellos: los agrocombustibles y la soberanía energética, los servicios ambientales y la educación para el campo. La biodiversidad y la soberanía alimentaria y territorial son los ejes de esta agenda de cooperación, que forma parte de una lucha internacional para reconstruir nuestros sistemas alimenticios.

Resumen en inglés

In June, 2008, we convoked a forum and workshop in Chiapas, Mexico to strengthen alliances among farmers’ organizations, conservationists and academics. Speakers outlined the evolution of the relations among production systems, forests and biodiversity from the prehispanic era through the current crisis in the neoliberal economic model and industrial agriculture. They also framed a new conservation paradigm that prioritizes the role of farmers. We formed working groups that elaborated proposals for collaboration among the participating sectors. Cooperative networks emerged as appropriate structures for coordinating action and facilitating the exchange of information and support at various geographic scales. Solidarity-based markets are a venue where diverse interests converge, favoring the formation of such networks. We also identified some specific issues for collaboration, including: agrofuels and energy sovereignty, environmental services and rural education. Biodiversity and food sovereignty are the two axes of this agenda for cooperation that forms part of an international struggle to reconstruct our food systems.