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55 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Resiliencia
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Perceptions of climate change, the impacts of and responses to climatic variability and extreme weather are explored in three communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, in relation to livelihood resilience. These communities provide examples of the most common livelihood strategies across the region: small-scale fisheries (San Felipe) and semi-subsistence small-holder farming (Tzucacab and Calakmul). Although the perception that annual rainfall is reducing is not supported by instrumental records, changes in the timing of vital summer rainfall and an intensification of the mid-summer drought (canicula) are confirmed. The impact of both droughts and hurricanes on livelihoods and crop yields was reported across all communities, although the severity varied. Changes in traditional milpa cultivation were seen to be driven by less reliable rainfall but also by changes in Mexico’s agricultural and wider economic policies. Diversification was a common adaptation response across all communities and respondents, resulting in profound changes in livelihood strategies. Government attempts to reduce vulnerability were foundto lack continuity, be hard to access and too orientated toward commercial scale producers. Population growth, higher temperatures and reduced summer rainfall will increase the pressures on communities reliant on small-scale farming and fishing, and a more nuanced understanding of both impacts and adaptations is required for improved livelihood resilience. Greater recognition of such local-scale adaptation strategies should underpin the developing Mexican National Adaptation Policy and provide a template for approaches internationally as adaptation becomes an increasingly important part of the global strategy to cope with climate change.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
El entramado interorganizacional para la protección civil en Bariloche, Argentina: resiliencia y gestión de riesgo ante fenómenos volcánicos
Civitaresi, Héctor Martín (autor) ; Dondo Bühler, Mariana (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Sociedad y Ambiente Número 23 (julio-diciembre 2020), páginas 1-32 ISSN: 2007-6576
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

En este artículo nos preguntamos cómo gestionar mejor las ciudades para garantizar su resiliencia frente a eventos adversos. En particular, analizamos el entramado de relaciones entre organizaciones involucradas en la gestión de crisis derivadas de fenómenos volcánicos (reducción del riesgo, manejo y recuperación). Estudiamos el caso de Bariloche, Argentina, una ciudad con alta vulnerabilidad frente a eventos diversos (naturales, económicos, sanitarios, etcétera) y realizamos un análisis de redes sociales. Encontramos que, en la emergencia volcánica de 2011, generada por la erupción del complejo volcánico Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, las políticas de concientización, prevención y preparación fueron ineficaces, hubo problemas de coordinación y comunicación entre los organismos oficiales, y las estrategias de superación respondieron más a la capacidad individual de adaptación, que a la planificación preexistente. Más recientemente, el gobierno local trabajó en la coordinación de actores sociales e institucionales para afrontar los efectos adversos de los fenómenos naturales y aumentar la resiliencia urbana, bajo una lógica de gobernanza policéntrica y acción interconectada entre organizaciones públicas, privadas y de la sociedad civil.

Resumen en inglés

In this article, we examine how cities can be better managed to ensure their resilience to cope with adverse events. We specifically analyze the network of relationships between organizations involved in the management of crises derived from volcanic phenomena (risk reduction, management and recovery). We study the case of Bariloche, Argentina, a city with high vulnerability to various events (natural, economic, health, etc.) and undertake an analysis of social networks. We found that in the volcanic emergency of 2011, due to the eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, awareness, prevention and preparedness policies were ineffective. Coordination and communication problems existed between the official bodies, while coping strategies were more of a reflection of individual capacity for adaptation, than preexisting planning. More recently, the local government worked on the coordination of social and institutional actors to deal with natural phenomena and increase urban resilience, within a logic of polycentric governance and interconnected action between public, private and civil society organizations.


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Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

Here, we use 30 long-term, high-resolution palaeoecological records from Mexico, Central and South America to address two hypotheses regarding possible drivers of resilience in tropical forests as measured in terms of recovery rates from previous disturbances. First, we hypothesize that faster recovery rates are associated with regions of higher biodiversity, as suggested by the insurance hypothesis. And second, that resilience is due to intrinsic abiotic factors that are location specific, thus regions presently displaying resilience in terms of persistence to current climatic disturbances should also show higher recovery rates in the past. To test these hypotheses, we applied a threshold approach to identify past disturbances to forests within each sequence. We then compared the recovery rates to these events with pollen richness before the event. We also compared recovery rates of each site with a measure of present resilience in the region as demonstrated by measuring global vegetation persistence to climatic perturbations using satellite imagery. Preliminary results indeed show a positive relationship between pre-disturbance taxonomic richness and faster recovery rates. However, there is less evidence to support the concept that resilience is intrinsic to a region; patterns of resilience apparent in ecosystems presently are not necessarily conservative through time.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Adaptive capacity and social-ecological resilience of coastal areas: a systematic review
Ferro Azcona, Hakna ; Espinoza Tenorio, Alejandro (coaut.) ; Calderón Contreras, Rafael (coaut.) ; Ramenzoni, Victoria C. (coaut.) ; Gómez País, Gloria de Las Mercedes (coaut.) ; Mesa Jurado, María Azahara (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Ocean and Coastal Management Vol. 173 (May de 2019), p. 36-51 ISSN: 0964-5691
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Establishing protected areas constitutes one of the main strategies for the conservation of marine and coastal ecosystems. Increasing risks associated with environmental change along with highly degraded coastal ecosystems encompass complex management challenges for the long-term sustainability of these landscapes. This article aims to explore the role of protected areas in past and ongoing community adaptation to the compounded effects of climatic and anthropogenic change. A literature review of published articles is conducted through systematic queries of the bibliographic database Web of Sciences, and by comparing adaptation and socialecological resilience processes within and out of coastal protected areas. Findings underscore the absence of specific studies that target these topics inside protected areas, highlighting a geographic bias towards research largely carried out in developed countries. Results also indicate the current need for management practices within protected areas to adopt more participatory, comprehensive, and flexible approaches. Protected areas not only promote the conservation and provision of ecosystem services but are also key in building coastal communities' adaptive capacity and resilience in face of future scenarios.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Between environmental change and neoliberalism: the effects of oil palm production on livelihood resilience
Abrams, Jesse (autor) ; Pischke, Erin C. (autor) ; Mesa Jurado, María Azahara (autora) ; Eastmond Spencer, Amarella (autora) ; Silva, Chelsea A. (autora) ; Moseley, Cassandra (autora) ;
Contenido en: Society & Natural Resources An International Journal Vol. 32, no. 5 (June 2019), p. 548–565 ISSN: 0894-1920
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Rural communities worldwide are increasingly confronted with the simultaneous impacts of environmental change dynamics and processes of economic restructuring that diminish traditional sources of state support while shifting investments toward large-scale intensive production models. A key question in this context is how livelihoods are affected by these interacting forces of change and whether new production models can contribute to resilience at the household and community scales. Here we examine the impacts of oil palm production on marginal rural communities in Mexico that have experienced both the economic changes associated with neoliberal policy reforms and the dynamics of environmental change. We find that oil palm production can contribute to livelihood resilience when community members participate in its management and governance and when production is associated with state support, but that the kinds of neoliberal policies promoting oil palm expansion may exacerbate existing community vulnerabilities in the face of environmental change.


6.
Artículo
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Patterns of flow, leaf litter and shredder abundance in a tropical stream
Wootton, Allen ; Pearson, Richard G. (coaut.) ; Boyero, Luz (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Hydrobiologia Vol. 826, no. 1 (January 2019), p. 353-365 ISSN: 1573-5117
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Resumen en: Inglés |
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The seasonal dynamics of leaf litter and associated consumers (“shredders”) in tropical streams are not well documented. We investigated the occurrence of litter (density and age composition) and shredders through late dry, wet and early dry seasons in an Australian rainforest stream. Leaf litter packs of varying density and leaf age covered most of the stream bed in the late dry season, but a one-in-one-year flood removed a substantial proportion of the sparse packs and much of the intermediate-aged litter, with green litter becoming more prevalent. Shredder abundances declined accordingly, but recovery was rapid, demonstrating substantial resilience to the disturbance. In a 36-day field experiment using fine- and coarse-mesh bags, green litter was decomposed more rapidly than intermediate and aged litter by both microbes and shredders, an unexpected and important result, given the abundance of green litter in the study stream. The resilience of shredders to moderate flood, their ability to process green leaves and their continued presence across seasons contribute to seasonal consistency in detrital-based food webs in the study stream except, perhaps, after extreme floods. This study demonstrates the need to consider the temporal changes in litter composition and decomposition in determining the nature of trophic processes in streams.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Territorial resilience the third dimension of agroecological scaling: approximations from three peasant experiences in the South of Mexico
Guzmán Luna, Alejandra ; Ferguson, Bruce G. (coaut.) (1967-) ; Schmook, Birgit Inge (coaut.) ; Giraldo Palacio, Omar Felipe (coaut.) ; Aldasoro Maya, Elda Miriam (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems Vol. 43, no. 7-8 (2019), p. 764-784 ISSN: 2168-3565
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In this paper we explore the depth dimension of agroecological scaling. Through interviews, focus groups and participant observation, we explore the link between agroecology and the recovery and maintenance of ecosystem functions through three case studies in peasant communities in southern Mexico. These communities have contrasting ecological, social and historical contexts, but all engage in autonomous initiatives for agroecology and nature protection. We found that agroecology deepens when rooted in a cultural matrix of peasant identity, spiritual values, and local institutions.


8.
Artículo
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

En el sector rural de México se han identificado grupos de trabajo que se asocian en torno a un objetivo común, por ejemplo, para gestionar subsidios y capacitación; sin embargo, no se han estudiado a detalle los mecanismos que estos grupos utilizan para trabajar y enfrentar situaciones de cambio y vulnerabilidad. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el modelo de trabajo del Club de Labranza de Conservación, un grupo de productores ubicado en la región Frailesca de Chiapas, México. Con base en herramientas cualitativas, se analizaron la influencia de las políticas públicas, las relaciones de intercambio de conocimiento, así como el papel que juegan los valores y normas no establecidas en el desempeño del grupo. Los resultados indican que el intercambio de conocimiento, tanto al interior como al exterior del grupo, es importante para obtener mejores resultados productivos; adicionalmente se requiere contar con mecanismos de coordinación efectivos relacionados con la toma de decisiones en forma compartida, poseer experiencia y capacidad para gestionar y aplicar nuevas prácticas, tener un líder que promueva la cohesión y coordinación, así como promover el uso de mecanismos sociales (normas, valores, sanciones colectivas) que den legitimidad a la organización. La principal conclusión indica que una organización con resultados efectivos es capaz de establecer mecanismos basados en la cooperación y el conocimiento, donde la innovación social juega un papel importante para enfrentar situaciones de vulnerabilidad de los grupos organizados.

Resumen en inglés

Many Mexican farmers have formed organizations to work toward common objectives, for example obtaining subsidies and training. The mechanisms that these groups use to achieve their goals and confront situations of change and vulnerability have not been studied in detail. The objective of this study was to analyze the organizational model used by a group of farmers –from the Frailesca region of Chiapas, Mexico– to confront situations of vulnerability and carry out social innovation processes. Using qualitative methods, we analyzed the influence on group performance of: public policy, relationships by which knowledge is exchanged, and values and norms. Results indicate that knowledge exchange within the group, as well as by group members toward other actors, is important for improving production; however, the following are also necessary: effective mechanisms of coordinating collective decision making, experience and capability of developing and implementing sustainable agricultural practices, a facilitator who promotes group cohesion and coordination, and social mechanisms (collective norms, values, sanctions) that provide the organization with legitimacy. The principal conclusion of this study is that a group with effective organizational mechanisms is capable of confronting situations of vulnerability through knowledge, cooperation, and social innovation.


9.
Artículo
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Enfoques de la resiliencia ante el Cambio Climático
Santiago Vera, Teresita de Jesús ; García Millán, Máximo A. (coaut.) ; Michael Rosset, Peter (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo Vol. 15, no. 4 (Octubre-Diciembre 2018), p. 531-539 ISSN: 1870-5472
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El cambio climático afecta directamente al sistema alimentario, reduciendo la disponibilidad de alimentos e incrementando la desigualdad del acceso a sectores desfavorecidos de la población. La resiliencia es la habilidad del sistema para absorber perturbaciones o la rapidez para recobrarse de disturbios climáticos y en una aplicación del término se crea la resiliencia social como la habilidad de las comunidades para mantener la estructura social ante shocks externos. El objetivo es analizar diferentes enfoques de este concepto en doce publicaciones que revisan casos en relación con eventos extremos causados por el cambio climático y cuál es el papel de las organizaciones campesinas e indígenas en estas. Como resultado se encontró que la mitad de trabajos buscan en cuanto a las organizaciones, su análisis, el diálogo horizontal, que sean actores y que sean los autores, mientras los restantes pretenden instruir y siguen el discurso cientificista y vertical de posesión del conocimiento. En conclusión, menciona que se está en una etapa de visibilización de las posturas que provienen de organizaciones indígenas y campesinas como sujetos. La importancia de este momento histórico es la posibilidad de tomar acciones reales de mitigación del cambio climático por estos sujetos que se escuchan y en conjunto toman espacios antes negados.

Resumen en inglés

Climate change affects directly the food system, reducing food availability and increasing access inequality for unfavorable sectors of the population. Resilience is the ability of the system to absorb disturbances or the promptness to recover from climate disturbances, and when applying the term, social resilience is created as the ability of communities to maintain the social structure in face of external shocks. The objective is to analyze different approaches of this concept in twelve publications that review cases in relation to extreme events caused by climate change and what is the role of peasant and indigenous organizations in them. As a result it was found that half of the studies search in terms of organizations, their analysis, horizontal dialogue, that they are actors and authors, while the rest attempt to instruct and follow scientificism and a vertical discourse of possession of knowledge. In conclusion, it mentions that it is a stage of making visible the postures that come from indigenous and peasant organizations as subjects. The importance of this historical moment is the possibility of taking real actions of climate change mitigation by these subjects that are heard and as a whole take over spaces that were previously denied.


10.
Tesis - Doctorado
Resiliencia comunitaria del pueblo maya-chuj: conocimientos culturales, capacidades sociales y estrategias organizativas / Fabiola Manyari Laura López Bracamonte
López Bracamonte, Fabiola Manyari Laura (autora) ; Limón Aguirre Fernando (director) ; Winton, Ailsa (asesora) ; Góngora Coronado, Elías A. (asesora) ; Coraza de los Santos, Enrique (asesor) ;
San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2018
Clasificación: TE/325.2097281 / L6
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010019760 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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Índice | Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

Esta investigación se centra en reconocer las cualidades de los componentes relacionados con conocimientos culturales, capacidades sociales y estrategias organizativas que sustentan el proceso resiliente del pueblo maya-chuj, luego de haber sufrido violencia y desplazamiento forzado en los años 80 del siglo pasado. Para ello se adoptó un tratamiento transdisciplinario a partir del cual se elaboró una metodología participativa que contrastó la reconstrucción histórica con la memoria colectiva.

Índice

Introducción
Problema de Investigación
Planteamiento del problema
Pregunta general
Idea científica o hipótesis
Preguntas científicas
Objetivos específicos
Justificación
Delimitación del Universo de Estudio
Ubicación y población
Selección del área de estudio
Metodología
Proceso de investigación, técnicas y herramientas
Capítulo I
1. Marco Conceptual
1.1 El proceso resiliente a escala comunitaria
1.1.1 Sobrevivir, sobreponerse, reconstruirse y salir fortalecido
1.2 Conocimiento cultural en el proceso resiliente
1.3 Capacidades sociales en el proceso resiliente
1.4 Estrategias organizativas y proceso resiliente
1.5 Riesgo y resiliencia
1.6 Violencia de Estado, desplazamiento forzado y refugio
Capítulo II
2. Marco Contextual
2.1 Antecedentes y generalidades del conflicto armado en Guatemala (1970-1981)
2.1.1 Escenario global e internacional
2.1.2 Respuesta insurgente
2.2 Los saldos del conflicto
2.3 Violencia de Estado y el desplazamiento forzado en territorio chuj (1981-1983)
2.4 Acontecimientos en la aldea de Yalanhb´ojoch
2.5 Permanencia y refugio en Chiapas, México del pueblo chuj (1982-1996)
2.6 Acontecimientos en Guatemala entre 1983 y 1996
2.7 Retorno y repatriación hacia Guatemala del pueblo chuj y reconstrucción de la aldea de Yalanhb´ojoch (1996-2016)
Conclusiones del capítulo

Capítulo III
3. Análisis de Resultados
3.1 Aspectos del conocimiento cultural, las capacidades sociales y las estrategias de organización del pueblo chuj
3.2 Sucesos antes de la violencia de Estado y el desplazamiento forzado (1970-1981)
3.3 Conocimientos culturales, capacidades sociales y estrategias organizativas del pueblo chuj para sobrevivir, sobreponerse y reconstruirse
3.3.1 Durante la violencia de Estado y el desplazamiento forzado (1981-1983)
3.3.2 El período de estancia y refugio en Chiapas, México (1982- 1996)
3.3.3 El retorno y reconstrucción de la aldea de Yalanhb´ojoch (1996-2016)
Conclusiones del capítulo
Capítulo IV
4. Discusión de Resultados
4.1 El proceso de resiliencia comunitaria del pueblo chuj
4.1.1 Sobrevivir, sobreponerse y reconstruirse
4.1.2 Riesgo, amenaza y resiliencia
4.1.3 Salir fortalecido
4.2 Desafíos actuales
4.3 Resiliencia para las nuevas generaciones
Conclusiones Generales