Términos relacionados

66 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Explotación agrícola en pequeña escala
  • «
  • 1 de 7
  • »
1.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Effects of on-farm diversification strategies on smallholder coffee farmer food security and income sufficiency in Chiapas, Mexico
Anderzén, Janica (autora) ; Guzmán Luna, Alejandra (autora) ; Luna González, Diana V. (autora) ; Merrill, Scott C. (autor) ; Caswell, Martha (autora) ; Méndez, V. Ernesto (autor) ; Hernández Jonapá, Rigoberto (autor) ; Mier y Terán Giménez Cacho, Mateo (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Journal of Rural Studies Volume 77 (July 2020), pages 33-46 ISSN: 0743-0167
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a

2.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Governing intensification: the influence of state institutions on smallholder farming strategies in Calakmul, Mexico
Dobler Morales, Carlos (autor) ; Roy Chowdhury, Rinku (autor) ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Journal of Land Use Science Volumen 15, números 2-3 (May 2020), páginas 108-126 ISSN: 1747-4248
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In forest frontiers, smallholder agrarian livelihoods remain uneasily jux-taposed with conservation interests. Agricultural intensification is often considered a viable means of reconciling competing environmental and livelihood objectives given its potential to concentrate production onless land. However, intensification may have unintended consequences, including loss of resilient agricultural systems. The risks of smallholder agricultural intensification warrant a better understanding of its drivers. This study uses the case of Calakmul, Mexico, to examine the critical role of the state in intensification processes. Drawing on household surveys and key-informant interviews, it traces the linkages between state institutions and local farming practices. Statistical and qualitative analyses reveal how intensification is both incentivized and imposed by prevailing policies, the former via subsidies and the latter via regulations against field rotations. The outcome – increased external inputs and longer cultivation periods between fallows – may undermine the sustainability of smallholders’ agroecosystems, an undesirable consequence amid limited livelihood alternatives.


3.
Artículo
Living smallholder vulnerability: the everyday experience of y climate change in Calakmul, Mexico
Green, Lisa (autora) ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (autora) ; Radel, Claudia (autora) ; Márdero Jiménez, Silvia Sofía (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Journal of Latin American Geography Volumen 19, número 2, artículo 6 (March 2020), páginas 1-44 ISSN: 1548-5811
Resumen en español

Si bien la academia ha reconocido que la vulnerabilidad de individuos y comunidades al cambio climático es altamente influenciada por su estatus social, las políticas públicas siguen partiendo frecuentemente del supuesto de comunidades agrícolas homogéneas. Sin embargo, los residentes experimentan su propia vulnerabilidad de manera individual. Nuestra investigación exploró cómo los residentes de Calakmul, México, percibieron y se desenvolvieron frente a su propia vulnerabilidad al cambio climático. Cincuenta y cinco entrevistas semiestructuradas en 2013 y cuarenta y tres entrevistas de seguimiento en 2016 proporcionan información sobre la percepción de los efectos del cambio climático en sus modos de vida, actividades, salud y la escasez de alimentos. El análisis se centró en los patrones de la vida diaria de los residentes, en las experiencias vividas, y en cómo esto varía entre comunidades, hogares e individuos. La situación de cada comunidad y el acceso a los distintos recursos, así como las variaciones en las actividades de subsistencia y otras circunstancias configuraron el sentido de vulnerabilidad de los entrevistados. Además, los residentes informaron una variedad de opciones para hacer frente a los efectos del cambio climático, la mayoría de las cuales requerían aportaciones en efectivo. Sin embargo, informaron que las oportunidades normales de obtener dinero en efectivo a través del trabajo asalariado agrícola también se han visto reducidas por el cambio climático.

Resumen en inglés

Despite established science on climate change vulnerability as mediated by social status, policy discussions of climate change vulnerabilities often still treat smallholder farming communities as largely undifferentiated. Residents themselves, however, experience their own vulnerability in the context of their individual lives. Our research explored how residents of Calakmul, Mexico, perceived and experienced their own vulnerability to climate change. Fifty-five semi-structured interviews in 2013 and forty-three follow-up interviews in 2016 provide data on perceived effects of climate-related stressors on their livelihood activities, health, and experiences of hunger. Analysis focused on patterns in residents’ everyday, lived experiences and on variation among individuals and families. Community status and associated resource access, variations in livelihood activities, and other situational aspects shaped interviewees’ sense of their own vulnerabilities. In addition, residents reported a variety of options for coping with the effects of climate change, most of which required cash inputs. Yet they also reported that normal opportunities for obtaining cash through agricultural wage labor were likewise curtailed by climate change.


4.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Los mayas y la agricultura de riego en el Oriente de Yucatán
Cortés Campos, Inés ; Castillo Burguete, María Teresa (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Desacatos Año 2, no. 3 (septiembre-diciembre 2019), p. 130-149 ISSN: 1607-050X
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
PDF
Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

El artículo se inscribe en el campo de la investigación social sobre el pequeño riego en México, que resalta el papel de la organización social y la cultura en el uso de esta tecnología hidráulica. El objetivo es analizar los usos del pequeño riego entre los mayas del Oriente de Yucatán y mostrar su punto de vista respecto a las ventajas y desventajas de los tipos de irrigación a los que han tenido acceso. El propósito era conocer cuál de estas tecnologías tiene mayor perspectiva de éxito por su adecuación a las percepciones, racionalidades económicas, escala de producción y formas de organización social y de trabajo de los productores. Concluimos que el riego por goteo es la tecnología más accesible y ventajosa para la producción comercial a pequeña escala y el tipo de cultivos.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Special issue editorial: what do we mean by agroecological scaling?
Ferguson, Bruce G. (1967-) ; Aldasoro Maya, Elda Miriam (coaut.) ; Giraldo Palacio, Omar Felipe (coaut.) ; Mier y Terán Giménez Cacho, Mateo (coaut.) ; Morales, H. (coaut.) ; Rosset, Peter Michael (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems Vol. 43, no. 7-8 (Aug. 2019), p. 722-723 ISSN: 2168-3565
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a

6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Subsistence migration: Smallholder food security and the maintenance of agriculture through mobility in Nicaragua
Carte, Lindsey (autora) ; Radel, Claudia (autora) ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (autora) ;
Contenido en: Geographical Journal Vol. 185, no. 2 (June 2019), p. 180-193 ISSN: 1475-4959
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Research on Central American migration has revealed the importance of journeys to the global North for rural sending communities. The outcomes of south–south journeys to nearby countries are less explored, although they are commonplace. We examine Nicaraguan rural residents’ migration to other Central American countries, especially El Salvador, to understand this migration's impacts on agricultural systems and food security. Based on mixed‐methods fieldwork in north‐western Nicaragua, we find that rather than produce remittance landscapes, or an abandonment of agriculture, south–south migration is linked to the maintenance of small‐scale agricultural systems and thus food production. “Subsistence migration,” or mobility to maintain small‐scale agriculture as a food security strategy, draws attention to how these less explored forms of migration in Central America help families to persist in agriculture in a context of worsening environmental and structural conditions.


7.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
(Des)estigmatizar la intermediación de alimentos en pos de mayor equidad. Espacios emergentes de comercialización frente a la gran distribución en Colombia
Roldán Rueda, Héctor Nicolás ; Gracia, María Amalia ;
Contenido en: Espacialidades Vol. 8, no. 2 (julio-diciembre 2018), p. ISSN: 2007-560X
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
PDF
Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Ante las dificultades para comercializar que tienen pequeños y medianos productores, han surgido iniciativas frente a la gran distribución de alimentos, protagonizadas por distintos actores sociales. Utilizando métodos cualitativos que privilegian la voz de sus actores, este texto busca discutir y ampliar postulados en torno a la intermediación a partir de dos experiencias representativas de la región central de Colombia, que dinamizan y diseñan estrategias de intermediación para favorecer la articulación y participación local, regional y nacional de actores campesinos y organizaciones sociales urbanas y rurales. Los resultados muestran posibilidades de construir procesos de intermediación solidaria para transformar la intermediación a partir de estrategias que representen mayores grados de autonomía, reciprocidad y equidad entre sus participantes.

Resumen en inglés

Given how difficult it is for small and medium food producers to commercialize their products, several initiatives against large-scale food distribution have emerged, being carried out by different social actors. Using qualitative methods that focus on the voice of social actors, the text discusses and broadens the postulates around intermediation, based on two representative experiences in the central region of Colombia. These experiences dynamize and design intermediation strategies which support the local, regional, and national articulation and participation of peasant actors, as well as that of urban and rural social organizations. The results showcase the possibilities for the construction of solidarity intermediation processes for transforming the intermediation, based on strategies that involve stronger levels of autonomy, reciprocity, and equity among participants.


8.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Evolutionary and food supply implications of ongoing maize domestication by Mexican campesinos
Bellon Corrales, Mauricio Rafael ; Mastretta Yanes, Alicia (coaut.) ; Ponce Mendoza, Alejandro (coaut.) ; Ortiz Santamaría, Daniel (coaut.) ; Oliveros Galindo, Oswaldo (coaut.) ; Perales Rivera, Hugo Rafael (coaut.) ; Acevedo, Francisca (coaut.) ; Sarukhán Kermez, José (coaut.) (1940-) ;
Contenido en: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Vol. 285, no. 1885 (August 2018), p. 48-57 ISSN: 0962-8452
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Maize evolution under domestication is a process that continues today. Case studies suggest that Mexican smallholder family farmers, known as campesinos, contribute importantly to this, but their significance has not been explicitly quantified and analysed as a whole. Here, we examine the evolutionary and food security implications of the scale and scope under which campesinos produce maize. We gathered official municipal-level data on maize production under rainfed conditions and identified campesino agriculture as occurring in municipalities with average yields of less than or equal to 3 t ha-¹. Environmental conditions vary widely in those municipalities and are associated with a great diversity of maize races, representing 85.3% of native maize samples collected in the country. We estimate that in those municipalities, around 1.38 10¹¹ genetically different individual plants are subjected to evolution under domestication each season. This implies that 5.24 108 mother plants contribute to the next generation with their standing genetic diversity and rare alleles. Such a large breeding population size also increases the total number of adaptive mutations that may appear and be selected for. We also estimate that campesino agriculture could potentially feed around 54.7 million people in Mexico. These analyses provide insights about the contributions of smallholder agriculture around the world.


9.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Local response to global uncertainty: insights from experimental economics in small-scale fisheries
Finkbeiner, Elena M. (autora) ; Micheli, Fiorenza (autora) ; Sáenz Arroyo de los Cobos, María Andrea (autora) (1971-) ; Vázquez Vera, Leonardo (autor) ; Perafan, C. A. (coaut.) ; Cárdenas, Juan Camilo (autor) ;
Contenido en: Global Environmental Change Vol. 48 (January 2018), p. 151-157 ISSN: 0959-3780
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Global change has systematically increased uncertainty for people balancing short-term needs with long-term resource sustainability. Here, we aim to understand how uncertainty drives changes in human behavior and the underlying mechanisms mediating use of behavioral strategies. We utilize a novel behavioral approach – dynamic common-pool resource economic experiments in the field – and apply it to small-scale fisheries as a system that is particularly vulnerable to global change. Contrary to previous research, we find that when faced with higher uncertainty, resource users are choosing to reduce harvest to compensate for potential future declines. Correlates of this behavior include the capacity for social learning, previous exposure to uncertainty, and strong local institutions. These findings have important implications for any local system facing increased uncertainty from global change. Given adequate access to resources and rights, local communities can be active agents of change, capable of addressing and mitigating impacts of processes generated by higher scales.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Smallholder response to environmental change: impacts of coffee leaf rust in a forest frontier in Mexico
Valencia, Vivian ; García Barrios, Luis Enrique (coaut.) ; Sterling, Eleanor J. (coaut.) ; West, Paige (coaut.) ; Meza Jiménez, Amayrani (coaut.) ; Naeem, Shahid (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Land Use Policy Vol. 79 (December 2018), p. 463-474 ISSN: 0264-8377
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Coffee agroforestry systems are a promising approach to the challenge of sustaining both biodiversity and livelihoods in tropical landscapes. However, coffee farmers' response to the unrelenting coffee leaf rust (CLR) outbreak may have repercussions for the potential of coffee agroforestry systems to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Adaptations in management practices could affect the extent to which farmers rely on ecological processes vs. external inputs (e.g., agrochemicals) to support production. This study investigates farmers' response to CLR outbreak through a study in a forest frontier in a Biosphere Reserve in Chiapas, Mexico. We conducted household surveys and fieldwork before the CLR outbreak in 2011-2012 (n = 59), and follow-up surveys after the outbreak in 2016 (n = 48). Before CLR outbreak, farmers were cultivating Arabica coffee varieties in agroforestry systems and generally following agroecological approaches. Most farmers (82%) were certified organic and did not employ synthetic agrochemicals. Farmers (66%) had plans to expand their Arabica coffee agroforests either into forest (35%) or fallow (31%) in response to high farm gate prices. After CLR outbreak, 94% of farmers had CLR-resistant hybrid coffee varieties (HCV) in their possession and were either incorporating them by substituting affected Arabica coffee plants in existing fields, or by establishing new coffee fields with HCV at lower elevations. In attempts to control CLR, farmers (54%) also applied agrochemicals at least once and, to a lesser extent (19%), removed shade trees. Among the farmers (63%) who were planning on expanding coffee production with HCV, more farmers were planning on expanding on fallow (46%) than forest (17%) compared to the period before CLR outbreak (p-value < 0.05). Public and private actors promoted and distributed saplings of HCV and agrochemicals along with technical assistance.

The promotion of HCV along with fertilizers may result in a substitution of ecosystem functions with agrochemicals, and the need to acquire seeds and saplings outside of farmers’ own resource base and networks. This shift in management strategies generates new instabilities and risks by introducing a new market for HCV about which little is known and by making external agents the holders of productive resources and knowledge.