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756 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Cambio climático
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Perceptions of climate change, the impacts of and responses to climatic variability and extreme weather are explored in three communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, in relation to livelihood resilience. These communities provide examples of the most common livelihood strategies across the region: small-scale fisheries (San Felipe) and semi-subsistence small-holder farming (Tzucacab and Calakmul). Although the perception that annual rainfall is reducing is not supported by instrumental records, changes in the timing of vital summer rainfall and an intensification of the mid-summer drought (canicula) are confirmed. The impact of both droughts and hurricanes on livelihoods and crop yields was reported across all communities, although the severity varied. Changes in traditional milpa cultivation were seen to be driven by less reliable rainfall but also by changes in Mexico’s agricultural and wider economic policies. Diversification was a common adaptation response across all communities and respondents, resulting in profound changes in livelihood strategies. Government attempts to reduce vulnerability were foundto lack continuity, be hard to access and too orientated toward commercial scale producers. Population growth, higher temperatures and reduced summer rainfall will increase the pressures on communities reliant on small-scale farming and fishing, and a more nuanced understanding of both impacts and adaptations is required for improved livelihood resilience. Greater recognition of such local-scale adaptation strategies should underpin the developing Mexican National Adaptation Policy and provide a template for approaches internationally as adaptation becomes an increasingly important part of the global strategy to cope with climate change.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Cumplimiento de la política de cambio climático en las entidades federativas de México
López Jiménez, Leonardo Noriel (autor) ; Laguna Vázques, Magdalena (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Sociedad y Ambiente Número 22 (marzo-junio 2020), páginas 48-71 ISSN: 2007-6576
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El objetivo de este artículo es identificar el nivel de cumplimiento de la política de cambio climático en los estados de México mediante la revisión y análisis de los avances y los rezagos de la política estatal. A partir de ello se proponen estrategias para impulsar la implementación de la política climática nacional y, por consiguiente, la reducción de los impactos del cambio climático. El proceso metodológico consistió en una revisión de los instrumentos de la política de cambio climático estatal: 1) consulta de páginas web gubernamentales, 2) envío de solicitudes a través de la Plataforma Nacional de Transparencia, y 3) utilización de motores de búsqueda en internet. Se organizaron y se asignó un puntaje de acuerdo con el número de instrumentos. La suma equivalió al 100% de cumplimiento y se dividió en cinco rangos (muy bajo, bajo, medio, alto y muy alto). La mayoría de los estados se encuentran en un nivel bajo y muy bajo de cumplimiento (63%), once estados con un cumplimiento medio y uno con un cumplimiento muy alto. Se observó que hay un avance en ciertas entidades, pero hace falta desarrollar e impulsar la política de cambio climático a nivel estatal. El aporte principal de este análisis fue la determinación del nivel de cumplimiento para cada estado, reconociendo sus particularidades de cumplimiento.

Resumen en inglés

The objective of the analysis was to identify the level of compliance with the climate change policy of Mexican states through a review and analysis of the progress and lags in state policy. The results will be used to propose strategies to promote the implementation of national climate policy, and therefore, the reduction of climate change impacts. The methodological process involved reviewing state climate change policy instruments by 1) examining government websites, 2) submitting requests through the National Transparency Platform, and 3) using search engines on the Internet. Once the documents had been obtained, they were organized and assigned an arithmetical score according to the number of instruments. The sum equaled 100 % compliance and was divided into five rankings (very low, low, medium, high and very high). Most states have a low or very low level of compliance (63 %), eleven states have medium compliance and one has very high compliance. It was observed that although progress has been made in certain states, there is still a need to develop and further promote climate change policy at the state level. The main contribution of this analysis was the determination of the level of compliance, and its particularities, in each state.


3.
Artículo
Living smallholder vulnerability: the everyday experience of y climate change in Calakmul, Mexico
Green, Lisa (autora) ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (autora) ; Radel, Claudia (autora) ; Márdero Jiménez, Silvia Sofía (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Journal of Latin American Geography Volumen 19, número 2, artículo 6 (March 2020), páginas 1-44 ISSN: 1548-5811
Resumen en español

Si bien la academia ha reconocido que la vulnerabilidad de individuos y comunidades al cambio climático es altamente influenciada por su estatus social, las políticas públicas siguen partiendo frecuentemente del supuesto de comunidades agrícolas homogéneas. Sin embargo, los residentes experimentan su propia vulnerabilidad de manera individual. Nuestra investigación exploró cómo los residentes de Calakmul, México, percibieron y se desenvolvieron frente a su propia vulnerabilidad al cambio climático. Cincuenta y cinco entrevistas semiestructuradas en 2013 y cuarenta y tres entrevistas de seguimiento en 2016 proporcionan información sobre la percepción de los efectos del cambio climático en sus modos de vida, actividades, salud y la escasez de alimentos. El análisis se centró en los patrones de la vida diaria de los residentes, en las experiencias vividas, y en cómo esto varía entre comunidades, hogares e individuos. La situación de cada comunidad y el acceso a los distintos recursos, así como las variaciones en las actividades de subsistencia y otras circunstancias configuraron el sentido de vulnerabilidad de los entrevistados. Además, los residentes informaron una variedad de opciones para hacer frente a los efectos del cambio climático, la mayoría de las cuales requerían aportaciones en efectivo. Sin embargo, informaron que las oportunidades normales de obtener dinero en efectivo a través del trabajo asalariado agrícola también se han visto reducidas por el cambio climático.

Resumen en inglés

Despite established science on climate change vulnerability as mediated by social status, policy discussions of climate change vulnerabilities often still treat smallholder farming communities as largely undifferentiated. Residents themselves, however, experience their own vulnerability in the context of their individual lives. Our research explored how residents of Calakmul, Mexico, perceived and experienced their own vulnerability to climate change. Fifty-five semi-structured interviews in 2013 and forty-three follow-up interviews in 2016 provide data on perceived effects of climate-related stressors on their livelihood activities, health, and experiences of hunger. Analysis focused on patterns in residents’ everyday, lived experiences and on variation among individuals and families. Community status and associated resource access, variations in livelihood activities, and other situational aspects shaped interviewees’ sense of their own vulnerabilities. In addition, residents reported a variety of options for coping with the effects of climate change, most of which required cash inputs. Yet they also reported that normal opportunities for obtaining cash through agricultural wage labor were likewise curtailed by climate change.


4.
Artículo
Trophic ecology of humboldt squid, dosidicus gigas, in conjunction with body size and climatic variability in the Gulf of California, Mexico
Portner, Elan J. (autor) ; Markaida Aburto, Unai (autor) ; Robinson, Carlos J. (autor) ; Gilly, William F. (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Limnology and Oceanography Volumen 65 (2020), p. 732-748 ISSN: 1939-5590
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Over the past two decades, the Gulf of California (GOC) has experienced three strong El Niño events (1997–1998, 2009–2010, and 2015–2016), each of which was followed by a drastic reduction in mantle length of mature Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas (from >60 cm to <20 cm). However, it is unclear how the oceano-graphic changes associated with strong El Niño events affected the midwater organisms on which D. gigas feed, limiting our ability to assess the relative importance of temperature and food availability in the phenotypic response of D. gigasto environmental variability. We quantified the diet of D. gigas in the GOC before, during, and following the past three El Niño events and found that although its diet varied little across a large range of body sizes (8–85 cm), significant and predictable diet variability was observed with respect to sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration. Consumption of large numbers of relatively small, high calorie prey inboth relatively cool (anchovies) and relatively warm, productive conditions (myctophids) is likely necessary to support growth to large body sizes before maturation. When warm, unproductive conditions prevailed in the GOC, only small squid were present and had diets dominated by euphausiids and pteropods, prey with relatively low caloric value. Using a time series of diet data, this work provides unique insights into the response of a midwater forage community to oceanographic variability and the effects of environmental variability on thetrophic ecology of an oceanic predator.


5.
Tesis - Maestría
Abundancia de pecaríes y su relación con la disponibilidad de agua en la Reserva de la Biosfera Calakmul, Campeche, México / Khiavett Guadalupe Sánchez Pinzón
Sánchez Pinzón, Khiavett Guadalupe (autora) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (director) ; Naranjo Piñera, Eduardo Jorge (asesor) (1963-) ; Keuroghlian, Alexine (asesora) ;
Lerma, Campeche, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2019
Clasificación: TE/599.734097264 / S2
Bibliotecas: Campeche
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040006969 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Resumen en español

Las aguadas en la región de Calakmul representan la única fuente de agua superficial para la fauna silvestre. Sin embargo, en los últimos años la reducción en los niveles de precipitación y el aumento de los periodos de sequía, como consecuencia del cambio climático, ha ocasionado la desecación y desaparición de estos cuerpos de agua. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar cómo la abundancia y la distribución espacial y temporal de las dos especies de pecaríes (Tayassu pecari [PLB] y Pecari tajacu [PC]) en las aguadas de la Reserva de la Biosfera Calakmul (RBC) se relacionan con la disponibilidad de agua y con la presencia de sus dos principales depredadores a lo largo de cinco años de estudio. A través de la técnica de fototrampeo, 12 aguadas fueron monitoreadas en la zona sur de la RBC. Se estimó el índice de abundancia de registros fotográficos (IA), los patrones de actividad, y se relacionó a través de regresiones lineales y logarítmicas la presencia de ambas especies de pecaríes con sus depredadores (jaguares [Panthera onca] y pumas [Puma concolor]) y con la disponibilidad de agua. La abundancia y presencia del PLB y del jaguar, se relacionaron directamente con la disminución de la disponibilidad de agua y desecación de cuerpos de agua durante los cinco años de estudio, mientras que, para el PC y el puma, el agua no fue un factor determinante para su presencia. La disminución en la disponibilidad de agua en las aguadas de la RBC se ha convertido en una fuerte amenaza para el PLB, aunado a otras amenazas como la cacería y la fragmentación de su hábitat en las comunidades aledañas a la reserva, que ponen en riesgo a esta población considerada la más importante de Mesoamérica.

Índice

Resumen
Introducción
Capítulo I “Abundancia de pecaríes (Tayassu pecari y Pecari tajacu) y su relación con la disponibilidad de agua y con sus dos principales depredadores en la Reserva de la Biosfera Calakmul, Campeche, México”
Introducción
Materiales y métodos
Resultados
Discusión
Literatura Citada
Conclusión General
Referencias
Anexos


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Using the sustainable livelihoods analytical framework, adaptability of cattle raising to multiple stressors (e.g. climate change and market conditions) in the dry tropics of Chiapas, Mexico was evaluated. Three case studies located in the Frailesca region of Chiapas were analyzed: (I) peasant cattle raising in a rural village in the Frailesca Valley; (II) peasant cattle raising in a rural village in a natural protected area in the Frailesca Highlands; and (III) holistic cattle raising by farmers with private land ownership in the Frailesca Valley. Adaptability was evaluated using an index on a scale of one to a hundred; average values were: case I = 20.9 ± 1.4; case II = 32.1 ± 1.8; and case III = 63.6 ± 3.5. In order to increase farms adaptability and reduce the vulnerability of cattle raising families, there is a need to modify public policy to take into account the conditions of the most vulnerable farmers (cases I and II). Given the economic, environmental, and social context of Mexico´s dry tropics, establishing ecological or organic cattle raising and silvopastoral systems may reduce the vulnerability of farm families and increase their level of adaptability of their farms to multiple stressors.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Adaptive capacity and social-ecological resilience of coastal areas: a systematic review
Ferro Azcona, Hakna ; Espinoza Tenorio, Alejandro (coaut.) ; Calderón Contreras, Rafael (coaut.) ; Ramenzoni, Victoria C. (coaut.) ; Gómez País, Gloria de Las Mercedes (coaut.) ; Mesa Jurado, María Azahara (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Ocean and Coastal Management Vol. 173 (May de 2019), p. 36-51 ISSN: 0964-5691
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Establishing protected areas constitutes one of the main strategies for the conservation of marine and coastal ecosystems. Increasing risks associated with environmental change along with highly degraded coastal ecosystems encompass complex management challenges for the long-term sustainability of these landscapes. This article aims to explore the role of protected areas in past and ongoing community adaptation to the compounded effects of climatic and anthropogenic change. A literature review of published articles is conducted through systematic queries of the bibliographic database Web of Sciences, and by comparing adaptation and socialecological resilience processes within and out of coastal protected areas. Findings underscore the absence of specific studies that target these topics inside protected areas, highlighting a geographic bias towards research largely carried out in developed countries. Results also indicate the current need for management practices within protected areas to adopt more participatory, comprehensive, and flexible approaches. Protected areas not only promote the conservation and provision of ecosystem services but are also key in building coastal communities' adaptive capacity and resilience in face of future scenarios.


8.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Agro-ecosystem services assessment of silvopastoral experiences in Chiapas, Mexico: towards a methodological proposal
Marinidou, Eleni ; Jiménez Ferrer, Guillermo (coaut.) ; Soto Pinto, Lorena (coaut.) (1958-) ; Ferguson, Bruce G. (coaut.) (1967-) ; Saldívar Moreno, Antonio (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Experimental Agriculture Vol. 55, no. 1 (February 2019), p. 21-37 ISSN: 00144797
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In response to the current needs of humanity with regard to food production, environmental disasters and climate change, it is important to define (livestock) production systems and management practices that are both productive and ecologically sustainable. We qualitatively assessed advanced silvopastoral experiences in five ecologically and culturally distinct regions in Chiapas, Mexico, given their ability to provide key services: internal (productivity and productive resiliency) and external (climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation). We propose 20 indicators that reflect management, resources, use of external inputs, availability of food, commercial products and animal feed and trees in grazing and forest areas. Sets of some indicators form criteria for dependence on external inputs, productive diversification with emphasis on food security, soil conservation, tree cover and landscape connectivity, among others. Indicators and thresholds were adjusted to critical (traffic light) levels, based on field data. Comparing the levels reached by the studied experiences, we found that most of the resulting services go hand in hand; so ‘win–win’ situations are possible to be achieved. The elements and practices that affect both internal and external services were explored. The red light critical points in each production unit were identified so that they could be attended. Experiences that presented higher levels in assessment criteria could serve as examples to enable the improvement of livestock systems under similar conditions. We propose this assessment as a tool for rapid intervention that can be widely applied to livestock systems, from conventional to organic or diversified, because of the criteria used.

However, it can be more flexible, as new criteria can be added and thresholds can be adjusted for other types of production systems, always reflecting local and desired conditions. The proposed indicators can be also used as a basis for a quantitative agroecosystem assessment.


9.
Artículo
Anomalía climática medieval y la pequeña edad de hielo en Quintana Roo
Carrillo Bastos, Alicia (autora) ; Islebe, Gerald A. (autor) ; Ulanie Rosas, Chloe Brynie (autora) ; Villegas Sánchez, Carmen Amelia (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: AvaCiet Año 4, volumen 6, número 1 (enero-junio 2019), p. 95-105
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

En el presente estudio se analizan las señales en Quintana Roo, de eventos climáticos globales como la Anomalía Climática Medieval (ACM) y la Pequeña Edad de Hielo (PEH), a través de la comparación de registros sedimentarios de isótopos estables (δ18O/δ16O) y la relación de estos con teleconexiones y forzamientos climáticos por medio de la comparación de distintos sitios. La variabilidad climática fue inferida a partir de la relación de valores de isótopos estables de oxígeno (δ18O/δ16O) medida en la calcita de restos de organismos y a partir del porcentaje de titanio acumulado en sedimentos marinos. La Anomalía Climática Medieval y la Pequeña Edad de Hielo podrían estar vinculados a cambios en la irradiancia solar, las fases de El Niño-Oscilación del Sur y la migración de la Zona Intertropical de Convergencia (ITCZ). La discusión sugiere que las sequías en Quintana Roo ocurren durante fases de baja irradiancia solar, la condición tipo-Niño y la consecuente migración al Sur de la ITCZ. Durante las fases de mayor precipitación cuando la irradiancia solar aumenta, se presenta la condición tipo-Niña (fase negativa del ENSO) y la permanencia en el Norte de la ITCZ. Este mecanismo parece haber regulado el clima durante la ACM, en la cual se presentaron condiciones principalmente húmedas, mientras que en la PEH ocurrieron dos fases sostenidas de sequía.

Resumen en inglés

We analyze the expression of the global climatic events such as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (ACM) and the Little Ice Age (PEH) in Quintana Roo by comparing stable isotope sedimentary records (δ18O / δ16O) and the relationship of those with teleconnections and climate forcing through the analysis of sediment cores from different sites. Climate variability has been inferred through the relationship of the value of the stable isotope of oxygen (δ18O/δ16O) that was measured from calcium carbonate of skeletal remains and from the percentage of titanium that accumulated in marine deposits offshore Venezuela. The Medieval Climatic Anomaly and the Little Ice Age could be linked to changes in the solar irradiance, the El Niño Southern Oscillation phases and the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The discussion suggests that dry conditions occur during phases of low solar irradiance, the El Niño-like condition and the consequent southward migration of the ITCZ. And the phases of greater precipitation when the solar irradiance increases, the La Niña-Like condition (negative phase of the ENSO) and the ITCZ is situated north of the Equator. This mechanism seems to have regulated the climate during the ACM, in which humid conditions dominated the Quintana Roo. During the PEH two protracted phases of drought occurred.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Between environmental change and neoliberalism: the effects of oil palm production on livelihood resilience
Abrams, Jesse ; Pischke, Erin C. (coaut.) ; Mesa Jurado, María Azahara (coaut.) ; Eastmond Spencer, Amarella (coaut.) ; Silva, Chelsea A. (coaut.) ; Moseley, Cassandra (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Society & Natural Resources An International Journal Vol. 32, no. 5 (June 2019), p. 548–565 ISSN: 0894-1920
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Rural communities worldwide are increasingly confronted with the simultaneous impacts of environmental change dynamics and processes of economic restructuring that diminish traditional sources of state support while shifting investments toward large-scale intensive production models. A key question in this context is how livelihoods are affected by these interacting forces of change and whether new production models can contribute to resilience at the household and community scales. Here we examine the impacts of oil palm production on marginal rural communities in Mexico that have experienced both the economic changes associated with neoliberal policy reforms and the dynamics of environmental change. We find that oil palm production can contribute to livelihood resilience when community members participate in its management and governance and when production is associated with state support, but that the kinds of neoliberal policies promoting oil palm expansion may exacerbate existing community vulnerabilities in the face of environmental change.