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61 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Villanueva López, Gilberto
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1.
Artículo
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Fine root density and vertical distribution of Leucaena leucocephala and grasses in silvopastoral systems under two harvest intervals
Montejo Martínez, David (autor) ; Díaz Echeverria, Víctor Francisco (autor) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Canul Solís, Jorge Rodolfo (autor) ; Escobedo Mex, José Guadalupe (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Agroforest Syst Volumen 94, número 3 (June 2020), páginas 843-855 ISSN: 1572-9680
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Understanding belowground morphological mechanisms of trees and grasses is a complicated task but can help in the design and management of silvopastoral systems. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the harvest intervals (i.e. 30 and 50 days) of aboveground biomass on the fine root density and vertical distribution in two silvopastoral systems (SPS): one comprising Leucaena leucocephala (legume tree) and Cynodon plectostachyus (grass) and the other L. leucocephala and Panicum maximum. We used a completely randomized design with four repetitions. We sampled fine roots by using a metal cylinder (8 cm diameter and 50 cm length) 7 days after each harvest. We washed the samples with pressurized water to separate them from the soil. The roots were digitalized at a resolution of 600 dpi to determine the diameter and specific root length by using IJ Rhizo Ò software. Samples were subsequently dried to quantify fine root mass. We found that the greater percentages of fine roots were between 0.4 and 0.8 mm for the legume and between 0.2 and 0.4 mm for grasses. The fine root length and mass density of P. maximum was higher (P\0.001) compared to C. plectostachyus in both harvest intervals. However, the fine root density of L. leucocephala did not vary between SPS (P> 0.05). The effect of harvest interval was significant only in some soil layers in both SPS (P> 0.05). Most of the pasture roots were found in the upper soil layer (0–20 cm), while L. leucocephala roots were present to deeper soil layers. We conclude that P. maximum has a greater rooting capacity and amore rapid recovery than C. plectostachyus, which has greater diameters and lower root density. However, L. leucocephala presented deeper and thicker fine rootsin both SPS, which is a good indication of its belowground recovery capacity to aboveground disturbances.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Carbon storage in a silvopastoral system compared to that in a deciduous dry forest in Michoacán, Mexico
López Santiago, José Germain (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Díaz Echeverria, Víctor Francisco (autor) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Martínez Zurimendi, Pablo (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ; Chay Canul, Alfonso Juventino (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 93, no. 1 (Fabruary 2019), p. 199-211 ISSN: 0167-4366
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Livestock production in the tropics contributes significantly to global greenhouse gas emissions, so better understanding the role of silvopastoral systems (SPS) in mitigating such emissions is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amounts of carbon stored in the biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) components of a Leucaena leucocephala cum Panicum maximum silvopasture system (SPS) compared to a deciduous tropical forest (DTF), and a grass monoculture (GM) in Michoacán, Mexico. The above- and below-ground biomass were measured by destructive sampling in the SPS and GM, while previously reported allometric equations were used to quantify biomass stocks in the DTF. The SOC concentration up to 30 cm was determined by dry combustion method. The SPS and DTF contained more aboveground biomass (41.8 ± 3.30 and 36.7 ± 5.72 Mg DM ha−¹) compared to GM (8.0 ± 0.76 Mg DM ha−¹). However, the SPS exhibited greater belowground biomass (16.4 ± 1.95 Mg DM ha−¹) than the other systems. The DTF had the highest SOC fraction in all depth classes with values ranging from 3.1 ± 0.07% to 3.7 ± 0.06%, respectively, compared to the other systems. The total carbon stocks in SPS was similar to DTF (120.7 ± 10.97 vs. 120.9 ± 6.38 Mg C ha−¹) but was significantly higher than GM (78.2 ± 8.41 Mg C ha−¹). In dry tropical conditions, SPS displays enormous potential for increasing biomass and soil carbon stocks compared to the GM and can thus be used as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in livestock production systems.


3.
Artículo
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Macro-invertebrate diversity in silvopastoral systems of Southern Quintana Roo, Mexico. The diversity of macro-invertebrates is related to the state of disturbance of the soil, caused mainly by the land-use change for agricultural activities. A strategy for the conservation of these organisms is the implementation of diversified production systems such as silvopastoral systems. However, in the Southeast of Mexico, information is still limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the richness, abundance and composition of macro-invertebrates in four contrasting agro-ecosystems: two silvopastoral systems made of Leucaena leucocephala and associated pastures (i.e. Panicum maximum cv mombaza and Cynodon plectostachyus ), a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha with scattered trees in low density and, a medium-statured tropical dry forest. In each system, an area of one hectare was delimited and a transect of 50 m in length was established in which five pit-fall traps were placed every 10 m. The sampling was carried out in February and May of 2018 and in each month five collections were made with five-day intervals. A total of 1 737 organisms belonging to 10 orders of the class Insecta and one of the class Gastropoda were collected.

The medium-statured tropical dry forest (923 individuals) and the silvopastoral systems of L. leucocephala with C. Plectostachyus (354 individuals) show the highest abundance of macro-invertebrates. The most abundant genera were: Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Aracninae and Orthoptera. The higher macro-invertebrate diversity was found in the silvopastoral systems of L. leucocephala with P. maximum (H ‘= 1.58) and L. leucocephala with C. plectostachyus (H’ = 1.44). The results show that livestock systems managed with woody components (trees or shrubs) are home of an important abundance and richness of macro-invertebrates, compared to tropical forests. This diversity of macro-invertebrates may contribute to the integrity and functionality of the agro-ecosystems.


4.
Artículo
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Diversity of soil macro-arthropods correlates to the richness of plant species in traditional agroforestry systems in the humid tropics of Mexico
Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Lara Pérez, Luis A. (autor) ; Oros Ortega, Iván (autor) ; Ramírez Barajas, Pablo Jesús (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Ramos Reyes, Rodimiro (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ;
Contenido en: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Vol. 286, no. 106658 (2019), p. 1-7 ISSN: 0167-8809
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

A change in land use from forest to livestock and agriculture is generally linked to a potentially devastating effect on communities offlora and fauna. Tabasco is a state with the highest deforestation rate in the humid tropics of Mexico; more than 66% of its territory is currently occupied by livestock farming. Here, we evaluated the diversity of soil macro-arthropods and plant species richness in eight different, traditional agroforestry systems (AFS): family garden (FG), shade trees in plantations (ShTP), scattered trees in pastures (ScTP), living fences(LF), alley farming (AF), taungya systems (TG), slash and burn agriculture (SBA) and grazing plantations (GP). First, we recorded the biophysical information of the AFS, age and management of the system, richness of the plant community, and other general characteristics. Then, we collected of macro-arthropods in 49 plots of land in five sub-regions of Tabasco. We established ten pitfall traps in each plot during the dry season (March–May 2009).

To compare the diversity of soil macro-arthropods among the AFS, we computed the species accumu-lation curves and calculated the diversity indexes. We found that the total plant richness varied among the AFSand ordered as FG (108), ShTP (106), ScTP (32), LF (38), AF (30), TG (16), SBA (0) and GP (2). We collected42,269 individuals of arthropods, belonging to 15 orders in the eight AFS. The most abundant orders wereHymenoptera and Coleoptera, while the least abundant was Dermaptera. The SBA, FG, ShTP, and ScTP systemspresented the higher diversity of macro-arthropods as shown by Shannon-Wiener index (H’) values. We alsofound a significant positive correlation (rs= 0.84) between macro-arthropod order diversity (H’) and plantspecies richness in the most common AFS. The study showed that the AFS with greater plant species richness areimportant agricultural production strategies that increase the diversity and conservation of soil macro-ar-thropods.


5.
Artículo
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Los árboles que facilitan el establecimiento de plántulas bajo su copa (árboles núcleo), y favorecen la creación de núcleos de regeneración arbórea, se han empleado en proyectos de restauración ecológica en potreros y tierras agrícolas abandonadas. Sin embargo, es importante conocer la influencia de la variedad de especies arbóreas en potreros y el efecto del forrajeo del ganado en la vegetación que se establece bajo la copa de los árboles. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la composición, diversidad y el crecimiento de plántulas de especies arbóreas establecidas bajo árboles núcleo en potreros. La hipótesis fue que el factor árbol núcleo y el efecto del cercado influyen en la estructura y el crecimiento de la comunidad de plántulas establecida bajo su copa. El diseño experimental fue el siguiente: se seleccionaron 31 árboles, cinco de las especies Andira inermis, Cordia alliodora, Tabebuia rosea, Sabal mexicana, Sapium lateriflorum y Zanthoxylum riedelianum a los que se añadió un individuo de la especie Coccoloba barbadensis, de cada especie se cercaron dos individuos (para excluir el ganado) por 11 meses.

La composición de especies de plántulas arbóreas respecto al factor árbol núcleo y cercado se evaluó con estadística multivariada (test ANOSIM y gráficos de ordenación y clasificación), el incremento de la altura se analizó con ANDEVA y la relación de variables de copa del árbol núcleo con la diversidad de plantas mediante correlación. La especie de árbol núcleo y el efecto de cercado influyeron en la estructura de la comunidad de plántulas arbóreas establecidas. El crecimiento de las plántulas dependió del árbol núcleo y la riqueza se relacionó con las variables de copa del árbol núcleo. La diversidad de especies de árboles núcleo que varíen en su arquitectura arbórea es adecuada para iniciar la repoblación arbórea natural mediante árboles núcleo.

Resumen en inglés

Trees that facilitate the establishment of seedlings under their canopies (focal trees), and favor the creation of tree recruitment nuclei, have been used in ecological restoration projects in pastures and abandoned agricultural lands. However, it is important to know the influence of the variety of tree species in pastures and the effect of cattle grazing on the vegetation under the tree crown. The objective of the study was to analyze the composition, diversity and growth of seedlings of tree seedlings established under focal trees in pastures. The hypothesis was that focal tree species and the fencing effect influence the structure and growth of the seedling community established under focal tree crowns. The experimental design was as follows. Thirty-one trees were selected: five each of Andira inermis, Cordia alliodora, Tabebuia rosea, Sabal mexicana, Sapium lateriflorum and Zanthoxylum riedelianum plus an individual of the Coccoloba barbadensisspecies was added. Two individuals of each species were fenced (to exclude cattle) for 11 months. The composition of tree seedlings with respect to the focal species and fencing factor was evaluated using multivariate statistics (ANOSIM test and ordination and clustering graphs), height increase was analyzed with ANOVA and the relationship of focal tree crown variables with diversity of plants was analyzed through correlation. The species of focal tree and the fencing effect influenced the structure of the established tree seedling community. Seedling growth depended on the focal tree and richness was related to the focal tree crown variables. These findings demonstrate the importance of selecting diverse focal trees species that vary in their tree architecture in order to promote natural tree repopulation.


6.
- Capítulo de libro sin arbitraje
Flora útil de los sistemas silvopastoriles
Hernández Daumás, Salvador (autor) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Maldonado García, Noel Mauricio (autor) ;
Contenido en: La biodiversidad en Tabasco. Estudio de estado / coordinación y seguimiento general: Andrea Cruz Angón, Jorge Cruz Medina, Jessica Valero Padilla, Flor Paulina Rodríguez Reynaga, Erika Daniela Melgarejo Distrito Federal, México : Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, 2019 Vol. I, página 265-274 ISBN:978-6078570201 (Vol. I)
Bibliotecas: Villahermosa
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
37080-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1

7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Traditional uses of dispersed trees in the pastures of the mountainous region of Tabasco, Mexico
Villanueva Partida, Carlos R. ; Fernando Casanova Lugo (coaut.) ; González Valdivia, Noel Antonio (coaut.) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (coaut.) ; Oros Ortega, Iván (coaut.) ; Cetzal Ix, William Rolando ; Kumar Basu, Saikat (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 93, no. 2 (April 2019), p. 383-394 ISSN: 0167-4366
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The rapid deforestation in the state of Tabasco due to extensive livestock farming has resulted in the decrease of the original forest cover. Only 4% of the original vegetation remains and that vegetation is concentrated in the mountainous regions of the state. This destructive process continues due to support by the current government livestock policies. Under these circumstances, the traditional silvopastoral systems of dispersed trees can present an option for reversing and mitigating deforestation practices. The objective of this study was to generate information on the tree species common to silvopastoral systems of dispersed trees in the pastures for two mountainous areas in Tabasco. In the study, 64 tree species, representing 26 plant families were identified. All species were characterized as multipurpose, with at least three reported uses and a maximum of seven for each species. In total, nine categories of local uses were identified for the trees. The main category of use was fuel (firewood), followed by timber and shade for the livestock. Although leguminous species (Fabaceae) were dominant, these species were utilized for uses other than the provision of fodder. Since 12 of the total species identified were recognized as sources of food for animals; the assumption that livestock farmers do not recognize the utility of these species for improving production yields is apparent. The results suggest that there is potential need to expand research and offer further education on the subject in Tabasco.


8.
Tesis - Maestría
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Índice | Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

El presente estudio se realizó en la Sierra del municipio de Tacotalpa, Tabasco, de enero a octubre de 2017, con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial del sistema ganadero con árboles dispersos en potreros (ADP) conformados por árboles de Cordia alliadora, Cedrela odorata, Spondias mombin y Zanthoxylum kellermanii para almacenar carbono en la biomasa (aérea y subterránea) y en el suelo, así como cuantificar los flujos de dióxido de carbono del suelo, con relación a un sistema ganadero convencional basado en el monocultivo de pasto (MP) de Brachiaria decumbens, en condiciones del trópico húmedo. Adicionalmente, se analizaron algunas propiedades del suelo en dichos sistemas. Se seleccionaron cinco parcelas aleatoriamente por sistema ganadero. Los resultados sobre el almacenamiento de carbono en los reservorios (biomasa arbórea y pastos) para el sistema ganadero con ADP fue de 38.68 y 9.29 Mg de C ha-¹. Mientras que para el sistema ganadero en MP el pasto almacenó 10.33 Mg de C ha-¹. Con relación al almacenamiento de carbono en el suelo, los resultados muestran una diferencia estadística entre los sistemas, el sistema con ADP almacenó 230.10 Mg C ha-¹, y el sistema ganadero en MP 142.14 Mg C ha-¹. En ambos sistemas el reservorio suelo almacenó aproximadamente más del 70% del total del sistema. Además, el comportamiento de los flujos de CO² del suelo, fue estadísticamente diferente entre los sistemas, el sistema ganadero con ADP emitió 4.30 μmol /m²/s y 6.72 μmol /m²/s el sistema ganadero en MP respectivamente. Se concluye que el sistema ganadero con ADP es una buena alternativa para almacenar carbono atmosférico y retenerlo en el componente arbóreo e incorporarlo al suelo a mayor profundidad, además, de regular los flujos de CO2 volviéndolos más estables con relación al sistema ganadero en MP.

Índice

Resumen
Capítulo 1. Introducción
Emisiones de CO2
Almacenamiento de Carbono
Los sistemas silvopastoriles y el almacenamiento de carbono
Preguntas de investigación
Hipótesis
Objetivo general
Objetivos específicos
Literatura Citada
Capítulo 2. Variaciones Diurnas y Estacionales de los Flujos de CO2 del Suelo en Sistemas Ganaderos Con Árboles Dispersos en Potreros en el Trópico Húmedo de México
Resumen
Introducción
Materiales y Métodos
Descripción del sitio de estudio
Sistemas ganaderos
Diseño experimental
Medición de los flujos de CO2 en el suelo
Análisis estadístico
Resultados y Discusión
Flujos de CO2, humedad y temperatura del suelo en sistemas ganaderos
Variación estacional de flujos de CO2, humedad y temperatura del suelo
Variación diurna de flujos de CO2, humedad y temperatura del suelo
Conclusiones
Agradecimientos
Literatura Citada
Capítulo 3. Almacenamiento de Carbono Orgánico en la Biomasa (Aérea y Subterránea) y en el Suelo en un Sistema Ganadero Con Árboles Dispersos en Potreros, Con Relación A un Sistema Ganadero en Monocultivo de Pasto
Introducción
Materiales y Métodos
Sitio de estudio
Descripción de los sistemas
Diseño experimental
Muestreo de biomasa arbórea
Muestreo de biomasa herbácea
Muestreo del suelo
Análisis de laboratorio
Estimación de biomasa arbórea y herbácea
Cuantificación del C en la biomasa arbórea y herbácea
Cuantificación del carbono orgánico del suelo
Almacenamiento de C en el sistema
Análisis estadísticos
Resultados
Biomasa arbórea y contenido de carbono
Biomasa de pastos y almacenamiento de carbono
Contenido de carbono orgánico del suelo
Carbón orgánico almacenado en el suelo
Discusión
Biomasa arbórea y contenido de carbono
Biomasa de pastos y contenido de carbono
Carbón orgánico almacenado en el suelo
Conclusiones
Literatura Citada

Capítulo 4. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones Generales
Almacenamiento de C en los sistemas ganaderos de estudio
Flujos de CO2 en los sistemas ganaderos de estudio


9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Caracterización de vermicompostas y su efecto en la germinación y crecimiento de Capsicum chinense Jacquin
David Santoya, Jesse Joel Edson ; Gómez Álvarez, Regino (coaut.) ; Jarquín Sánchez, Aarón (coaut.) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Ecosistemas y Recursos Agropecuarios Vol. 5, no. 14 (mayo-agosto 2018), p. 181-190 ISSN: 2007-901X
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El uso de diferentes sustratos para la elaboración de vermicompostas tienen in uencia en el desarrollo de los cultivos. El objetivo fue evaluar la productividad de la lombriz Eisenia andrei en diferentes sustratos y el efecto en la germinación y crecimiento del Capsicum chinense Jacquin. Se elaboraron vermicompostas con residuos vegetales (RV) y cascarilla de cacao (CC), y sus combinaciones con Gliricidia sepium (G). Los contenidos de ácidos húmicos (AH) y carbono de ácidos húmicos (CAH) tuvieron los mayores valores en las vermicompostas con RV, estiercol de ovino (EO) y sus combinaciones con G. El EO incrementó la biomasa y longitud de la lombriz, al combinarlo con G incremento la mortalidad de cocones y lombrices juveniles. Con el bocashí (B) y los RV se tuvieron efectos positivos en la biomasa, longitud, número de cocones y lombrices juveniles. Las vermicompostas de B, B+G+RV y RV tuvieron los mayores porcentajes de germinación. Para incrementar la biomasa de la lombriz, la población, la longitud, el número de cocones y el número de lombrices juveniles se pueden usar sustratos elaborados con RV, B y sus combinaciones. Los mayores contenidos de nutrientes en las plántulas de Capsicum chinense Jacquin se obtuvieron en la combinación de EO+G.

Resumen en inglés

The use of di erent substrates for producing vermicomposts has an impact on crop development. The aim was to evaluate the productivity of the Eisenia andrei earthworm in di erent substrates and their e ect on the germination and growth of Capsicum chinense Jacquin. They were prepared with plant residues (PR) and cocoa husk (CH), and their combinations with Gliricidia sepium (G). The contents of humic acids (HA) and carbon of humic acids (CAH) had the highest values in the vermicomposts with PR, sheep manure (SM) and their combinations with G. The SM increased the biomass and length of the earthworm, whereas combining it with G increased the mortality of cocoons and juvenile worms. With bocashi (B) and PR there were positive e ects on the biomass, length, number of cocoons and juvenile worms. The vermicomposts of B, B+G+PR and PR had the highest germination percentages. To increase earthworm biomass, population, length, number of cocoons and the number of juvenile worms, substrates made with PR, B and their combinations can be used. The highest nutrient contents in Capsicum chinence Jacquin seedlings were found in the SM+G combination.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Carbon stocks in biomass and soils of woody species fodder banks in the dry tropics of Mexico
Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Petit Aldana, Judith (autora) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (autor) ; Ward, Sheila Emily (autora) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Soil Use and Management Vol. 34, no. 4 (December 2018), p. 500-509 ISSN: 2007-4476
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Understanding carbon (C) dynamics of the silvopastoral systems can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the C concentration and storage in above- and belowground tree biomass as well as in the soils of fodder banks of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia (Lam.) or a combination of the both species. The above- and belowground biomass was quantified by the destructive sampling. We also obtained samples from soil pits, 20-cm deep, and determined bulk density and organic carbon concentration. The mixed species banks produced more foliage dry matter (DM) (6.3 t DM/ha) than the pure fodder banks. The total living biomass stocks ranged from 31.5 to 33.5 t DM/ha and did not differ between fodder bank types. The tissue C concentration was greater in stems (45.1%) and roots (44.9%) compared to the foliage component (43.4%). Total soil carbon (TSC) in the 5–10 cm layer was greater in the fodder banks with legumes alone than in mixed species banks (35.7 vs. 30.8 t C/ha). TSC storage in the 15–20 cm layer was greater in the nonlegume fodder bank than in the legume fodder bank (39.8 vs. 34.5 t C/ha). However, to the 0–20 cm layer, TSC was similar for all fodder banks. Thus, the three types of fodder banks had similar total C storage in plant biomass and soil, but the production of foliage biomass was higher in the mixed species banks.