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415 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Paisajes
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1.
Artículo
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Effectiveness of Panama as an intercontinental land bridge for large mammals
Meyer, Ninon France Victoire (autora) ; Moreno, Ricardo (autor) ; Sutherland, Christopher (autor) ; De la Torre, José Antonio (autor) ; Esser, Helen J. (autora) ; Jordan, Christopher A. (autor) ; Olmos, Melva (autora) ; Ortega, Josué (autor) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (autor) ; Valdes, Samuel (autor) ; Jansen, Patrick A. (autor) ;
Contenido en: Conservation Biology Vol. 34, no. 1 (2020), p. 207–219 ISSN: 1434-4483
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Habitat fragmentation is a primary driver of wildlife loss, and establishment of biological corridors is a common strategy to mitigate this problem. A flagship example is the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC), which aims to connect protected forest areas between Mexico and Panama to allow dispersal and gene flow offorest organisms. Because forests across Central America have continued to degrade, the functioning of the MBC has been questioned, but reliable estimates of species occurrence were unavailable. Large mammals are suitable indicators of forest functioning, so we assessed their conservation status across the Isthmus of Panama, the narrowest section of the MBC. We used large-scale camera-trap surveys and hierarchical multispecies occupancy models in a Bayesian framework to estimate the occupancy of 9 medium to large mammals and developed an occupancy-weighted connectivity metric to evaluate species-specific functional connectivity. White-lippedpeccary (Tayassu pecari), jaguar (Panthera onca), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), white-tailed deer(Odocoileus virginianus), and tapir (Tapirus bairdii) had low expected occupancy along the MBC in Panama. Puma (Puma concolor), red brocket deer (Mazama temama), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), which are more adaptable, had higher occupancy, even in areas with low forest cover near infrastructure. However, the majority of species were subject to > 1 gap that was larger than their known dispersal distances, suggesting poor connectivity along the MBC in Panama. Based on our results, forests in Darien, Donoso–Santa Fe, and La Amistad International Park are critical for survival of large terrestrial mammals in Panama and 2 areas need restoration.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Assessing landscape connectivity allows us to identify critical areas that impede or facilitate the movement of organisms and their genes and to plan their conservation and management. In this article, we assessed landscape connectivity and ecological condition of the habitat patches of a highly biodiverse region in Chiapas, Mexico. We employed data of three cracid species with different characteristics in habitat use and mobility. The habitat map of each species was derived from a spatial intersection of the models of potential distribution and a high-resolution map of current land cover and land use. The ecological condition of vegetation types was evaluated using 75 field plots. Structure of landscape was estimated by fragmentation metrics, while functional connectivity was assessed using spatially explicit graph analysis. The extent of suitable habitat for Oreophasis derbianus, Penelopina nigra, and Penelope purpurascens correspond to 25%, 46%, and 55% of the study area (5,185.6 km2), respectively. Although the pine-oak forests were the most fragmented vegetation type, habitats of the three species were well connected, and only 4% to 9% of the fragments located on the periphery of the corridor had low connectivity. Landscape connectivity depends mainly on land uses with an intermediate and lower ecological condition (secondary forests and coffee agroforestry systems). Therefore, we suggest that in addition to promoting the improvement in connectivity in fragmented forests, conservation efforts should be aimed at preventing the conversion of mature forests into agricultural uses and maintaining agroforestry systems.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests
Rozendaal, Danaë M. A. (autora) ; Bongers, Frans (coaut.) ; Aide, T. Mitchell (coaut.) ; Álvarez Dávila, Esteban (autor) ; Ascarrunz, Nataly (autora) ; Balvanera, Patricia (autora) ; Becknell, Justin M. (coaut.) ; Bentos, Tony V. (coaut.) ; Brancalion, Pedro H. S. (autor) ; Cabral, George A. L. (coaut.) ; Calvo Rodríguez, Sofía (autora) ; Chave, Jerome (coaut.) ; César, Ricardo G. (autor) ; Chazdon, Robin L. (autor) ; Condit, Richard (autor) ; Dallinga, Jorn S. (coaut.) ; Almeida Cortez, Jarcilene Silva (coaut.) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (autor) ; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de (autor) ; Denslow, Julie S. (autor) ; Dent, Daisy H. (coaut.) ; DeWalt, Saara J. (autora) ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel (autor) ; Durán, Sandra M. (autora) ; Dutrieux, Loïc P. (coaut.) ; Espírito Santo, Mario M. (autor) ; Fandino, María C. (autora) ; Fernandes, G. Wilson (autor) ; Finegan, Bryan (coaut.) ; García, Hernando (autor) ; González Valdivia, Noel Antonio (autor) ; Granda Moser, Vanessa (autora) ; Hall, Jefferson S. (autor) ; Hernández Stefanoni, José Luis (autor) ; Hubbell, Stephen (autor) ; Jakovac, Catarina C. (autora) ; Hernández, Alma Johanna (autora) ; Junqueira, André B. (autor) ; Kennard, Deborah (coaut.) ; Larpin, Denis (autora) ; Letcher, Susan G. (autora) ; Licona, Juan Carlos (autor) ; Lebrija Trejos, Edwin (autor) ; Marín Spiotta, Erika (autora) ; Martínez Ramos, Miguel (autor) ; Massoca, Paulo E. S. (autor) ; Meave, Jorge A. (autor) ; Mesquita, Rita C. G. (autora) ; Mora, Francisco (autor) ; Müller, Sandra C. (autora) ; Muñoz, Rodrigo (autor) ; Nolasco de Oliveira Neto, Silvio (autor) ; Norden, Natalia (autora) ; Nunes, Yule R. F. (coaut.) ; Ochoa Gaona, Susana (autora) ; Ortiz Malavassi, Edgar (autor) ; Ostertag, Rebecca (autora) ; Peña Claros, Marielos (autor) ; Pérez García, Eduardo A. (autor) ; Piotto, Daniel (autor) ; Powers, Jennifer S. (autora) ; Aguilar Cano, José (autor) ; Rodríguez Buritica, Susana (autora) ; Rodríguez Velázquez, Jorge (autor) ; Romero Romero, Marco Antonio (autor) ; Ruíz, Jorge (autor) ; Sánchez Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo (autor) ; Silva de Almeida, Arlete (autor) ; Silver, Whendee L. (coaut.) ; Schwartz, Naomi B. (coaut.) ; Thomas, William Wayt (coaut.) ; Toledo, Marisol (autora) ; Uriarte, María (autora) ; Valadares de Sá Sampaio, Everardo (autor) ; van Breugel, Michiel (autor) ; Van Der Wal, Hans (coaut.) ; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio (autor) ; Veloso, María D. M. (autor) ; Vester, Hans F. M. (coaut.) ; Vicentini, Alberto (autor) ; Vieira, Ima C. G. (coaut.) ; Villa, Pedro (autor) ; Williamson, G. Bruce (autor) ; Zanini, Kátia J. (autora) ; Zimmerman, Jess (coaut.) ; Poorter, Lourens (coaut.) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Science Advances Vol. 5, no. 3, eaau3114 (March 2019), p. 1-10 ISSN: 2375-2548
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Resumen en inglés

Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during secondary succession across gradients in environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbance in an unprecedented multisite analysis for the Neotropics. Secondary forests recover remarkably fast in species richness but slowly in species composition. Secondary forests take a median time of five decades to recover the species richness of old-growth forest (80% recovery after 20 years) based on rarefaction analysis. Full recovery of species composition takes centuries (only 34% recovery after 20 years). A dual strategy that maintains both old-growth forests and species-rich secondary forests is therefore crucial for biodiversity conservation in human-modified tropical landscapes.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
La configuración del paisaje ritual a través del culto a Cristo en los municipios de Totolapan y Atlatlahucan, Morelos, México
Aréchiga Jurado, Laura Amalia ;
Contenido en: Sociedad y Ambiente Año 7, no. 20 (julio-octubre 2019), p. 207-231 ISSN: 2007-6576
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El presente trabajo forma parte de una investigación más amplia que abarca el noreste de la entidad de Morelos; región donde actualmente la imagen de Cristo adquiere un papel central en los rituales que se efectúan en cerros, barrancas y manantiales, considerados lugares sagrados y que en este sentido integran el paisaje ritual de los municipios de Totolapan y Atlatlahucan. El objetivo es presentar, desde una perspectiva antropológica y comparativa, enmarcada en un proceso histórico de larga duración, la ceremonia religiosa realizada en torno a la imagen de Cristo Aparecido en las dos cabeceras municipales, con el fin de entender la configuración del paisaje ritual por medio de las representaciones religiosas que se realizan en tres fechas representativas: el tres de mayo, el día de la Ascensión del Señor y en Pentecostés. A través de un método etnográfico e histórico se reconstruye el proceso de reinterpretación de la imagen del crucificado y su relación con el paisaje; espacio reconfigurado a partir de los elementos ancestrales que sustentan las manifestaciones religiosas de las comunidades, siendo dichos elementos reinterpretados en el ámbito de la religión católica.

Resumen en inglés

This article is part of a broader research project including the northeast of the state of Morelos. It is a region where the image of Christ currently plays an important role in the rituals conducted in the hills, ravines and springs, regarded as sacred places comprising the ritual landscape of Totolapan and Atlatlahucan. The aim is to use an anthropological and comparative perspective, framed in a lengthy historical process, to describe the religious ceremony surrounding the image of Christ the Risen in two municipal capitals in order to understand the religious re-enactments performed on three days: May 3, the Ascension of the Lord, and Pentecost. An ethnographic and historical method is used to reconstruct the process of reinterpreting the the image of the crucified Christ and its relationship with the landscape, a space reconfigured from ancestral elements underpinning the religious expressions of communities, re-interpreted within the sphere of the Catholic religion.


5.
Artículo
Conocimiento tradicional medicinal de árboles tropicales y su valor para la restauración de bosques tropicales
García Flores, Juana (autora) ; González Espinosa, Mario (autor) (1950-) ; Lindig Cisneros, Roberto (autor) ; Casas Fernández, Alejandro (autor) ;
Contenido en: Botanical Sciences Vol. 97, no. 3 (2019), p. 336–354 ISSN: 2007-4476
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Antecedentes. El conocimiento tradicional medicinal (CTM) permite atender necesidades de salud de 80 % de la población mundial y puede servir como guía para recuperar biodiversidad en regiones tropicales, ya que la mayor diversidad de plantas medicinales incluye especies tropicales. Pregunta. ¿Provee el CTM una estrategia para identificar especies arbóreas que por su importancia cultural y ecológica conviene emplear en proyectos de restauración de bosques tropicales? Sitio y fechas . El estudio se realizó en 2015, en cuatro comunidades rurales de la región Sierra de Tabasco, México. Métodos. Con base en revisión bibliográfica se obtuvo un listado de referencia sobre árboles medicinales nativos de la región. Efectuamos entrevistas semiestructuradas y un taller participativo en cada comunidad; se documentaron usos medicinales, enfermedades recurrentes, listados libres de especies medicinales y aquellas con prioridad para emplearse en acciones de restauración. Calculamos índices de riqueza de conocimiento ( IRC ) y de significancia cultural ( ICS ). Resultados. Registramos 45 especies arbóreas medicinales nativas. Las mujeres adultas y ancianas mostraron el mayor CTM. Las principales enfermedades fueron gastrointestinales (93-97 %) y las asociadas a dolores y fiebre (67-97 %), tratadas con 13 y 16 especies, respectivamente. El IRC reflejó un conocimiento promedio menor a 50 %. Gliricidia sepium, Bursera simaruba y Piper auritum tuvieron valores altos de ICS, mientras que Brosimum alicastrum, Ceiba pentandra y Castilla elastica mostraron valores bajos y son consideradas con alta prioridad para la restauración forestal. Conclusiones. El CTM es importante para seleccionar especies arbóreas en la restauración de los bosques tropicales del sureste de México.

Resumen en inglés

Background: Traditional medicinal knowledge (TMK) accounts for attending nearly 80 % of the worldwide needs of health and may guide biodiversity restoration efforts in tropical regions where the greatest diversity of medicinal plants occurs. Questions: Can TMK become a strategy to be used in identifying medicinal tree species, with both cultural and ecological importance, that should be considered in tropical forest restoration actions? Study site and dates: The study was conducted during 2015 in four communities of the Sierra region of southern Tabasco, Mexico. Methods: We obtained from the literature a checklist of medicinal trees native to the study region. We conducted semi-structured interviews and a workshop in each community; we obtained ethnobotanical data about the most common illnesses and the most frequently used plant species for attending them. We identified priority species for forest restoration, and calculated indexes of knowledge richness (IKR) and cultural significance (ICS). Results: We recorded a total of 45 tree species. Adult and elder women showed the highest TMK. The main illnesses detected were gastrointestinal (93-97 %) and those related with pain and fever (67-97 %), which were treated with 13 and 16 species, respectively. On average, the IKR was less than 50 % of all species recorded. Gliricidia sepium, Bursera simaruba and Piper auritum had high ICS values, while Brosimum alicastrum, Ceiba pentandra and Castilla elastica had low values and are considered high priority for forest restoration actions. Conclusions: TMK is important to select tree species in tropical forest restoration actions in southeastern Mexico.


6.
Artículo
Diversidad de aves en sitios con distinto uso de suelo en Nuevo Conhuas, Calakmul, México
González Martín del Campo, Filiberto Moisés (autor) ; Navarrete Gutiérrez, Darío Alejandro (autor) ; Enríquez Rocha, Paula Lidia (autora) ; Gordillo Pérez, María Guadalupe (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Acta Zoológica Mexicana. Nueva serie Volumen 35, e3501233 (2019), p. 1–18 ISSN: 2448-8445
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Las aves son uno de los grupos de vertebrados más importantes en el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas al cumplir con importantes funciones como lapolinización o dispersión de semillas. Sin embargo, las comunidades y sus poblaciones se pueden ver afectadas por cambios en los ecosistemas. Estas modificaciones pueden ser reflejo de los diferentes usos de la tierra, por lo que es importante analizar cómo las áreas con diferentes usos de suelo y coberturas influyen en las comunidades de aves. Para este estudio, realizamos muestreos de aves de febrero a junio de 2017 utilizando redes de niebla en cuatro sitios con distintas condiciones de uso: un sitio con vegetación conservada (Reserva de la Biósfera de Calakmul), dos acahuales, uno agrícola, otro forestal y un sitio ganadero. La diversidad de las comunidades fue diferente en cada uno de los sitios muestreados, se identificó que las comunidades de aves enlos acahuales y la Reserva de la Biósfera de Calakmul son más similares a las del sitio ganadero. El gremio de los semilleros y las aves generalistas fueron más abundantes en el sitio ganadero. El 39% de las especies estuvo presente en la reserva de Calakmul, que fue el sitio con la comunidad más diversa (D1=36.38); el sitio ganadero estuvo dominado por un menor número de especies (D2=3.88). Los análisis multivariados mostraron que el tipo de vegetación presente en los sitios influye en la abundancia de familias y especies de aves (Dev=373.1, p=0.001). La presencia de especies compartidas entre los acahuales y la Reserva de la Biósfera de Calakmul demuestra la importancia en la conservación y regeneración de acahuales ya que son estados de transición que ayudan a recuperar especies presentes en las selvas maduras y que se encuentren bajo alguna categoría de riesgo.

Resumen en inglés

Birds are one of the most important vertebrate groups for the ecosystems' functioning, because their functions include pollination and seed dispersal. Nevertheless, their communities and populations are affected by changes in the ecosystems. These modifications can be a reflection of land use, and for this reason it is important to analyze how sites with different land use and ground cover can have an influence on the birds'communities. For this study, we sampled birds from February to June 2017 using mist nets in sites with different land use conditions: a site inside the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, two acahuales, one agricultural and one forested, and one livestock site. The diversity of communities was different in each one of the sampling sites. We identified that bird communities between acahuales and the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve had a greater similarity than the livestock site. The seeders guild and the generalist species were more abundant in the livestock site. There was a greater number of specialist birds with low abundances in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. 39% of the species were present in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, that was the site with the greater diversity (D¹=36.38), and livestock site was dominated by a lower number of species (D²=3.88). The multivariate analysis showed that the vegetation type present in the sites influence the abundance of the bird species (Dev=373.1, p=0.001), and their families. The presence of shared species between the acahuales and the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve shows the importance of the conservation and regeneration of the acahuales because they are a transition stage that contributes to the recovery of some bird species present in mature jungles that are threatened or belong to a risk category.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Early establishment of endangered and valuable tree species in cloud forest restoration plantings
Landero Lozada, Siunelly ; Toledo Aceves, Mariana Tarin (coaut.) ; López Barrera, Fabiola (coaut.) ; Sosa, Vinicio J. (coaut.) ; Ramírez Marcial, Neptalí (coaut.) (1963-) ;
Contenido en: Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad Vol. 90, e902564 (abril 2019), p. 1-13 ISSN: 1870-3453
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Los bosques mesófilos de montaña (BMM) albergan alta biodiversidad y endemismos y están severamente amenazados por la tala selectiva ilegal, la deforestación, la fragmentación y el cambio climático. Los fragmentos de BMM son altamente heterogéneos en intervalos espaciales cortos, por lo que su restauración, desde una aproximación regional, debe incorporar su rango de elevación. Evaluamos el establecimiento temprano de 12 especies de BMM amenazadas y valiosas, y la influencia de la elevación y la cobertura del dosel sobre su desempeño. Las plántulas (10 a 18 meses de edad) se plantaron en 6 sitios de BMM en un gradiente de elevación (1,250 a 1,995 m) en Veracruz, México. En cada bosque se plantaron 30 plántulas por especie y se registró la sobrevivencia y crecimiento en altura (RGRh), el diámetro basal (RGRd) y la cobertura del dosel. La sobrevivencia fue alta para todas las especies después de un año (81.1 to 99.4%) y no fue afectada por la elevación. La cobertura del dosel afectó positivamente la probabilidad de sobrevivencia de 3 especies. En general, las tasas de crecimiento fueron positivas y en 4 especies disminuyeron a menor elevación. Nuestros resultados indican una respuesta positiva del establecimiento temprano de las plántulas en las especies estudiadas bajo el dosel del BMM (66-97% de cobertura).

Resumen en inglés

Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) host high biodiversity and endemicity and are severely threatened by illegal selective logging, deforestation, fragmentation and climate change. The fragments of TMCF present high heterogeneity over short spatial intervals and a regional forest restoration approach must therefore incorporate seedling performance throughout the TMCF elevation range. We examined early seedling establishment in 12 endangered and valuable TMCF species in the understory of unplanned selectively logged TMCF and assessed the influence of elevation and canopy cover on seedling performance. Tree seedlings (10-18 mo-old) were transplanted into restoration plantings in 6 forest sites along an elevation range (1,250 to 1,995 m) in Veracruz, Mexico. In each forest, 30 seedlings per species were planted and their survival and relative growth rates in height (RGRh) and basal stem diameter (RGRd) recorded, along with canopy cover. Survival was high for all species after one year (81.1 to 99.4%) and was unaffected by elevation. Canopy cover positively affected the survival probability of 3 species. Both RGRh and RGRd decreased at lower elevations in 4 species; however, overall growth rates were positive. Our results indicate a positive early seedling establishment response in the evaluated tree species under the TMCF canopy (66-97% of canopy cover).


8.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en inglés

There is increasing recognition that ecosystems and their services need to be managed at landscape scale and greater. The development of landscape-scale conservation strategies need to incorporate information from multiple sources. In this study, we combine various research tools to link landscape patterns with production units and systems in the Usumacinta River Basin, and inform the discussion of key questions around decisionmaking related to conservation action and policy in Southern Mexico. A typology based on policy-relevant farmer characteristics (land tenure, farm size, source of income, farming system) differentiated between farmers (traditional vs. cattle ranching) with different motivations that determine how management affects landscape configuration. Five main types of traditional farming systems were identified that combine different forms of land use and vary in their degree of land intensification. Major fragmentation and decrease in connectivity coincided spatially with floodplains dominated by large-scale commercial farms that specialize in livestock production.

Traditional practices within large units with low-sloped high quality land were also seen to be intensive; however the presence of trees was notable throughout these units. Policies that promote livestock farming are among the principle causes motivating deforestation. Land intensification by traditional farmers decreased as the landscape became increasingly rugged. Traditional farmers are the focus of initiatives developed by the Biological Corridor project which seeks to increase forest cover and landscape connectivity. These initiatives have shown high levels of rural participation (10,010 farmers benefited from 27,778 projects involving 95,374 ha of land) and acceptance (producers carried out more than one project and several types of projects during the first eight years of work). Strong action is still required to take on the segment of large-scale ranchers. Changes in the structure of land tenure over the past decade are highlighted that could have a profound impact on conservation policies and programs.


9.
Capítulo de libro
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Herramientas de análisis espacial para estudios de biodiversidad
Zuria Jordan, Iriana Leticia (autora) ; Martínez Morales, Miguel Ángel (autor) (-2020) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: La biodiversidad en un mundo cambiante: fundamentos teóricos y metodológicos para su estudio Cuidad de México, México : Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo : Libermex, 2019 páginas 21-38
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El medir y modelar la biodiversidad de una manera espacialmente explícita es una necesidad imperante debido a las altas tasas de extinción de especies que son consecuencia de la degradación y transformación de los ecosistemas. Hasta hace poco, la disponibilidad de mapas de alta resolución para mostrar los patrones de biodiversidad era limitada. Sin embargo, ahora existen los desarrollos conceptuales, herramientas, métodos y numerosas bases de datos accesibles para estudiar y entender de manera más eficiente los patrones de biodiversidad a diversas escalas espacio-temporales. En este capítulo se presentan conceptos básicos y se mencionan algunas herramientas disponibles para analizar la biodiversidad de manera espacialmente explícita mediante la creación de mapas y modelos; asimismo, se presentan algunos ejemplos de la manera en que se han utilizado estos mapas para analizar espacialmente la biodiversidad.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Land cover changes and fragmentation in mountain neotropical ecosystems of Oaxaca, Mexico under community forest management
Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael María ; Esteves Vieira, Dennis Junio (coaut.) ; Ochoa Gaona, Susana (coaut.) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (coaut.) ; Delgado Serrano, María del Mar (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Forestry Research Vol. 30, no. 1 (February 2019), p. 143-155 ISSN: 1993-0607
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Resumen en: Inglés |
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Changes in land cover have a direct impact on forest ecosystem goods and services. In this study, changes in land cover in Sierra de Juarez–Oaxaca ecosystems were estimated using a consistent processing of Landsat images and OBIA methodology. Additionally, landscape analyses using FRAGSTAT were conducted. In 2014, Sierra de Juarez–Oaxaca was covered by approximately 84% of forests, mainly pine-oak and cloud forests. After extensive deforestation until 2001, this trend was reversed and the forest cover surface area in 2014 was slightly higher than in 1979. The comparison of the landscape structure of the forested and agricultural lands suggests an increase in habitat heterogeneity. However, interspersion and juxtaposition indices, showing the patch shape by patch area and perimeter, were similar throughout the study period (1979–2014). Social and economic drivers can explain this situation: namely, community organization, forest enterprises, payment for ecosystem services programs, and changes of agricultural activity. Communities in the Sierra of Oaxaca have reforested degraded lands, created community forest enterprises, and preserved the forest under conservation schemes like those proposed by the Mexican payment for ecosystem services programs. However, their sustainable management faces internal challenges and has become highly dependent on political and institutional decisions beyond their control.