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19 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de diferentes fuentes de saponinas sobre la producción total de gas in vitro (GT) y la producción de metano ruminal (CH4), la cinética de fermentación, la digestibilidad de materia seca (DIVMS) y digestibilidad de la materia orgánica (DIVMO). Los tratamientos evauados fueron la interacción de tres concentraciones (3.5, 7.0 y 14.0 mg/g de materia seca) de saponinas de Yucca schidigera (YS), Gliricidia sepium (GS), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (EC) y un control (Pennisetum purpureum [PP] solo). Se incubó una muestra de 1,0 g de cada tratamiento in vitro en un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. GT de PP no se vio afectado (P> 0.05) por la inclusión de saponinas de YS, GS y EC. La producción de metano no fue afectada (P> 0.05) por ningún nivel de inclusión de saponinas de YS. Cuando las saponinas de GS y EC se incorporaron a concentraciones de 7.0 y 14.0 mg/g de MS, la producción de metano se incrementó (P <0,05). DIVMS y DIVMO aumentaron significativamente (P <0.05) con todas las fuentes de saponinas, excepto con las de YS a una concentración de 14 mg/g de MS cuando la DIVMO se redujo (P <0.05). Se concluye que las saponinas de las diferentes plantas tropicales no redujeron la producción de metano en condiciones in vitro.

Resumen en inglés

The aim of the work was to assess the effect of incorporation of different sources of saponins on the in vitro total gas (TG) and ruminal methane (CH4) productions, kinetics of fermentation, digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM) and organic matter (IVDOM). Treatments were interaction of three concentrations (3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mg/g dry matter) of saponins from Yucca schidigera (YS), Gliricidia sepium (GS), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (EC) and a control (Pennisetum purpureum [PP] alone). A sample of 1.0 g of each treatment was incubated in vitro in a complete randomized design with factorial arrangement with three replicates per treatment. TG from PP was unaffected (P>0.05) by the inclusion of saponins from YS, GS and EC. Methane production was not affected (P>0.05) by any saponins from YS at any level of inclusion. When saponins from GS and EC were incorporated at concentrations of 7.0 and 14.0 mg/g DM, methane production was increased (P<0.05). IVDDM and IVDOM were significantly increased (P<0.05) with all sources of saponins, except with those from YS at concentration of 14.0 mg/g DM when IVDOM was reduced (P<0.05). It is concluded that saponins from different tropical plants did not reduce methane production under in vitro conditions.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Incorporation of foliage and pods of tropical legumes in ruminant rations is an alternative to mitigate enteric methane emissions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of adding increasing levels of ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. mixed with foliage of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. on emissions of ruminal methane (CH4), volatile fatty acid proportions, rumen pH and microbial population in cattle. Four heifers (218 ± 18 kg LW) were fed (13 days) 0, 15, 30, and 45% of pods of E. cyclocarpum mixed with foliage of G. sepium, which were supplemented to a basal ration of Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf. Data were analyzed as a 4×4 Latin square. After three days of CH4 measurements in opencircuit respiration chambers, rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acid (VFA) molar proportions and quantify the microbial population. Samples of ration ingredients, refusals and feces were collected to evaluate nutrient composition. Foliage and pods of legumes provided crude protein (CP), condensed tannins (CT) and saponins, while grass was characterized by higher concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Dry matter intake (DMI) was 5.35 kg/day on average (P=0.272). Apparent fiber digestibility was reduced (81 g/kg) and digestible CP intake (13 g/kg) increased when E. cyclocarpum mixed with G. sepium in rations were given (P < 0.05). Incorporation of legume foliage and pods had a linear effect on molar proportions of butyric acid and acetic to propionic acid ratio (P < 0.05).

Incorporation of legume foliage and pods had a linear effect on molar proportions of butyric acid and acetic to propionic acid ratio (P < 0.05). Methane production, expressed on basis to digestible dry matter intake (DDMI), ranged between 43.22 and 49.94 g/kg DDMI (P=0.131) and when CH4 was related to digestible CP (347 vs. 413 g CH4 /kg DCP) or annual weight gains (0.30 vs. 0.38 kg CH4/kg weight gain, P < 0.001) there were differences between the E. cyclocarpum mixed with G. sepium rations compared to the control treatment, respectively. Rumen population of total bacteria, methanogenic archaea, and total protozoa was not affected by the increasing levels of condensed tannins and saponins in rations (P > 0.05). Substitution of 15 and 30% of pods of E. cyclocarpum mixed with foliage of G. sepium in the ration, decreases annual methane emissions per unit product, without affecting dry matter intake or rumen microbial population, on the contrary, digestible CP intake and animal productivity increased due to supply of CP, CT and saponins.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The objective of this study was to determine methane (CH4) yield by crossbred cattle fed tropical grasses. A total of 66 individual determinations of dry matter intake (DMI) and 42 determinations of organic matter intake (OMI) in relation to the production of enteric CH4 were carried out. Methane measurements in heifers were performed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Heifers (Bos indicus×B. taurus) with an average live weight of 288.5 ± 55.7 kg fed tropical grasses as basal ration were used. An average intake of 8.22 and 7.80 kg of DM and OM per day were recorded. An average enteric CH4 production of 88.0 g/heifer/day was determined. It was found that DMI and OMI in relation to CH4 production have a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.73 and 0.70 respectively, to predict CH4 emissions. It is concluded that the methane yield (18.07 g CH4/kg DM intake) predicted by regressing DM intake against methane production represents a reliable value to be used for the estimation of enteric CH4 inventories for cattle grazing in the tropical regions of Mexico.


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Objective: The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of increasing amounts of Leucaena leucocephala forage on dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), enteric methane production, rumen fermentation pattern and protozoa population in cattle fed Pennisetum purpureum and housed in respiration chambers. Methods: Five crossbred heifers (Bos taurus×Bos indicus) (BW: 295±6 kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of dry matter [DM]) in a 5×5 Latin square design. Results: The voluntary intake and methane production were measured for 23 h per day in respiration chambers; molar proportions of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were determined at 6 h postprandial period. Molar concentration of VFAs in rumen liquor were similar (p>0.05) between treatments. However, methane production decreased linearly (p<0.005), recording a maximum reduction of up to ∼61% with 80% of DM incorporation of L. leucocephala in the ration and no changes (p>0.05) in rumen protozoa population were found. Conclusion: Inclusion of 80% of L. leucocephala in the diet of heifers fed low-quality tropical forages has the capacity to reduce up to 61.3% enteric methane emission without affecting DMI, OMI, and protozoa population in rumen liquor.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of quebracho tannins extract (QTE) on feed intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and methane (CH4) emissions in cattle fed low-quality Pennisetum purpureum grass. Five heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with an average live weight (LW) of 295 ± 19 kg were allotted to five treatments (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% QTE/kg DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Intake, digestibility, and total methane emissions (L/day) were recorded for periods of 23 h when cattle were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), dry matter digestibility (DMD), and organic matter digestibility (OMD) were different between treatments with 0 and 4% of QTE/kg DM (P < 0.05). Total volatile fatty acid and the molar proportion of acetate in the rumen was not affected (P < 0.05); however, the molar proportion of propionate increased linearly (P < 0.01) for treatments with 3 and 4% QTE. Total CH4 production decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as QTE increased in the diet, particularly with 3 and 4% concentration. When expressed as DMI and OMI by CH4, production (L/kg) was different between treatments with 0 vs 3 and 4% QTE (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the addition of QTE at 2 or 3% of dry matter ration can decrease methane production up to 29 and 41%, respectively, without significantly compromising feed intake and nutrients digestibility.


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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Los rumiantes contribuyen significativamente a las emisiones de metano en las regiones tropicales. Sin embargo, hay pocas instalaciones disponibles para la medición in vivo de estas emisiones. Por lo anterior, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir el diseño, construcción y operación de cámaras de respiración para la medición in vivo de la producción de metano de bovinos en México. En la construcción se utilizaron materiales disponibles localmente. Las paredes, el techo y las puertas se construyeron de paneles térmicos con dos ventanas de acrílico, en ambos lados, en la parte delantera. Las cámaras tienen un volumen de aire de 9.97 m³. El aire de la cámara se extrae con una bomba de flujo de masas a una velocidad de 500 L/min. El metano mezclado en las muestras de aire se cuantificó con un analizador de infrarrojo. Las cámaras funcionan bajo presión negativa de -500 Pa. La temperatura y humedad relativa se mantiene a 23 °C y 55 %, respectivamente. El funcionamiento de las cámaras se evaluó utilizando ganado Bos indicus, de la raza Nelore, alimentado con pasto de Taiwán (Pennisetum purpureum) y un concentrado con 18 % de proteína cruda; y se realizaron mediciones con las cámaras durante 23 h. La producción de metano fue de 173.2 L/día, mientras que el factor de emisión fue de 17.48 L de metano/kg de materia seca consumida. Se concluye que las cámaras de respiración pueden medir con precisión la producción de metano en ganado Nelore consumiendo raciones tropicales.

Resumen en inglés

Ruminant animals contribute significantly to methane emissions in tropical regions. Nonetheless, there are few facilities available in those regions of the world for in vivo measurement of methane production in cattle. The aim of the present work was to describe the design, construction and operation of respiration chambers for in vivo measurement of methane production in cattle in Mexico. Locally available materials were used in the construction. Walls, roof and doors were constructed of thermic panels with two windows of acrylic at the front so the animal can be observed at all times. Chambers have an air volume of 9.97 m³. Air is drawn from the chamber at a rate of 500 L/min by the effect of mass action flow generators. Methane was measured in air samples with an infrared analyzer. Chambers operate under a slight negative pressure of around -500 Pa. Air temperature inside the chambers is kept at 23 °C with an air conditioner, while relative humidity is maintained at 55 % with a dehumidifier. Functioning of the chambers was evaluated in Bos indicus, Nelore cattle fed Taiwan grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and a concentrate (18 % crude protein), and measurements were made during runs of 23 h duration. Methane production was on average 173.2 L per day, while the emission factor was 17.48 L methane per kilogram o dry matter consumed. It concludes that this respiration facility is capable of measuring methane production accurately in cattle fed tropical rations.


7.
Artículo
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of supplementing ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum in a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass on feed intake, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and protozoa and methane (CH 4) production by hair sheep. Four male sheep (Pelibuey × Katahdin) with a mean live weight of 27.0 kg (SD ± 0.5) were supplemented with 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 kg of dry matter (DM) of E. cyclocarpum pods daily; equivalent to 0.00, 4.35, 8.70, and 13.05 g of crude saponins, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), and molar proportions of propionic acid increased linearly (P <0.05) as pods of E. cyclocarpum in the ration were increased. Higher intakes of DM and OM were found when lambs were fed 0.45 kg DM per day of E. cyclocarpum , and the highest proportion of propionic acid (0.21 and 0.22, respectively) was obtained with 0.15 and 0.30 kg of DM per lamb of E. cyclocarpum, while apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and molar proportion of acetic acid were reduced (P <0.05). Rumen CH 4 production decreased (P < 0.05) when 0.30 and 0.45 kg of DM/lamb/day of E. cyclocarpum were fed (21.8 and 25.3 L CH 4/lamb/day, respectively). These results suggest that to improve the feeding of sheep fed tropical grass, it is advisable to supplement the basal ration with up to 0.30 kg DM of E. cyclocarpum pods.


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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de los taninos condensados (TC) contenidos en el follaje de arbóreas tropicales, sobre el consumo de materia seca y orgánica (CMS, CMO), la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS) y emisiones de metano (CH4) en ovinos alimentados con una ración basal de pasto Pennisetum purpureum. Cuatro ovinos de pelo con un peso vivo promedio de 21.6±2.0 kg se sometieron a cuatro tratamientos en un diseño cuadro latino 4 x 4. Los tratamientos fueron P. purpureum (PP), P. purpureum + Havardia albicans (PPHA), P. purpureum + Bursera simaruba (PPBS), y P. purpureum + Acacia pennatula (PPAP); el follaje de las arbóreas se incluyó en 300 g/kg de MS de la ración. El consumo, la digestibilidad y la producción total de metano entérico se midieron por periodos de 23 h. La producción de metano se midió en cajas de respiración de circuito abierto. El consumo y digestibilidad de la MS y materia orgánica (MO) entre los tratamientos PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP no se afectaron por la inclusión de los follajes de arbóreas en la ración (P>0.05). Cuando la producción de CH4 se expresó en L/kg del CMS, CMO o consumo de fibra detergente neutro los resultados fueron similares entre tratamientos (PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP) (P>0.05). Se concluye que los TC contenidos en el follaje de Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula y Bursera simaruba no afectaron las emisiones de CH4 al nivel de incorporación de 30 % de la MS; tampoco se observaron efectos en el CMS, CMO, DMS y concentración molar de ácidos grasos volátiles.

Resumen en inglés

The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing in the foliage’s on dry matter intake and organic matter (DMI and OMI), dry matter digestibility (DMD) and methane (CH4) emissions in sheep fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass. Four hair sheep with an average live weight of 21.6±2.0 kg were allotted to four treatments in a 4 x 4 latin square design. The treatments were P. purpureum (PP), P. purpureum + Havardia albicans (PPHA), P. purpureum +Bursera simaruba (PPBS), and purpureum + Acacia pennatula (PPAP), the foliage of tree was included 300 g/kg DM of the ration. Intake, digestibility of DM and total methane emissions (L/d) were recorded for periods of 23 h when sheep were housed in open-circuit respiration head boxes. Intake and digestibility of the dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) between treatments PP, PPHA, PPBS and PPAP, were not affected by inclusion the foliage’s of trees in the ration (P>0.05). When the production of methane was expressed in L/kg of DMI, OMI or neutral detergent fiber intake, the results were similar between treatments (PP, PPHA, PPBS, PPAP) (P>0.05). It is concluded that CT contained in the foliage of Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula y Bursera simaruba not affected the CH4 emissions an levels of incorporation as 30 % of ration DM, since there are no effects on DMI, OMI, DMD and molar concentration of volatile fatty acids.


9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Energy utilization, nitrogen balance and microbial protein supply in cattle fed Pennisetum purpureum and condensed tannins
Piñeiro Vázquez, Ángel Trinidad (coaut.) ; Canul Solís, Jorge Rodolfo (coaut.) ; Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (coaut.) ; Chay Canul, Alfonso Juventino (coaut.) ; Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier (coaut.) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (coaut.) ; Aguilar Pérez, Carlos Fernando (coaut.) ; Ku Vera, Juan Carlos (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Vol. 101, no. 1 (February 2017), p. 159-169 ISSN: 0931-2439
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, dry matter digestibility, nitrogen balance, supply of microbial protein to the small intestine and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass. Five heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with an average live weight of 295 ± 19 kg were allotted to five treatments consisting of increasing levels of CT (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% CT/kg DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (p > 0.05) between treatments containing 0, 1, 2 and 3% of CT/kg DM and it was reduced (p < 0.05) to 4% CT (5.71 kg DM/day) with respect to that observed with 0% CT (6.65 kg DM/day). Nitrogen balance, purine derivatives excretion in urine, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency of synthesis of microbial nitrogen in the rumen were not affected (p > 0.05) by the increase in the levels of condensed tannins in the ration. Energy loss as CH4 was on average 2.7% of the gross energy consumed daily. Metabolizable energy intake was 49.06 MJ/day in cattle fed low-quality tropical grass with a DMI of 6.27 kg/day. It is concluded that concentrations of CT between 2 and 3% of DM of ration reduced energy loss as CH4 by 31.3% and 47.6%, respectively, without affecting intakes of dry and organic matter; however, digestibilities of dry and organic matter are negatively affected.


10.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The aim of this study was to assess the e ff ect of the inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala on dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum and housed in metabolic crates. Five crossbred ( Bos taurus × Bos indicus ) heifers (BW: 295 ± 6 kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and fi ve increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The intake of DM was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments, with an average of 7.03 kg of DM/ day. While the crude protein intake (CPI) linearly increased (P < 0.001) with the inclusion of L. leucocephala , the DM digestibility (average 492.3 g/kg DM) and OM digestibility (average 501.6 g/kg OM) were not a ff ected (P > 0.05) by the incorporation of L. leucocephala into the ration. The N intake and excretion in the urine increased linearly (P = 0.0001, 0.0001) as the level of L. leucocephala in the ration increased. In addition, methane energy loss as a percentage of that in the control ration, was of only 61% (P = 0.0005) with 80% incorporation of L. leucocephala in the ration. We concluded that the inclusion of L. leucocephala has the capacity to reduce energy losses in the form of methane emissions. Nevertheless, the energy losses in the urine increased with the addition of L. leucocephala to the ration, with the optimal levels of incorporation in the ration fl uctuating between 20 and 40% of the ration DM, which had no e ff ects on the dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI) or the digestibility of dry matter (DMD).


11.
Capítulo de libro - Memoria en extenso sin arbitraje
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Efecto del fruto molido de Enterolobium cyclocarpum Jacq Griseb. sobre la población de protozoarios y la producción de metano en el rumen de ovinos de pelo
Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier ; Albores Moreno, Samuel (coaut.) ; Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (coaut.) ; Aguilar Pérez, Carlos Fernando (coaut.) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ; Magaña Monforte, Juan (coaut.) ; Ku Vera, Juan Carlos (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Primera conferencia de gases de efecto invernadero en sistemas agropecuarios de Latinoamérica Osorno, Chile : Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias : Ministerio de Agricultura, 2014 No. 54, p. 105-160 ISSN: 0717-4810
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

El sureste de México (SM) no está exento de los efectos del cambio climático (CC), de aquí deriva la importancia de buscar alternativas de mitigación y promover estrategias participativas de adopción y adaptación. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar los avances en mitigación y adaptación al CC en el sector ganadero en el SM, y resaltar las contribuciones de los sistemas agroforestales-silvopastoriles (SS) y las buenas prácticas ganaderas (BPG). En las últimas décadas, en el SM el principal sector emisor de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) ha sido el cambio de uso de suelo y la silvicultura (USCUSS), con más de 50% de emisiones ocasionadas por la deforestación y transformación en áreas de agricultura para granos básicos, cultivos comerciales y pastizales para ganadería bovina. El segundo sector, en el rango de emisiones, ha sido el agrícola (incluyendo al ganadero), emitiendo entre 18-20%. De este sector, la ganadería bovina ha contribuido con más de 80% de las emisiones de GEI, las cuales son ocasionadas por la fermentación entérica. En este contexto, los SS y las BPG son una estratégica opción para mitigar y adaptarse el CC. En una revisión de investigaciones previas y proyectos de desarrollo en el sureste de México, se ha encontrado que los sistemas agroforestales, las BPG y el uso de prácticas silvopastoriles tienen alto potencial para capturar carbono y mitigar los GEI, dependiendo de la complejidad de determinado sistema. Respecto al metano entérico, se observa que las estrategias de mitigación más viables son aquellas que consideran la manipulación de la dieta animal con recursos arbóreos forrajeros locales y sistemas silvopastoriles, ya que son más accesibles al productor ganadero y son de bajo costo.

Respecto a estudios de mitigación de óxido nitroso, en el SM, no hay estudios realizados. Se requiere fomentar la construcción de alianzas sociales y estrategias técnico-sociales que fortalezcan las capacidades locales de la población y permitan la masificación de SS y adaptarse al CC, en el contexto de la agenda global, y por una ganadería sustentable.

Resumen en inglés

Southeastern Mexico (SM) is not exempt from the effects of climate change (CC), for this the importance of seeking alternatives of mitigation and promote the adoption of participative adaptation strategies. This paper has the objective to review progress on mitigation and adaptation to climate change in the livestock sector in the SM and highlight the contributions of agro-silvopastoral systems (SS) and good farming practices (BPG). In recent decades, in the SM the main emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG) has been the change in land use and forestry (USCUSS), with over 50% of emissions from deforestation and transformation of agriculture areas of basic grains, cash crops and pastures for cattle. The second sector in the range of emissions was agriculture (including livestock), emitting between 18-20%. In this sector, the livestock production has contributed more than 80% of GHG emissions, which are caused by enteric fermentation. In this context, the SS and BPG are a strategic option to mitigate and adapt the CC. In a review of previous research and development projects in southeastern of Mexico has been found that agroforestry systems, BPG and use of silvopastoral practices have high potential to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, depending on the complexity of certain system. Regarding the enteric methane, it shows that strategies more viable mitigation are those who consider the handling of animal diet with local forage tree resources and / or silvopastoral systems because they are more accessible to the livestock producer and are inexpensive. Don’t exist studies of nitrous oxide in the SM. It requires promoting the construction of social alliances and technical and social strategies that strengthen local capacities of the population and allow the massification of SS and adapt to CC in the context of the global agenda for sustainable farming.


13.
Capítulo de libro
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Medición de la producción de metano entérico en toros Bos indicus para cuantificar los gases de efecto invernadero en rumiantes
Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (autor) ; Piñeiro Vázquez, Ángel Trinidad (autor) ; Canul Solís, Jorge Rodolfo (autor) ; Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier (autor) ; Aguilar Pérez, Carlos Fernando (autor) ; Solorio Sánchez, Francisco Javier (autor) ; Ku Vera, Juan Carlos (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Estado actual del conocimiento del ciclo del carbono y sus interacciones en México: síntesis a 2014 / Fernando Paz Pellat y Julio C. Wong González, editores Texcoco, Estado de México, México : Programa Mexicano del Carbono : Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Mérida : Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco, 2015 páginas 583-589 ISBN:978-607-96490-2-9
Bibliotecas: Villahermosa
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
8476-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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Resumen en español

El objetivo del trabajo fue cuantificar las emisiones de metano (CH4) entérico de bovinos Bos indicus confinados en cámaras de respiración, como un método para cuantificar el inventario de CH4 en rumiantes. Se usaron dos bovinos Nelore de 305 y 350 kg de peso vivo que se alojaron por tres días consecutivos en dos cámaras de respiración; con temperatura de 23 °C, 55% de humedad relativa y - 275 Pa de presión barométrica. Los animales consumieron pasto Pennisetum purpureum y recibieron un suplemento de 2.5 kg de concentrado al día. Las emisiones de metano se registraron durante tres períodos de 23 horas con un analizador de metano. Las emisiones totales fueron de 132.0 a 198.6 L/CH4/ d-¹, equivale a 43.0 y 51.7 kg CH4 /animal/ año-¹, o 118.1 y 142.3 kg CO2eq /año-¹. La producción de metano se relacionó con el consumo voluntario de materia seca (MS) de la ración; observándose producciones de 16.9 a 19.3 L/CH4/kg MS. Estos resultados son comparables con otros reportados para bovinos Cebú alimentados en pastoreo de pastos tropicales; sugiriendo que el uso de las cámaras de respiración de circuito abierto puede ser un método apropiado para implementarse en la cuantificación de las emisiones de CH4 entérico y permite mejorar el nivel del método usado actualmente en los inventarios nacionales (nivel 1); además podría generar los factores de conversión (Ym) y de emisión de CH4 , y evaluar el efecto de diversas estrategias de mitigación.

Resumen en inglés

The aim of the experiment was to quantify enteric methane (CH4) emissions from Bos indicus cattle housed in respiration chambers to determine CH4 inventories in ruminants. Two Nellore bulls weighing 305 and 350 kg live weight were confined for three consecutive days in two respiration chambers kept at 23 °C, 55% relative humidity and -275 Pa of internal atmospheric pressure. Cattle were fed chopped Pennisetum purpureum grass plus a 2.5 kg supplementary concentrate per day. Methane production was registered during three periods of 23 hours with an infrared methane analyzer. Total emissions were 132.0 to 198.6 L/CH4/ d-¹, equivalent to 43.0 and 51.7 kg CH4/head/year-¹, or 118.1 and 142.3 kg CO2eq /year-¹. Methane production was related to voluntary dry matter (DM) intake of the ration, registering methane production rates of 16.9 to 19.3 L/CH4/kg DM. These results are comparable to those reported for Zebu cattle grazing tropical pastures; which suggest that the use of open circuit respiration chambers is an appropriate method to measure emissions of enteric CH4 and allows an improvement to be made of the method used at present for the estimation of national inventories (Tier 1 of IPCC); and furthermore this may help to develop conversion (Ym) and emission factors of CH4, alongside with evaluating the effect of diverse strategies of mitigation.


Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The aim of the work was to determine the effect of increasing concentrations of saponins from Yucca schidigera in the diet on voluntary intake, rumen fermentation and methane (CH4) production in Pelibuey sheep fed a tropical grass Pennisetum purpureum. Five male sheep (32.2 ± 1.1 kg liveweight) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Sheep were supplemented with 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 or 6.0 g per day of saponins from Y. schidigera mixed with ground corn, before the grass was offered. Feed intake, feed refusal and total faecal output were recorded for 20 days of the adaptation period and 5 days of the experimental period. Apparent digestibility of dry matter (DMD), organic matter (OMD), neutral detergent fibre (NDFD) and acid detergent fibre (ADFD) were determined. Ruminal methane emission was estimated using stoichiometric balance and the molar proportion of volatile fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography. Voluntary intake, DMD, OMD, NDFD, ADFD, volatile fatty acids and CH4 emission were not affected (P > 0.05) by increasing inclusion levels of saponins in the ration of sheep. Nonetheless, CH4 production increased as the voluntary intake of NDF augmented. Addition of 6 g of saponins per day as a supplement to Pelibuey sheep fed a tropical grass did not affect voluntary intake and digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF, or ruminal methane production.


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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The first part of this chapter provides an introduction to Mexican livestock systems. The second part describes silvopastoral systems, which are recognized as a strategy for food production, including the integration of annual, forage, legumes, such as fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). The third part highlights the importance of silvopastoral systems for livestock production and how fenugreek can be integrated in to the diet of the Mexican livestock. Overall the current review discusses various agronomics aspects of intercropping with fenugreek mainly as a fodder bank for increased fodder yield and quality. In addition to improve animal diet, fenugreek can also increase soil nitrogen content. Based on this current review it can be concluded that integrating fenugreek into silvopastoral systems with livestock production could be a good sustainable solution to enhance biodiversity as well as increase the margin of profitability for local producers and growers.


16.
Artículo
Effects of brosimum alicastrum and Lysiloma latisiliquum mixtures on voluntary intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed tropical pastures
Castro González, A. (coaut.) ; Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (coaut.) ; Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier (coaut.) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (coaut.) ;
Clasificación: AR/636.3097265 / E3
Contenido en: Animal Feed Science and Technology Vol. 141, no. 3-4 (April 2008), p. 246-258 ISSN: 0377-8401
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040003293 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
ECO030007079 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010011513 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020012104 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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SIBE Villahermosa
ECO050003364 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Effects of supplementing tree foliage mixtures on voluntary intake, apparent digestibility and N balance was evaluated using Pelibuey sheep fed low quality diets. Five treatments were examined in a 5 x 5 Latin square design, which consisted of a basal diet of grass (Sorghum halepense) hay supplemented with Brosimum alicastrum (B) and Lysiloma latisiliquum (L) at the following rates (g DM/kg diet): B264, L0; B198, L66; B132, L132; B66, L198 and B0, L264. Additionally, an in situ degradability evaluation was completed with two ruminally cannulated cows. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent insoluble N (ADIN), lignin(sa) and total phenols (TP) were higher (P<0.01) in L. latisiliquum versus B. alicastrum. Daily intake (g/kg LW0.75/day) of DM (from 98 to 73) and OM (from 88 to 66) decreased quadratically (P<0.01), whereas CP (from 8.0 to 5.6) and ME (from 7.7 to 5.2, MJ/sheep/day) reduced linearly (P<0.01), as L. latisiliquum increased in the diet. Apparent digestibility of DM (from 0.486 to 0.445), OM (from 0.511 to 0.458) and CP (from 0.417 to 0.198) decreased linearly (P<0.01) and was associated with a low ruminal in situ CP degradability of L. latisiliquum. The decrease in N intake and digestibility induced lower (P<0.01) N retention (from 2.7 to 0.1 g/sheep/day). Although the incremental substitution of B. alicastrum withL. latisiliquum negatively affected intake, rumen degradation, digestibility and N balance, results indicate that this foliage mixture, but with no more than 132 g DM/kg diet of L. latisiliquum, could be used as a supplementation strategy to sheep fed low quality forage without negative effects on voluntary intake.


17.
Capítulo de libro
Efecto de mezclas de follajes de ramón (Brosimum alicastrum) y tzalam (Lysiloma latisiliquum) en la digestabilidad y el consumo de ovinos
Ayala Burgos, Armín Javier (autor) ; Ramírez Avilés, Luis (autor) ; Castro González, Abigail (autor) ; Alayón Gamboa, José Armando (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: III reunión nacional sobre sistemas agro y silvopastoriles: memoria [Disco compacto] Texcoco, Estado de México, México : Universidad Autónoma Chapingo : Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, 2006 páginas 1-17
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
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SIBE San Cristóbal
43913-10 (Disponible)
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18.
Capítulo de libro

19.
CD - Memoria en extenso sin arbitraje
III reunión nacional sobre sistemas agro y silvopastoriles: memoria [Disco compacto]
Reunión Nacional sobre Sistemas Agro y Silvopastoriles (III : 2006 : México, D.F.) ;
Texcoco, Estado de México, México : Universidad Autónoma Chapingo :: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana :: El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2006
Clasificación: DC/634.990972 / R4
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
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SIBE San Cristóbal
B5124 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1