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20 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Leucaena leucocephala
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1.
Artículo
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Fine root density and vertical distribution of Leucaena leucocephala and grasses in silvopastoral systems under two harvest intervals
Montejo Martínez, David (autor) ; Díaz Echeverria, Víctor Francisco (autor) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ; Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Canul Solís, Jorge Rodolfo (autor) ; Escobedo Mex, José Guadalupe (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Agroforest Syst Volumen 94, número 3 (June 2020), páginas 843-855 ISSN: 1572-9680
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Understanding belowground morphological mechanisms of trees and grasses is a complicated task but can help in the design and management of silvopastoral systems. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the harvest intervals (i.e. 30 and 50 days) of aboveground biomass on the fine root density and vertical distribution in two silvopastoral systems (SPS): one comprising Leucaena leucocephala (legume tree) and Cynodon plectostachyus (grass) and the other L. leucocephala and Panicum maximum. We used a completely randomized design with four repetitions. We sampled fine roots by using a metal cylinder (8 cm diameter and 50 cm length) 7 days after each harvest. We washed the samples with pressurized water to separate them from the soil. The roots were digitalized at a resolution of 600 dpi to determine the diameter and specific root length by using IJ Rhizo Ò software. Samples were subsequently dried to quantify fine root mass. We found that the greater percentages of fine roots were between 0.4 and 0.8 mm for the legume and between 0.2 and 0.4 mm for grasses. The fine root length and mass density of P. maximum was higher (P\0.001) compared to C. plectostachyus in both harvest intervals. However, the fine root density of L. leucocephala did not vary between SPS (P> 0.05). The effect of harvest interval was significant only in some soil layers in both SPS (P> 0.05). Most of the pasture roots were found in the upper soil layer (0–20 cm), while L. leucocephala roots were present to deeper soil layers. We conclude that P. maximum has a greater rooting capacity and amore rapid recovery than C. plectostachyus, which has greater diameters and lower root density. However, L. leucocephala presented deeper and thicker fine rootsin both SPS, which is a good indication of its belowground recovery capacity to aboveground disturbances.


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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Se evaluaron mediante la técnica de producción de gas in vitro, fuentes energéticas locales (melaza, Zea mays L.y Musa paradisiaca L.) sobre la fermentación ruminal y producción de metano de diversos forrajes usados en un sistema silvopastoril con Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)yLeucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, con ovinos. Se usaroncinco borregos Pelibuey x Katahdin 40 ± 3 (μ±DE) kg como donantes de líquido ruminal. Se analizaron cinco tratamientos (dietas) con diferentes mezclas de follaje de arbóreas y fuentes energéticas en un diseño experimental completamente al azar. M. paradisiacay Z. mayspresentaron los mayores registros devolumen (V) máximo en producción de gas (544 y 467 ml/g-1 MS, respectivamente) (P≤0.05). El follaje de G. sepiumy L. leucocephala tuvieron los menores valores de V (253 y 180 ml/g-1 MS, respectivamente) (P≤0.05). La dieta D4 GMP (48 % P. maximum, 30 % G. sepium, 7 % Zea mays, 15 % M. paradisiaca) registro el mayor valor de V. No hubo diferencia(P>0.05) en la producción de metano en las dietas usadas, teniendo un rango de 6.31 a 9.60 de LCH4/kg MSDIG. Se generó un índice de emisión potencial de gases fermentables (IPEGF), el cual sugirió que dietas con carbohidratos de lenta fermentación, contribuyen a un índice más alto de emisión de gases. Por su mejoramiento en la calidad de las dietas y en contribuir en una baja de emisiones de CH4, se sugiere el manejo de arbóreas forrajeras como G. sepium y L. leucocephala,incorporando fuentes energéticas locales.

Resumen en inglés

Ruminal fermentation and methane production in a sheep silvopastoral system were quantified with the in vitro gas production technique. Evaluations were done of local energy sources (molasses, Zea mays L. and Musa paradisiaca L.), of the base forage (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), of forage tree foliage (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham), and diets combining these elements. Ruminal fluid was collected from five sheep (Pelibuey x Katahdin; 40 ± 3 kg). Five treatments (diets) containing different mixtures of forage tree foliage, energy sources and the base forage were analyzed in a completely random experimental design. Maximum gas volume production (V) was observed in M. paradisiaca (544 ml/g-¹ DM) and Z. mays (467 ml/g-¹ DM) (P≤0.05). The lowest V values were for the foliage of G. sepium (253 ml/g-¹ DM) and L. leucocephala (180 ml/g-¹ DM) (P≤0.05). Of the diets, D4GMP (48% P. maximum, 30% G. sepium, 7% Z. mays, 15% M. paradisiaca) had the highest V value. Methane production ranged from 6.31 to 9.60 L/Kg digested DM, and did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Data were used to generate a potential fermentable gases emission index, which suggested that the diets containing slow fermenting carbohydrates resulted in higher gas emission rates. Inclusion of forage trees and local energy sources in sheep silvopastoral management systems can improve diet quality and contributeto reducing CH4 emissions.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Carbon stocks in biomass and soils of woody species fodder banks in the dry tropics of Mexico
Casanova Lugo, Fernando (autor) ; Petit Aldana, Judith (autora) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (autor) ; Ward, Sheila Emily (autora) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (autor) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Soil Use and Management Vol. 34, no. 4 (December 2018), p. 500-509 ISSN: 2007-4476
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Understanding carbon (C) dynamics of the silvopastoral systems can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the C concentration and storage in above- and belowground tree biomass as well as in the soils of fodder banks of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia (Lam.) or a combination of the both species. The above- and belowground biomass was quantified by the destructive sampling. We also obtained samples from soil pits, 20-cm deep, and determined bulk density and organic carbon concentration. The mixed species banks produced more foliage dry matter (DM) (6.3 t DM/ha) than the pure fodder banks. The total living biomass stocks ranged from 31.5 to 33.5 t DM/ha and did not differ between fodder bank types. The tissue C concentration was greater in stems (45.1%) and roots (44.9%) compared to the foliage component (43.4%). Total soil carbon (TSC) in the 5–10 cm layer was greater in the fodder banks with legumes alone than in mixed species banks (35.7 vs. 30.8 t C/ha). TSC storage in the 15–20 cm layer was greater in the nonlegume fodder bank than in the legume fodder bank (39.8 vs. 34.5 t C/ha). However, to the 0–20 cm layer, TSC was similar for all fodder banks. Thus, the three types of fodder banks had similar total C storage in plant biomass and soil, but the production of foliage biomass was higher in the mixed species banks.


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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Objective: The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of increasing amounts of Leucaena leucocephala forage on dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), enteric methane production, rumen fermentation pattern and protozoa population in cattle fed Pennisetum purpureum and housed in respiration chambers. Methods: Five crossbred heifers (Bos taurus×Bos indicus) (BW: 295±6 kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of dry matter [DM]) in a 5×5 Latin square design. Results: The voluntary intake and methane production were measured for 23 h per day in respiration chambers; molar proportions of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were determined at 6 h postprandial period. Molar concentration of VFAs in rumen liquor were similar (p>0.05) between treatments. However, methane production decreased linearly (p<0.005), recording a maximum reduction of up to ∼61% with 80% of DM incorporation of L. leucocephala in the ration and no changes (p>0.05) in rumen protozoa population were found. Conclusion: Inclusion of 80% of L. leucocephala in the diet of heifers fed low-quality tropical forages has the capacity to reduce up to 61.3% enteric methane emission without affecting DMI, OMI, and protozoa population in rumen liquor.


5.
Capítulo de libro
Almacenamiento de carbono en bancos de forraje de especies leñosas en Yucatán
Casanova Lugo, Fernando ; Petit Aldana, Judith (coaut.) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco (coaut.) ; Díaz Echeverria, Víctor Francisco (coaut.) ; Villanueva López, Gilberto (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ; López Martínez, Jorge Omar (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Estado actual del conocimiento del ciclo del carbono y sus interacciones en México: Síntesis a 2017 Texcoco, Estado de México, México : Programa Mexicano del Carbono, 2018 página 583-589 ISBN:978-607-96490-5-0
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
B9950 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The aim of this study was to assess the e ff ect of the inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala on dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum and housed in metabolic crates. Five crossbred ( Bos taurus × Bos indicus ) heifers (BW: 295 ± 6 kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and fi ve increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The intake of DM was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments, with an average of 7.03 kg of DM/ day. While the crude protein intake (CPI) linearly increased (P < 0.001) with the inclusion of L. leucocephala , the DM digestibility (average 492.3 g/kg DM) and OM digestibility (average 501.6 g/kg OM) were not a ff ected (P > 0.05) by the incorporation of L. leucocephala into the ration. The N intake and excretion in the urine increased linearly (P = 0.0001, 0.0001) as the level of L. leucocephala in the ration increased. In addition, methane energy loss as a percentage of that in the control ration, was of only 61% (P = 0.0005) with 80% incorporation of L. leucocephala in the ration. We concluded that the inclusion of L. leucocephala has the capacity to reduce energy losses in the form of methane emissions. Nevertheless, the energy losses in the urine increased with the addition of L. leucocephala to the ration, with the optimal levels of incorporation in the ration fl uctuating between 20 and 40% of the ration DM, which had no e ff ects on the dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI) or the digestibility of dry matter (DMD).


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

La dinámica del comportamiento ingestivo en pastoreo de los animales depende especialmente de la diversidad y variabilidad del forraje en el potrero. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento productivo y alimenticio en ovinos de pelo, en condiciones de pastoreo en sistemas silvopastoriles con Leucaena leucocephala y Cynodon plectostachyus en el trópico húmedo del estado de Yucatán, México. Se evaluó el sistema silvopastoril en la época de lluvias (junio a septiembre 2014) y en la época de seca (diciembre 2014 a febrero 2015). Se registró la conducta ingestiva de los ovinos en pastoreo por observación directa de 7 a 17 horas, registrando el tiempo dedicado a pastoreo de Cynodon plectostachyus (PE), pastoreo de maleza (PM), ramoneo de Leucaena leucocephala (RLl), rumia parado (RP), rumia en decúbito (RD) y consumo de agua (CA). El comportamiento de pastoreo de ovinos de pelo no fue afectado por la época del año, ni por la hora del día (p>0.05). Se observó un comportamiento similar (p>0.05) en el consumo de C. plectostachyus, L. leucocephala, maleza y RD; por lo consiguiente, la hora del día (mañana o tarde) no afectó el comportamiento ingestivo de los ovinos (p>0.05). Sin embargo, la mayor parte del tiempo en pastoreo fue dedicado al consumo de C. plectostachyus, maleza, RD, descanso, y consumo de agua a cualquier hora del día, en las dos épocas evaluadas. Se obtuvieron ganancias diarias de peso (GDP) de 16.80 g y 28.35 g en la época seca y de lluvias, respectivamente. Se concluye que el sistema silvopastoril conformado por Leucaena leucocephala y Cynodon plectostachyus incrementa el tiempo dedicado al pastoreo de gramíneas y puede ayudar a mantener el peso en ambas épocas del año.

Resumen en inglés

The dynamics of the ingestive behavior in grazing animals is especially dependent on the variety and variability of forage in the pasture. The objective of this work was to determine the productive and feeding behavior in hair sheep grazing in silvopastoral systems with Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon plectostachyus in the humid tropics in Yucatan, Mexico. The silvopastoral system was evaluated in the rainy season (June to September of 2014) and dry season (December to February of 2015). The ingestive behavior of sheep grazing by direct observation of 7 to 17 hours, recording the time to grazing Cynodon plectostachyus (GCP), grazing of weeds (GW), browsing of Leucaena leucocephala (BLl), rumia standing (RS), rumination in the lying position (RL) and water consumption (WC). The grazing behavior of hair sheep was not affected by the time of year neither by the time of day (p>0.05). Similar behavior was observed (p>0.05) in the consumption of C. plectostachyus, L. leucocephala, weeds and the RS. Similarly, the time of day (morning or afternoon) did not affect the behavior of the sheep (p>0.05). However, most of the grazing time was devoted to the consumption of C. plectostachyus, weeds, RS, rest and water consumption at any time of the day in the two seasons evaluated. Was obtained DWG of 16.80 g and 28.35 g in the dry season and rainy season, respectively. It is concluded that the silvopastoral system with Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon plectostachyus increases the time devoted to grazing of grasses and help maintenance of weight.


8.
Artículo - Memoria en extenso en libro con arbitraje
Digestibilidad aparente de la materia seca de Leucaena leucocephala en ovinos
Pérez Luna, Esaú de Jesús ; Pérez Luna, Yolanda del Carmen (coaut.) ; Jiménez Ferrer, Guillermo (coaut.) ; León Velasco, Humberto (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Congreso Mesoamericano de Investigación UNACH No. 2 (octubre 2015), p. 552-555 ISSN: 2395-8111
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9.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Forage yield and quality of Leucaena leucocephala and Guazuma ulmifolia in mixed and pure fodder banks systems in Yucatan, Mexico
Casanova Lugo, Fernando ; Petit Aldana, Judith (coaut.) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (coaut.) ; Parsons, David (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 88, no. 1 (February 2014), p. 29-39 ISSN: 0167-4366
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
53373-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In tropical areas of Mexico, Leucaena leucocephala is widely used in silvopastoral systems. However, little information exists on other native woody species of high forage potential, such as Guazuma ulmifolia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the components of biomass, forage yield and quality, and availability of N in fodder banks of L. leucocephala, G. ulmifolia, and a mixture of both species during dry and rainy seasons, under sub-humid tropical conditions. The experimental unit was a 5 9 10 m plot, containing three rows with 2 m between rows; each row had 20 plant positions with 0.50 m between plants.Within each plant position therewas either a single plant, in the case of purecrop, or two plants, in the case of mixed of both species. A complete randomized block design with three repetitions was used. In both seasons, therewere a significantly greater proportion of leaves in the G. ulmifolia fodder banks (71 %) and in mixed fodder banks (69 %) than in L. leucocephala fodder banks (64 %). Consequently, these systems had leaf-to-stem ratios of 2.4, 2.2 and 1.9, respectively.

The forage yield of fodder banks was not influenced by season. Themixed fodder bank had greater forage yield (5.1 t DM ha-1) than the L. leucocephala fodder bank (3.4 t DM ha-1) in each season. Additionally, the mixed fodder bank accumulated more forage yield during the experimental period (10.2 t DM ha-1 - year-1) than G. ulmifolia (9.0 t DM ha-1 year-1) or L. leucocephala (6.9 t DM ha-1 year-1). The concentrations of CP, C and C:N were not influenced by season. Forage NDF and ADF concentrations were greater in the rainy season (476 g kg-1 DM) compared with the dry season (325 g kg-1 DM). Mixed fodder banks had the greatest N yield (185.9 kg ha-1) and consequently the greatest availability of N (371.8 kg N ha-1 year-1). We conclude that mixed fodder banks of L. leucocephala and G. ulmifolia are a better option for improving productivity and forage quality in comparison with pure fodder banks in Yucatan, Mexico.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The impacts of a Silvopastoral System (SPS) upon animal productivity (daily and total weight gain), biomass availability and production system profitability were evaluated in two contrasting production systems, one with Brachiaria brizantha pasture and chicken manure feed and the other with Brachiaria brizantha in association with Leucaena leucocephala. The study was carried out in San Juan Chiquito de Esparza, in the county of Puntarenas, Costa Rica with an average temperature of 27°C and with an annual precipitation that varied between the 1500 and 2000 mm. The study was carried out in the dry as well as the rainy season, to be able to include data from both periods. To evaluate animal productivity, 12 weaned calves of mixed breed Brown-Brahmin with homogeneous phenotypic characteristics and an average weight of 193.83±20.71 kg were randomly distributed in an experimental design with two treatments and six repetitions. Biomass availability and grass and leucaena quality were measured in two treatments and during the wet and dry season. Economic analysis was performed with a partial budget and a 12 years model of both systems. The ANOVA results did not show significant differences with respect to daily or total weight gain between treatments in either wet or dry seasons but calves experienced significantly more weight gain in the rainy season than in the dry season, regardless of treatment. With regard to the Leucaena quality variables, significant differences were found between seasons for dry mass and tannins not for raw protein, DMD in vitro and mimosine. For the Brachiaria pasture, significant differences were found respect to availability dry mass, raw protein and DMD in vitro between treatments and between seasons. Economic results indicated that the silvopastoral system was more profitable than the conventional system in the 12 years model used. These overall results represent an importan