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74 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Parásitos de peces
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1.
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The oceanographic conditions of the Pacific Ocean are largely modified by El Niño (EN), affecting several ecological processes. Parasites and other marine organisms respond to environmental variation, but the influence of the EN cycle on the seasonal variation of parasitic copepods has not been yet evaluated. We analysed the relation between infection parameters (prevalence and mean intensity) of the widespread parasitic copepods Caligus bonito and Charopinopsis quaternia in the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and oceanography during the strong 2015–16 EN. Fish were collected from capture fisheries on the Ecuadorian coast (Tropical Eastern Pacific) over a 2-year period. Variations of sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), total host length (TL) and monthly infection parameters of both copepod species were analysed using time series and cross-correlations.

We used the generalised additive models for determine the relationship between environmental variables and infection parameters. The total body length of the ovigerous females and the length of the eggs of C. bonito were measured in both periods. Infection parameters of both C. bonito and Ch. quaternia showed seasonal and annual patterns associated with the variation of environmental variables examined (SST, salinity, Chl-a and ONI 1+2). Infection parameters of both copepod species were significantly correlated with ONI 1+2, SST, TL and Chl-a throughout the GAMLSS model, and the explained deviance contribution ranged from 16%-36%. Our results suggest than an anomaly higher than +0.5°C triggers a risen in infection parameters of both parasitic copepods. This risen could be related to increases in egg length, female numbers and the total length of the ovigerous females in EN period. This study provides the first evidence showing that tropical parasitic copepods are sensitive to the influence of EN event, especially from SST variations. The observed behaviour of parasitic copepods likely affects the host populations and structure of the marine ecosystem at different scales.


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First description of the male and subgravid female of Philometra serranellicabrillae Janiszewska, 1949 (Nematoda: Philometridae), a gonad-infecting parasite of the comber Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus) (Serranidae) off Tunisia
Ghanmi, Nessrine (autora) ; González Solís, David (autor) ; Gargouri, Lamia (autora) ;
Contenido en: Systematic Parasitology Vol. 96, no. 8 (2019), p. 673–679 ISSN: 0165-5752
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The male and subgravid female of Philometra serranellicabrillae Janiszewska, 1949 (Philometridae) collected from the gonads of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus) (Serranidae) off Tunisia are described for the first time based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies. The male of this nematode can be separated from other congeneric gonad-infecting nominal species in the structure and shape of the gubernaculum (e.g. absence of a dorsal protuberance and a median smooth field). The shape ofthe male posterior region is unique in that it bears apair of big circular papillae posterior to the cloacal opening, which is also present in other Philometra spp. from serranids, i.e. P. indica Moravec & Manoharan, 2014, P. inexpectata Moravec, Chaabane, Justine & Neifar, 2016 and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) Yamaguti, 1961. Moreover, P. serranellicabrillae differs from its congeners in other fish families from the Mediterranean Sea, in the length of spicules and gubernaculum.


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Background: We assessed metrics of the metazoan parasite infracommunities of the dusky founder (Syacium papillosum) as indicators of aquatic environmental health of the Yucatan Shelf (YS) prior to oil extraction. We sampled the dusky founder and its parasites along the YS, mostly during the 2015 north wind season (November–April). Our aims were: (i) to determine whether the parasite infracommunity metrics of S. papillosum exhibit signifcant diferences among YS subregions; (ii) to determine whether the probability of the occurrence of its parasite species and individu‑ als were afected by environmental variables, nutrients, heavy metals and hydrocarbons at the seascape level; and (iii) to determine whether there were statistical diferences between the parasite infracommunity metrics of S. papillosum from YS and those of Syacium gunteri from the Campeche Sound. Multivariate statistical analyses and generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to examine the potential statistical associations between the contaminants, environmental variables and parasite community metrics, and the maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) was used to characterise the habitat’s suitability for the parasite’s probability of occurrence. Results: We recovered 48 metazoan parasite species from 127 S. papillosum, with larval cestodes and digeneans being the most numerically-dominant. Multivariate analyses showed signifcant diferences in parasite infracommu‑ nity metrics among Western YS, Mid YS and Caribbean subregions, with the latter being the richest in species but not in individuals. The GAM and MaxEnt results indicated a negative efect of top predators (e.g. sharks and rays) removal on parasite metrics. The parasite infracommunities of S. papillosum were twice as rich in the number of species and individuals as those reported for S. gunteri from the Campeche Sound.

Conclusions: The significant differences among subregions in parasite metrics were apparently due to the interruption of the Yucatan current during the north wind season. The fishing of top predators in combination with an influx of nutrients and hydrocarbons in low concentrations coincides with an increase in larval cestodes and digeneans in S. papillosum. The dusky founder inhabits a region (YS) with a larger number of metazoan parasite species compared with those available for S. gunteri in the Campeche Sound, suggesting better environmental conditions for transmis‑ sion in the YS.


4.
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Parasitic nematodes in Snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Mexican Caribbean
Hernández Olascoaga, Arturo (autor) ; González Solís, David (autor) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Parasitology Volumen 105, número 5 (October 2019), páginas 697-703 ISSN: 0022-3395
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Snappers from the southern Gulf of Mexico (SGM) and Mexican Caribbean (CAR) were examined for parasitic nematodes to determine their richness, composition, and infection parameters (prevalence and mean intensity). From February 2016 to March 2018, 431 individuals of 8 snapper species were collected in 6 localities. In all, these fishes were parasitized by 2,275 individual nematodes belonging to 13 taxa: Terranova sp. was found in 7 of 8 host species and showed the highest prevalence (23%), while the rest had lower values (<10%). Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus) harbored the highest species richness (10 species), followed by Lutjanus apodus (Walbaum) (8 species). Most localities were similar in terms of species richness but differed in the specific composition. Eight nematode taxa represent new host records for the family Lutjanidae (Gill), thus increasing to 22 the nematode taxa in the SGM and CAR. There is a potential risk to public health due to the presence of nematodes with zoonotic potential (as Anisakis sp.) and the habit in the region of eating raw fish (cebiche).


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Here, we present the results of a taxonomic survey of the nematodes parasitizing fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll, Eastern Indo-Pacific. We performed quantitative parasitological surveys of 653 individual fish from each of the 44 species using the intertidal sand flats that border the atoll’s lagoon. We provide morphological descriptions, prevalence, and mean intensities of the recovered seven species of adult nematode (Pulchrascaris chiloscyllii, Capillariidae gen. sp., Cucullanus bourdini, Cucullanus oceaniensis, Pseudascarophis sp., Spinitectus (Paraspinitectus) palmyraensis sp. nov., Philometra pellucida) and three larval stages (Pulchrascaris sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Cucullanus sp.). We recorded: Pulchrascaris chiloscyllii from Carcharhinus melanopterus; Capillariidae gen. sp. from Chaetodon lunula, Lutjanus fulvus, and Ellochelon vaigiensis; Cucullanus bourdini from Arothron hispidus; Cucullanus oceaniensis from Abudefduf sordidus; Pseudascarophis sp. from Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, and Mulloidichthys flavolineatus; Spinitectus (Paraspinitectus) palmyraensis sp. nov. from Albula glossodonta; Philometra pellucida from Arothron hispidus; and three larval forms, Pulchrascaris sp. from Acanthurus triostegus, Acanthurus xanthopterus, Rhinecanthus aculeatus, Platybelone argalus, Carangoides ferdau, Carangoides orthogrammus, Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus, Caranx papuensis, Chaetodon auriga, Chanos chanos, Amblygobius phalaena, Asterropteryx semipunctata, Valencienea sexguttata,

Kyphosus cinerascens, Lutjanus fulvus, Lutjanus monostigma, Ellochelon vaigiensis, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus, Upeneus taeniopterus, Gymnothorax pictus, Abudefduf septemfasciatus, Abudefduf sordidus, and Stegastes nigricans; Hysterothylacium sp. type MD from Acanthurus triostegus, Carangoides ferdau, Chaetodon lunula, Chanos chanos, Kyphosus cinerascens, Abudefduf sordidus, and Arothron hispidus; and Cucullanus sp. from Caranx ignobilis. Spinitectus (Paraspinitectus) palmyraensis sp. nov. (Cystidicolidae) is described from the intestine of roundjaw bonefish Albula glossodonta. All the nematode species reported in this study represent new geographical records. We discuss how our survey findings compare to other areas of the Indo-Pacific, and the way the relatively numerical dominance of trophically transmitted larval stages likely reflect the intact food web of Palmyra Atoll, which includes a large biomass of large-bodied top predator sharks and ray-finned fishes.


6.
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Redescription of three species of nematodes (Nematoda) parasitising fishes in the USA, with a key to the species of Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902 parasitic in freshwater and brackish-water fishes of North America
Moravec, František (autor) ; de Buron, Isaure (autora) ; González Solís, David (autor) ;
Contenido en: Systematic Parasitology Vol. 96, no. 1 (January 2019), p. 79-94 ISSN: 0165-5752
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Three species of parasitic nematodes are redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examinations of newly collected specimens in fishes of South Carolina, USA: Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) bullocki Stromberg & Crites, 1972 from Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus) (Fundulidae); Dichelyne (Dichelyne) diplocaecum Chandler, 1935 from Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes) (Ictaluridae); and Hysterothylacium pelagicum Deardorff & Overstreet, 1982 from Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus (Coryphaenidae). For the first time, intraspecific variations in the number of intestinal caeca were observed in D. bullocki, as well as previously unknown males and gravid females of D. diplocaecum are described; this enabled to synonymise D. mexicanus Caspeta-Mandujano, Moravec & Salgado-Maldonado, 1999 with D. diplocaecum. Unlike most congeneric species, H. pelagicum has no double postanal papillae, as confirmed by SEM. A key to the species of Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902 parasitic in freshwater and brackish-water fishes in North America is provided.


7.
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Philometra barbata n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the red mullet Mullus barbatus (Perciformes, Mullidae) off Tunisia
Ghanmi, Nessrine ; González Solís, David (coaut.) ; Gargouri, Lamia (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Acta Parasitologica Vol. 63, no. 4 (octubre 2018), p. 766–771 ISSN: 1230-2821
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Helminthological examinations of the red mullet Mullus barbatus (Linnaeus) (Mullidae) from the Gulf of Hammamet, off Tunisia, revealed the presence of one undescribed gonad-infecting nematode species, Philometra barbata n. sp. (Philometridae). The new species as other congeneric species is mainly characterized by the shape of the caudal mound, the distribution of the caudal papillae and the shape of the gubernaculum with the presence of a dorsal protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field in the male. The new species differs from its gonadinfecting congeners in the body length of male, the length of spicules and gubernaculum. This is the second nominal species of Philometra reported from fishes of the family Mullidae and the 14th from the Mediterranean Sea.


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Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Trachinus spp. (Osteichthyes: Trachinidae) in the Gulf of Hammamet, Tunisia
Ghanmi, Nessrine ; González Solís, David (coaut.) ; Gargouri, Lamia (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Systematic Parasitology Vol. 95, no. 2-3 (March 2018), p. 223–234 ISSN: 0165-5752
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Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845, P. draco n. sp. and P. radiata n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae), are described from the marine perciform fishes Trachinus draco (Linnaeus) and T. radiatus (Linnaeus) (both Trachinidae), respectively, in the Gulf of Hammamet, off the northeastern coast of Tunisia. Philometra draco n. sp. and P. radiata n. sp. can be separated from other gonad-infecting species of this genus by the structures associated to the gubernaculum (e.g. dorsal protuberance, smooth field separating the dorsolateral longitudinal parts), as well as by the length of the body, spicules and gubernaculum. Philometra radiata n. sp. can be distinguished from P. draco n. sp. in having the dorsal side of the gubernaculum distal end provided with a median longitudinal smooth field demarcated by two dorsolateral lamellate parts. These two new species are the first philometrid species described from fishes of the family Trachinidae.


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Complementary description of Ergasilus arthrosis Roberts, 1969 (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a new parasite of cichlid teleosts in southeast Mexico
Jiménez García, María Isabel ; Suárez Morales, Eduardo (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Systematic Parasitology Vol. 94, no. 1 (January 2017), p. 81–90 ISBN:1573-5192
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During a parasitological survey of the ichthyofauna of Lake Catemaco, a freshwater system in the Mexican State of Veracruz, the widespread copepod Ergasilus arthrosis Roberts, 1969 was recovered from two cichlid teleosts, Mayaheros urophthalmus (Günther) and Oreochromis sp. This is the first confirmed record of this copepod species outside of the United States and from Mexico; its finding as a parasite of cichlids represents an expansion of the known host range for this copepod. The local prevalence and intensity of infection of E. arthrosis was highest in M. urophthalmus. The infection prevalence of E. arthrosis on M. urophthalmus (60%) was higher than that known for other ergasilids on cichlids. Ergasilus arthrosis can be distinguished from its closest congener E. lizae Krøyer, 1863 by the morphometry of the antennary segments, the ventral ornamentation of the thoracic sclerites and by details of the antennulary setation, but also by its habitat and host preferences. Taxonomic illustrations and morphological details of the specimens examined are also provided together with comments on the variability of this species.


10.
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Orientatractis brycini sp. nov. (Nematoda: Atractidae) from characiform freshwater fishes in Gabon, Africa
González Solís, David ; Mariaux, Jean (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Revue suisse de Zoologie Vol. 124, no. 1 (March 2017), p. 1-8 ISSN: 0035-418X
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The nematode Orientatractis brycini sp. nov. (Atractidae) is described from the intestine of Brycinus macrolepidotus Valenciennes (Alestidae) and Xenocharax spilurus Günther (Distichodontidae) collected in two localities from Gabon, Africa. The new species is characterized by the presence of four submedian lips with well-sclerotized pieces armed with two recurved pointed spines and one median large spine on their distal part, along with two smaller spines posterior to amphidial pores. It differs from its congeners mainly in the length of both spicules, gubernaculum, presence of two lateral spines posterior to amphids, distribution and number of caudal papillae. An emended generic diagnosis is provided. This is the eighth species in the genus Orientatractis, the fourth from fish hosts and the first from Africa, which expands its geographical distribution.