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4 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Jol Cacualá, Chilón (Chiapas, México)
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1.
Artículo
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Tree quality in agroforestry systems managed by small-scale mayan farmers in Chiapas, Mexico
Soto Pinto, Lorena (1958-) ; Anzueto Martínez, Manuel de Jesús (coaut.) ; Martínez Zurimendi, Pablo (coaut.) ; Jiménez Ferrer, Guillermo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Vol. 16, no. 1 (March 2017), p. 103–118 ISSN: 1873-7854
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Increasingly, plantations for food, fiber and wood, are necessary to provide a growing world population. Agroforestry systems become more and more important, however these systems usually develop in marginal conditions, limited land, restricted funding, occasional technical support and above this, there is limited documentation and evaluation of innovated traditional systems in indigenous and small-scale contexts, which challenge forest scientists. The aim of this research was to assess the quality of trees in plots managed by Mayan indigenous farmers who planted agroforestry systems with fine wood species to increase the value of land and labor in localities with highly-marginal social conditions in Northern Chiapas, Me´xico. Twenty oldest plots were selected within a group of previously established plots (eight with improved fallow, six with shaded coffee and six with maize crop associated to trees) where forest inventories were carried out in nested 100 and 1000 m2-circular plots. In all plots tree diameter, height, quality indicators and the incidence of the pest Hypsipyla grandella were measured. Trees in the maizeassociated- to-trees system are favored by the practices applied to annual crop during the first 3rd–5th years, a period in which they are free from the interference of other trees and benefit from favorable light conditions, weeding and a higher intensive care from the farmer while shaded coffee and improved fallow have higher tree densities and a more closed canopy condition than maize associated to trees. In consequence, maize associated to trees shows 68.1 % stems with good form; shaded coffee and improved fallow averaged 40.5 and 39.7 % of good quality stems, respectively; improved fallow exhibited a greater number of suppressed trees than shaded coffee and maize associated to trees (p\0.0001).

In addition, maize associated to trees showed the highest proportion of trees with commercial value with 56.9 %, followed by improved fallow with 28.2 %, and shaded coffee with 11.8 % (p\0.0001); the rest were trees with domestic uses. However, maize associated to trees significantly result with high incidence of H. grandella probably due to the crown exposure. Timber volume averaged 92.9 ± 68.9 m3 for improved fallow, 77.3 ± 24.8 m3 for shaded coffee, and 52.5 ± 39.7 m3 for maize associated to trees. The value of the fine wood represents increment in income, variety of products and self-employment for households. Nonetheless, improved fallow and coffee plantations might benefit from the elimination of competitors from larger trees to favor promising immature ones and pruning, while maize crop associated to trees might benefit from opportune pruning for controlling the stem borer as well as tree replacement to achieve long term replacement and harvesting.


2.
Artículo
Agroforestería social para la captura de carbono en Chiapas: más allá del incentivo económico
Ruíz de Oña Plaza, Celia ; Soto Pinto, Lorena (1958-) ;
Contenido en: Revista Internacional de Ciencias Sociales Interdisciplinares Vol. 4, no. 2 (2015), p. 249-265 ISSN: 2254-7207
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Este estudio es una aproximación etnográfica a la experiencia de campesinos indígenas de Chiapas, México, participantes en un proyecto de pagos por servicios ambientales con fines de restauración ecológica y reforestación, el proyecto Scolel-Té, pionero en el establecimiento de parcelas agroforestales para la captura de carbono. El objetivo es comprender qué papel juega el incentivo económico en la permanencia o abandono de la siembra de árboles en la milpa desde la racionalidad del productor. Mediante la aplicación de entrevistas a profundidad con campesinos indígenas en cuatro zonas del proyecto y en diferentes fases de establecimiento de los sistemas agroforestales, se investiga cómo valoran los participantes en el proyecto los conocimientos adquiridos; las actitudes hacia los cambios ambientales en sus territorios; las modificaciones introducidas en sus estrategias productivas a raíz de la siembra de árboles; las motivaciones que llevan a participar en el proyecto y a continuar una vez finalice el pago; y cómo valoran los productores su experiencia. Se concluye que la adopción inicial de la práctica de sembrar árboles en parcelas de cultivo es alta y está fuertemente impulsada por el pago por captura de carbono. Sin embargo, la integración de las prácticas agroforestales desligadas de un incentivo económico es débil.

Resumen en inglés

This study employs an ethnographic approach to the experience of indigenous peasants in Chiapas, Mexico, participating in a project of payments for environmental services for the purpose of ecological restoration and reforestation, The Scolel-Té project, which pioneered the establishment of agroforestry plots to capture carbon. The objective is to understand what role the economic incentive plays in the permanence or the abandonment of the practice of planting trees in the milpa system from the rationality of the peasants. By applying in-depth interviews with indigenous farmers in four project areas and at different stages of establishment of agroforestry systems, we explore the acquired knowledge of the peasants; attitudes towards environmental change in their territories; amendments to its productive system as a result of tree planting strategies; the motivations for participating in the project and the integration of agroforestry practices after completion of the payment; and how producers value their experience. We conclude that the initial adoption of the practice of planting trees in farmer agricultural plots is high and is strongly driven by the payment for carbon sequestration. However, the integration of agroforestry practices detached from an economic incentive is weak.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Carbon stocks in organic coffee systems in Chiapas, Mexico
Soto Pinto, Lorena (1958-) ; Aguirre Dávila, Carlos Mario (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Agricultural Science Vol. 7, no. 1 (2015), p. 117-128 ISSN: 1916-9752
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Agroforestry systems contribute to the maintenance of ecosystem functions, especially agrisilvicultural systems such as shade coffee systems. However, the role of organic crops to store carbon has been scarcely investigated. This study aimed to quantify carbon stocks in organic polyculture coffee plantations, non-organic polyculture plantations, and organic Inga spp.-shaded coffee systems in northern Chiapas, Mexico. Vegetation inventories were carried out in 1,000and 100 m2 circular plots from six agroforestry communities. Carbon stocks were estimated from living biomass and roots through allometric formulas; dead biomass and soil organic matter (0- 0.3 m- in depth) were collected, dried, weighted and processed for laboratory analysis. Firstly, results showed that living biomass contributed about 30% of total carbon; soil organic carbon particularly contributed between 56 and 70%; while dead organic matter represented between 3 and 5% of total carbon in the system. Organic polyculture coffee plantations stored significantly more carbon in soil (0.1-0.3 m in depth) and tree biomass than non-organic polyculture coffee plantations. These stocks were intermediate in organic Inga spp.-shaded coffee system. Secondly, dead organic matter was statistically similar between systems.

Thus, organic polyculture coffee plantations, non-organic polyculture, and organic Inga spp.-shade system stored 194.7, 134.9, and 154.3 Mg C ha-1 of total carbon, respectively. In the same order, these systems stored in live aboveground biomass 57.5, 53.0, and 46.9 Mg C ha-1, respectively. Dead organic matter had similar amounts of C stored in the three studied systems (6.3 Mg C ha-1). The amounts of total carbon stocks in organic coffee were higher than those reported for others in coffee plantations in Central America and, particularly, similar to some dry and semi-humid forests and other agrisilvicultural systems in Mexico. The results highlight the importance of coffee, especially organic coffee to provide the environmental function of carbon sequestration.


4.
Capítulo de libro - Memoria en extenso sin arbitraje
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Incidencia de Hypsipyla grandella Zeller en sistemas agroforestales de la zona Tzeltal de Chiapas, México
Soto Pinto, Lorena (autora) (1958-) ; Delgadillo Ramírez, Marcela (autora) ; Anzueto Martínez, Manuel de Jesús (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Resúmenes : x congreso internacional de manejo integrado de plagas y agroecología / Alfredo Castillo, Jaime Gómez, Helda Morales, Jorge Toledo y Ramón Jarquín, editores Tapachula, Chiapas, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, 2006 p. 69-70 ISBN:970-9712-22-5
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal , Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
51803-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
51803-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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