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17 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Resiliencia ecológica
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Resumen en: Español |
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Here, we use 30 long-term, high-resolution palaeoecological records from Mexico, Central and South America to address two hypotheses regarding possible drivers of resilience in tropical forests as measured in terms of recovery rates from previous disturbances. First, we hypothesize that faster recovery rates are associated with regions of higher biodiversity, as suggested by the insurance hypothesis. And second, that resilience is due to intrinsic abiotic factors that are location specific, thus regions presently displaying resilience in terms of persistence to current climatic disturbances should also show higher recovery rates in the past. To test these hypotheses, we applied a threshold approach to identify past disturbances to forests within each sequence. We then compared the recovery rates to these events with pollen richness before the event. We also compared recovery rates of each site with a measure of present resilience in the region as demonstrated by measuring global vegetation persistence to climatic perturbations using satellite imagery. Preliminary results indeed show a positive relationship between pre-disturbance taxonomic richness and faster recovery rates. However, there is less evidence to support the concept that resilience is intrinsic to a region; patterns of resilience apparent in ecosystems presently are not necessarily conservative through time.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Adaptive capacity and social-ecological resilience of coastal areas: a systematic review
Ferro Azcona, Hakna ; Espinoza Tenorio, Alejandro (coaut.) ; Calderón Contreras, Rafael (coaut.) ; Ramenzoni, Victoria C. (coaut.) ; Gómez País, Gloria de Las Mercedes (coaut.) ; Mesa Jurado, María Azahara (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Ocean and Coastal Management Vol. 173 (May de 2019), p. 36-51 ISSN: 0964-5691
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Establishing protected areas constitutes one of the main strategies for the conservation of marine and coastal ecosystems. Increasing risks associated with environmental change along with highly degraded coastal ecosystems encompass complex management challenges for the long-term sustainability of these landscapes. This article aims to explore the role of protected areas in past and ongoing community adaptation to the compounded effects of climatic and anthropogenic change. A literature review of published articles is conducted through systematic queries of the bibliographic database Web of Sciences, and by comparing adaptation and socialecological resilience processes within and out of coastal protected areas. Findings underscore the absence of specific studies that target these topics inside protected areas, highlighting a geographic bias towards research largely carried out in developed countries. Results also indicate the current need for management practices within protected areas to adopt more participatory, comprehensive, and flexible approaches. Protected areas not only promote the conservation and provision of ecosystem services but are also key in building coastal communities' adaptive capacity and resilience in face of future scenarios.


3.
Artículo
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Patterns of flow, leaf litter and shredder abundance in a tropical stream
Wootton, Allen ; Pearson, Richard G. (coaut.) ; Boyero, Luz (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Hydrobiologia Vol. 826, no. 1 (January 2019), p. 353-365 ISSN: 1573-5117
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The seasonal dynamics of leaf litter and associated consumers (“shredders”) in tropical streams are not well documented. We investigated the occurrence of litter (density and age composition) and shredders through late dry, wet and early dry seasons in an Australian rainforest stream. Leaf litter packs of varying density and leaf age covered most of the stream bed in the late dry season, but a one-in-one-year flood removed a substantial proportion of the sparse packs and much of the intermediate-aged litter, with green litter becoming more prevalent. Shredder abundances declined accordingly, but recovery was rapid, demonstrating substantial resilience to the disturbance. In a 36-day field experiment using fine- and coarse-mesh bags, green litter was decomposed more rapidly than intermediate and aged litter by both microbes and shredders, an unexpected and important result, given the abundance of green litter in the study stream. The resilience of shredders to moderate flood, their ability to process green leaves and their continued presence across seasons contribute to seasonal consistency in detrital-based food webs in the study stream except, perhaps, after extreme floods. This study demonstrates the need to consider the temporal changes in litter composition and decomposition in determining the nature of trophic processes in streams.


4.
- Tesis
Resiliencia y sucesión ecológica de un arrecife de coral afectado por un encallamiento / Isael Victoria Salazar
Victoria Salazar, Isael ; Hernández Arana, Héctor Abuid (tutor principal) ; Meave, Jorge A. (cotutor) ; Carricart Ganivet, Juan P. (tutor) ;
Ciudad de México, México : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Facultad de Ciencias. Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas , 2018
Clasificación: TE/577.789097267 / V5
Bibliotecas: Chetumal
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ECO030008720 (Disponible)
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5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Did the community structure of a coral reef patch affected by a ship grounding recover after 15 years? Merging historical and recent data sets
Victoria Salazar, Isael ; Hernández Arana, Héctor Abuid (coaut.) ; Meave, Jorge A. (coaut.) ; Ruíz Zárate, Miguel Ángel (coaut.) ; Vega Zepeda, Alejandro (coaut.) ; Carricart Ganivet, Juan P. (coaut.) ; López Adame, Haydée (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Ocean & Coastal Management Vol. 144, (July 2017), p. 59–70 ISSN: 1532-2416
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Resumen en: Inglés |
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Shifts in dominance from coral to other benthic groups in coral reefs have raised concerns about the persistence of coral reefs and their ability to provide ecosystem services. Acute disturbances such as ship groundings offer the opportunity to examine the dynamics of successional processes in coral reefs, since understanding them is a prerequisite for their proper management. In this study, we investigated whether a ship grounding area in a reef located in a marine protected area in Cancún, Mexico, showed signs of recovery 15 years after the incident. We evaluated the reef's composition and structure by taking samples at three different scales (reef scale, 1 m², and 0.01 m²). In these samples, we analysed coral density and recruitment, the abundance of five functional algal groups, and the abundance of the grazer sea urchin Diadema antillarum. If recovery had already occurred, we expected the impacted sector to have a community composition and structure similar to that of a contiguous, non-impacted sector. Using historical information, we found indications of a long-term phase shift, with Porites astreoides being the dominant coral species some time ago and at all scales of analysis; this species also showed intense recruitment. In agreement with previous studies of Caribbean reefs, architectural complexity was low. The algal cover was similar in impacted and non-impacted sectors though the density of sea urchins differed between them. Fifteen years after the ship grounding and despite the enforcement of the prohibition of tourism and fishing activities at the site, the impacted sector does not show signs of recovery. On the contrary, like other reefs in the Caribbean Sea, the non-impacted sector is becoming degraded due to the loss of reef builder key species and the increase of the algae-covered area, mirroring the path observed in the impacted sector.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Assessment of hammocks (petenes) resilience to sea level rise due to climate change in Mexico
Hernández Montilla, Mariana Carolina ; Martínez Morales, Miguel Ángel (coaut.) (-2020) ; Posada Vanegas, Gregorio (coaut.) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Plos One Vol. 11, no. 9, e0162637 (September 2016), p. 1-20 ISSN: 1932-6203
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

There is a pressing need to assess resilience of coastal ecosystems against sea level rise. To develop appropriate response strategies against future climate disturbances, it is important to estimate the magnitude of disturbances that these ecosystems can absorb and to better understand their underlying processes. Hammocks (petenes) coastal ecosystems are highly vulnerable to sea level rise linked to climate change; their vulnerability is mainly due to its close relation with the sea through underground drainage in predominantly karstic soils. Hammocks are biologically importantbecause of their high diversity and restricted distribution. This study proposes a strategy to assess resilience of this coastal ecosystem when high-precision data are scarce. Approaches and methods used to derive ecological resilience maps of hammocks are described and assessed. Resilience models were built by incorporating and weighting appropriate indicators of persistence to assess hammocks resilience against flooding due to climate change at “Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve”, in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. According to the analysis, 25% of the study area is highly resilient (hot spots), whereas 51% has low resilience (cold spots). The most significant hot spot clusters of resilience were located in areas distant to the coastal zone, with indirect tidal influence, and consisted mostly of hammocks surrounded by basin mangrove and floodplain forest. This study revealed thatmulti-criteria analysis and the use of GIS for qualitative, semi-quantitative and statistical spatial analyses constitute a powerful tool to develop ecological resilience maps of coastal ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to sea level rise, even when high-precision data are not available. This method can be applied in other sites to help develop resilience analyses and decision-making processes for management and conservation of coastal areas worldwide.


7.
Tesis - Maestría
Evaluación de la resiliencia de Los Petenes en México al aumento del nivel del mar por el cambio climático / Mariana C. Hernández Montilla
Hernández Montilla, Mariana Carolina (autora) ; Martínez Morales, Miguel Ángel (tutor) (-2020) ; Posada Vanegas, Gregorio (asesor) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (asesor) ;
Lerma, Campeche, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2015
Disponible en línea
Clasificación: TE/577.52097264 / H4
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ECO040006055 (Disponible) , 54858 (Disponible)
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Índice | Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

Existe una necesidad creciente de evaluar la resiliencia de las zonas costeras en México a las futuras perturbaciones climáticas y de comprender sus procesos subyacentes con el fin de formular estrategias de respuesta más apropiadas. En este estudio se propone que es posible evaluar la capacidad de resiliencia de los ecosistemas costeros al aumento del nivel del mar debido al cambio climático tomando como base los Petenes ubicados en la Reserva de Biósfera Los Petenes en la Península de Yucatán, México. Con este fin, se diseñó un método de análisis multicriterio donde se ponderaron cuantitavemente indicadores de vulnerabilidad y persistencia para entender el impacto (exposición al riesgo) de un fenómeno meteorológico concreto, “aumento del nivel del mar”, y su respuesta (sensibilidad) a este evento. Estos indicadores y sus criterios se integraron en una matriz compleja para explicar la resiliencia espacial y temporal de los petenes al cambio climático. Esta investigación reveló que el 18,5% del área de estudio es altamente resiliente, mientras que el 38,6% tiene baja resiliencia. Las zonas resilientes más significativas se encontraron alejadas de la zona costera, con la influencia indirecta de las mareas y consistió principalmente en zonas con petenes rodeados de manglares de cuenca y bosque inundables. Este estudio demostró que el análisis multi-criterio y el uso de los SIG para el análisis espacial cualitativo, semi-cuantitativo y estadístico son una poderosa herramienta para derivar mapas ecológicos de resiliencia de los ecosistemas costeros que son altamente vulnerables al aumento del nivel del mar. Éste método podría ser utilizado en otros sitios de México y otros países, para el análisis y toma de decisiones relacionados a los procesos de gestión y conservación de las zonas costeras.

Índice

Resumen
Capítulo I
I. Introducción
Capítulo II
I. Abstract
II. Introduction
III. Methods
IV. Results
V. Discussion
VI. Acknowledgments
VII. References
Capítulo III
I. Conclusiones
Literatura Citada
Anexos


8.
- Artículo con arbitraje
La adaptación como atributo esencial en el fomento de sistemas agropecuarios resilientes ante las perturbaciones
Nahed Toral, José ; Palma García, José Manuel (coaut.) ; González García, Eliel (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Avances en Investigación Agropecuaria Vol. 18, no. 3 (septiembre-diciembre 2014), p. 7-34 ISSN: 0188-7890
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
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SIBE San Cristóbal
9576-30 (Disponible)
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo documentar algunos fundamentos teóricos del enfoque de sistemas y de la adaptación como atributo primordial para conseguir sistemas agropecuarios resilientes y sostenibles. Con un enfoque aplicado y dinámico, en la primera parte se analizan algunas estrategias de integración y adaptación que permitirían aumentar la resiliencia y reducir la vulnerabilidad de los sistemas. En la segunda parte, se presentan y desarrollan tres casos de sistemas ganaderos con resultados positivos en diferentes regiones (dos en México y uno en Cuba). Con tales estudios de caso se ilustra la aplicación de los conceptos teóricos y estrategias prácticas de intervención o mecanismos de regulación apropiados que se discuten, y que estarían orientados a potencializar las capacidades de adaptación de los sistemas. La valorización a todos los niveles de tales mecanismos de regulación (homeostasis, teleoforesis) representa la piedra angular en el fomento de sistemas constituidos por componentes robustos, capaces de rendir respuestas adaptativas consistentes, ante las perturbaciones internas y externas en el tiempo y en el espacio. Con ello se contribuye, entonces, a crear un compromiso sólido entre los objetivos de productividad y de utilización racional de los recursos naturales y locales para, de esta manera, lograr sistemas perdurables; sostenibles desde varios puntos de vista: económico, ambiental y socialmente aceptables.

Resumen en inglés

This study aimed to document some theoretical foundations of adaptation and systems approach as the primary attribute for resilient and sustainable farming systems. They are presented as essential attributes when looking for the achievement of goals of the overall resilience and farming systems’ sustainability. In the first part, with an applied and context-dynamic perspective, some hierarchical concepts and strategies of integration and adaptation are analyzed, leading to reduce the vulnerability of the systems. In the second part, three successful farming systems’ case studies (two from Mexico and one from Cuba) are described. The last to illustrate with real practical experiences, the integrated application of some of such theoretical concepts, practical strategies of intervention, and mechanisms of regulation that are previously discussed, and that would be oriented to promote the long-term adaptive capacities of the farming systems. The valuation at all levels of these regulatory mechanisms (homeostasis, teleoforesis) represents the cornerstone in the building of robust components capable of consistent adaptive responses in the face of internal and external strain in time and space. Meanwhile, with the application of such effective strategies, we would be in better conditions for helping to create a solid commitment between productivity and the objectives for the rational use of the natural and local resources. Finally, this change in the philosophy of the farming systems management would help create a sound compromise between the objectives of productivity and rational use of natural and local resources, thus achieving the required sustainability of farming systems from the economic, environmental and social points of view.


9.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
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Coffe, disasters and social-ecological resilience in Guatemala and Chiapas, México
Eakin, Hallie ; Morales, Helda Eleonora de Guadalupe (coaut.) (1964-) ; Castellanos, Edwin (coaut.) ; Cruz Bello, Gustavo M. (coaut.) ; Barrera, Juan F. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Natural disasters and adaptation to climate changeedited Cambridge, England : Cambridge University Press, 2013 p. 174-180 ISBN:978-110-7010-16-1
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
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179-20 (Disponible)
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10.
- Libro con arbitraje
Natural disasters and adaptation to climate change / edited by Sarah Boulter, Jean Palutikof, David John Karoly, Daniela Guitart
Boulter, Sarah (ed.) (1970-) ; Palutikof, Jean P. (coed.) ; Karoly, David John (coed.) (1955-) ; Guitart, Daniela (coed.) (1988-) ;
Cambridge, England : Cambridge University Press , 2013
Clasificación: 363.34 / N3
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Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

This volume presents eighteen case studies of natural disasters from Australia, Europe, North America and developing countries. By comparing the impacts, it seeks to identify what moves people to adapt, which adaptive activities succeed and which fail, and the underlying reasons, and the factors that determine when adaptation is required and when simply bearing the impact may be the more appropriate response. Much has been written about the theory of adaptation, and high-level, especially international, policy responses to climate change. This book aims to inform actual adaptation practice - what works, what does not, and why. It explores some of the lessons we can learn from past disasters and the adaptation that takes place after the event in preparation for the next. This volume will be especially useful for researchers and decision makers in policy and government concerned with climate change adaptation, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, environmental policy and planning.

Índice

Contributors
Preface
1 Introduction
2 Climate change and disaster risk management: challenges and opportunities
Part I Case Studies from North America
3 Hurricane Katrina and the city of New Orleans
4 A brief history of flooding and flood control measures along the Mississippi River basin
5 The 2003 and 2007 wildfires in southern California
6 Adapting to extreme heat events: thirty years of lessons learned from the Kansas City, Missouri, extreme heat program
Part II Case Studies from Australia
7 Drought and water in the Murray-Darling basin: from disaster policy to adaptation
8 After ‘Black Saturday’: adapting to bushfires in a changing climate
9 Cyclone Tracy and the road to improving wind-resistant design
10 Adaptation and resilience in two flood-prone Queensland communities
Part III Case Studies from Europe
11 Windstorms, the most costly natural hazard in Europe
12 The 2003 heatwave: impacts, public health adaptation and response in France
13 Lessons from river floods in central Europe, 1997–2010
14 Lessons learned from the North Sea flooding disaster in the Netherlands, 1953
Part IV Case Studies from the Developing World
15 Adapting to drought in the West African Sahel
16 The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Sri Lankan experience
17 Recovery efforts: the case of the 2007 cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh
18 Coffee, disasters and social-ecological resilience in Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico
19 Responding to floods in the Nile basin: a case study of the 1997–1998 floods in the Upper White Nile
20 Floods in the Yangtze River basin, China

Part V Synthesis Chapters
21 Disasters and development
22 What next? Climate change as a game-changer for policy and practice
23 Barriers and limits to adaptation: cautionary notes
24 Lessons learned for adaptation to climate change
25 Afterword: floods, storms, fire and pestilence – disaster risk in Australia during 2010–2011
Index