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222 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad
11.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Associative learning of non-nestmate odor marks between colonies of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin (Apidae, Meliponini) during foraging
Villanueva Gutiérrez, Rogel (autor) ; Solórzano Gordillo, Erik de Jesús (autor) ; Rojas, Julio C. (autor) ; Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad (autor) ; Sánchez Guillén, Daniel (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Insectes Sociaux Vol. 65, no. 3 (August 2018), p. 393-00 ISSN: 0020-1812
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Stingless bees use chemical signals to communicate nestmates the location of rich food sources. Such information may be intercepted by conspecifics from other colonies. In this study, we investigated if chemical information from non-nestmates can be used to orient foragers of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana to food sources. In the first experiment, foragers were exposed to feeders that were differentially odor-marked by nestmates and non-nestmates, and their preferences for both types of feeders were recorded. In a second experiment, we marked different feeders with mandibular or labial gland extracts of nestmates and non-nestmates. Results from the first experiment indicate that foragers were able to associate odor marks from non-nestmates with rich food sources. In the second experiment, we observed that foragers did not differentiate between the gland extracts of nestmates and those from non-nestmates. We discuss these findings within a behavioral and ecological framework.


12.
Artículo
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Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of Triatoma dimidiata nymphs to conspecific faecal volatiles
Gálvez Marroquín, Zitlalic ; Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad (coaut.) ; Malo Rivera, Edi Álvaro (coaut.) ; Ramsey Willoquet, Janine M. (coaut.) ; Rojas, Julio C. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Medical and Veterinary Entomology Vol. 32, no. 1 (March 2018), p. 102–110 ISSN: 0269-283X
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The behavioural and electrophysiological (electroantennography) responses of the first two instars of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Latreille to fresh and dry faecal headspace volatile extracts from fifth instar conspecific nymphs and synthetic compounds were analysed in this study. Recently emerged nymphs (3–5 days) aggregated around filter paper impregnated with dry faeces and around filter paper impregnated with extracts from both fresh and dry faeces. Older first instars (10–15 days) and second instars aggregated around filter paper impregnated with fresh and dry faeces, and their respective headspace extracts. Dry faecal volatile extracts elicited the strongest antennal responses, followed by fresh faecal extracts. Gas chromatography−mass spectrometry analysis of dried faecal headspace volatiles demonstrated the presence of 12 compounds: 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-octadecane, n-nonadecane, n-eicosane, n-heneicosane, n-tricosane, n-pentaeicosane, n-hexaeicosane, n-octaeicosane, nonanal, and 4-methyl quinazoline. In fresh faecal headspace extracts, only nonanal was clearly detected, although there were other trace compounds, including several unidentified sesquiterpenes. Four of the 11 compounds tested individually elicited aggregation behaviour at concentrations of 100 ng/μL and 1 μg/μL. A blend containing these four components also mediated the aggregation of nymphs. These volatiles may be valuable for developing monitoring methods and designing sensitive strategies to detect and measure T. dimidiata infestation.


13.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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We studied the volatile composition and sexual morphs of Nephelium lappaceum flowers from two orchards, and investigated the choice behavior of the honey bee, Apis mellifera toward the floral extracts from both locations. Our results showed significant differences in chemical composition and sexual morphs; only the hermaphrodite flowers from the Herradero orchard produced limonene and α-pinene and had longer peduncle and sepal than flowers from the Metapa orchard; on the other hand, the hermaphrodite flowers from the Metapa orchard had longer gynoecium. In the behavioral experiment the extracts from the Herradero orchard seemed to give A. mellifera foragers better cues for orientation to food sources, perhaps due to the presence of limonene and α-pinene, which are absent in the samples from Metapa. Such differences in both orchards could affect pollinator attraction and ultimately seed set and productivity.


14.
- Artículo sin arbitraje
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Geographic variation in pheromone component ratio and antennal responses, but not in attraction, to sex pheromones among Fall armyworm populations infesting corn in Mexico
Cruz Esteban, Samuel ; Rojas, Julio C. (coaut.) ; Sánchez Guillén, Daniel (coaut.) ; Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad (coaut.) ; Malo Rivera, Edi Álvaro (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Pest Science Vol. 91, no. 3 (June 2018), p. 973–983 ISSN: 1612-4758
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The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most important pests of corn in Latin America. This insect presents two strains with behavioural and genetic differences. In Mexico, both strains are present, and at least two different FAW populations have been reported within the corn-strain. The objective of this study was to gather evidence of whether pheromonal communication varies among different S. frugiperda populations infesting corn in Mexico. First, we investigated any qualitative or quantitative difference in the composition of sex pheromones among populations; second, we studied whether male antennal responses to pheromone components vary among populations; and, finally, we investigated whether males from a region can discriminate between a synthetic pheromone blend characteristic of their region and blends formulated with the ratio of pheromone compounds emitted by females from other populations. Sex pheromone components were sampled by solid-phase microextraction and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Females from all populations consistently released three compounds: (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc) and (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc). Our results showed that Z9-14:OAc and Z7-12:OAc evoked the highest and most variable antennal responses among the populations studied compared to Z11-16:OAc. However, males did not discriminate between local pheromone blends and those formulated from other populations in a field test. These results show that although there is geographic variation in the ratio of pheromone components and in the peripheral reception of them, males were not differentially attracted to different pheromone blends in the field.


15.
Tesis - Maestría
Impacto de la florivoría en el éxito reproductivo de una maleza invasora (Solanum rostratum) / Mayumi Vega Polanco
Vega Polanco, Mayumi (autora) ; Solís Montero, Lislie (directora) ; Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad (asesor) ; Rojas, Julio C. (asesor) ;
Tapachula, Chiapas, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2018
Clasificación: TE/591.54097248 / V4
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013642 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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La florivoría puede afectar el éxito reproductivo de las plantas indirectamente disminuyendo las visitas de los polinizadores y directamente afectando la producción de frutos y semillas. Este estudio evaluó el impacto indirecto de la florivoría sobre el éxito reproductivo a través de la visita de los polinizadores en poblaciones naturales de Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) en el centro de México. Se caracterizó los florívoros en dos poblaciones y se determinó la preferencia por las estructuras de atracción o reproductivas. Posteriormente, se caracterizó los compuestos volátiles emitidos por flores no dañadas y dañadas por florivoría. Finalmente, se evaluó si el daño (manual y por florívoros) afecta la visita de los polinizadores. Empleando la siguiente metodología, se observaron los florívoros en un cuadrante de 10 m2 y las estructuras que prefirieron comer, por cinco días. La colecta de volátiles se realizó de flores sin daños y con florivoría, estas últimas expuestas al florívoro por tres horas; mediante microextracción en fase sólida, y la caracterización de los compuestos se efectuó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se realizaron bioensayos para determinar la influencia del daño de las estructuras florales sobre la visita de los polinizadores, empleando tres tratamientos: flor sin daño (control), con daño natural y con daño manual. Los principales resultados fueron: identificación de ocho especies de florívoros para esta maleza, que prefirieron mayormente corola, anteras alimenticias y antera polinizadora en ese orden.

Identificamos 25 compuestos químicos en proporciones relativas diferentes entre flores sin daños y dañadas. Las flores con florivoría fueron menos visitadas que las flores sin daño. Los visitantes legítimos visitaron más las flores sin daños que los ilegítimos. En conclusión, el daño por florivoría de las flores de S. rostratum disminuye el éxito reproductivo por el impacto indirecto a través de la visita de los polinizadores.

Índice

Resumen y palabras clave
Introducción
II. Does florivory affect the floral visitors’ attraction of a buzz- pollinated herb?
III. Conclusiones
IV. Literatura citada


16.
- Tesis
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Influencia de tres compuestos volátiles emitidos por las anteras de Solanum rostratum en la preferencia del polinizador Bombus impatiens / Jesús Fernándo García Crisóstomo
García Crisóstomo, J. F ; Solís Montero, Lislie (director) ; Alavez Rosas, David (asesor) ; Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad (asesor) ;
Tapachula, Chiapas, México : Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas. Instituto de Biociencias , 2018
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Las plantas emiten una serie de compuestos volátiles a través de diversas estructuras florales (glándulas secretoras) o por difusión de los tejidos florales. En algunas angiospermas, las anteras y/o los granos de polen son los responsables de la emisión de volátiles. Se usó como modelo de estudio a Solanum rostratum, una especie con anteras dimorficas (anteras polinizadoras y alimenticias), que ofrece granos de polen como recompensa para los polinizadores y emite un olor similar al durazno. Se sabe que esta planta emite compuestos volátiles, sin embargo, se desconoce la influencia de algunos compuestos en la atracción de los polinizadores. El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar la preferencia de B. impatiens por los compuestos volátiles emitidos por las anteras de S. rostratum. Se realizaron extractos de granos de polen y de anteras vacías, posteriormente se realizaron análisis y se determinaron las concentraciones de los compuestos de interés. Finalmente se realizaron bioensayos con extractos y compuestos sintéticos en forma individual y en mezclas, en un olfatómetro “Y”. Como resultado se observó mayor preferencia de Bombus impatiens por los compuestos emitidos por las anteras alimenticias en comparación con las anteras polinizadoras. En conclusión los compuestos volátiles de S. rostratum no son emitidos por los granos de polen, sin embargo, si se producen en las anteras a través de osmóforos en ambos tipos de anteras, siendo los compuestos volátiles emitidos por las anteras alimenticias más atractivos en la preferencia de B. impatiens, en comparación con los compuestos emitidos por las anteras polinizadoras.


17.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Oviposition preference and larval performance and behavior of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on host and nonhost plants
García Coapio, Guadalupe (autora) ; Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad (autor) ; Guerenstein, Pablo G. (autor) ; Malo Rivera, Edi Álvaro (autor) ; Rojas, Julio C. (autor) ;
Contenido en: Arthropod-Plant Interactions Vol. 12, no. 2 (April 2018), p. 267–276 ISSN: 1872-8855
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We investigated the female oviposition preference and larval performance and behavior of Trichoplusia ni (Hubner) on cabbage, tomato, soybean (host plants), and wormseed (nonhost plant) in laboratory experiments. In addition, we investigated the role of trichomes in the oviposition of females. Females oviposited more often on cabbage than on tomato, soybean, or wormseed plants. Tomato was the second most preferred plant, followed by soybean and wormseed. Neonate larvae gained more weight on cabbage and tomato than on soybean or wormseed, while second-instar larvae grew better on cabbage than on tomato, soybean, or wormseed. The least growth of neonate larvae occurred on wormseed plants. The orientation of neonate and second-instar larvae to cabbage, tomato, soybean, and wormseed did not differ significantly. Neonate larvae settled equally on leaf discs of cabbage, tomato, soybean, and wormseed, while most second-instar larvae settled on leaf discs of cabbage in comparison with the other plants after 24 h of release. The foliar area consumed by neonate larvae was quite similar among plants, but second-instar larvae consumed more cabbage than tomato, soybean, or wormseed. Comparing different types of leaves, females oviposited more often on mature than young leaves of tomato, soybean, and wormseed. In contrast, females did not show any preference for ovipositing on young or mature leaves of cabbage. In general, we found that the density or length of nonglandular and glandular trichomes of tomato, soybean, and wormseed plants negatively affected oviposition of T. ni females.


18.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Pollinator preferences for floral volatiles emitted by dimorphic anthers of a buzz-pollinated herb
Solís Montero, Lislie (autora) ; Cáceres García, S. (autor/a) ; Alavez Rosas, David (autor) ; García Crisóstomo, J. F. (autor/a) ; Vega Polanco, Mayumi (autora) ; Grajales Conesa, Julieta (autora) ; Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad (autor) ;
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Contenido en: Journal of Chemical Ecology Vol. 44, no. 11 (November 2018), p. 1058-1067 ISSN: 1573-1561
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Floral scents attract pollinators to plant rewards; in nectarless flowers, pollen grains are the only reward. Thus, pollen not only fertilizes ovules, but also feeds pollinators. This dilemma is resolved by specialization of anthers (i.e., heteranthery): feeding anthers that feed pollinators and pollinating anthers for fertilization. We hypothesized that the chemical composition of floral volatiles differs between the two types of anther and influences pollination preference for feeding anthers. We used Solanum rostratum as a study model because its heterantherous flowers produce a floral scent that suggests a close association with their pollinators. The main aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the two types of anther and to investigate how they influence foraging behaviour of pollinators. To characterize this composition, we used solid phase microextraction and hexane extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We registered 12 volatile compounds in S. rostratum floral extracts, mainly aromatic and sesquiterpene compounds. The proportion of these compounds differed between feeding and pollinating anthers. Some of these compounds were probably emitted by osmophores located in both anther types. Also, we used electroantennography to investigate Melipona solani antennal response to floral volatiles. The M. solani antennae are receptive to the highest floral extract dose tested. Finally, we conducted two behavioural bioassays to test bee attraction for each type of floral extract: a) multiple-choice in a feeding arena using M. solani and b) Y-olfactometer bioassay using Bombus impatiens. Both bee species preferred feeding anthers in bioassays. In conclusion, heteranthery involves chemical differentiation (i.e., proportion of volatiles compounds) in anther specialization that influences bee preference for feeding anthers over pollinating anthers.


19.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Short-distance dispersal of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) females (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytidae) during the coffee tree fruiting period
Román Ruíz, Ariana Karina ; Ribeyre, F. (coaut.) ; Rojas, Julio C. (coaut.) ; Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad (coaut.) ; Barrera, Juan F. (coaut.) ; Dufour, Bernard Pierre (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Bulletin of Entomological Research Vol. 108, no. 5, (October 2018), p. 593-601 ISSN: 1475-2670
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The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), is a multivoltine species closely associated with coffee crops worldwide, causing severe damage to the bean. In Mexico, as in all tropical regions, CBB survives during the inter-harvest period in residual berries on the ground or in dry berries remaining on the branches, and then disperses in search of the first suitable berries. In this study, we investigated how CBB dispersed from the first infested nodes during the fruiting period of Coffea canephora Pierre, which provides a favourable trophic level for this insect. Forty-five branches equally distributed in 15 coffee trees, with one infested node and four uninfested nodes, were selected. The branches were subjected to three treatments over nine weeks: 1) glue between nodes with full protection, 2) glue between nodes without protection, and 3) no glue and no protection. In addition, 45 CBB-free branches were selected and subjected to the same three treatments. CBB colonization can occur in three ways: 1) from an infested node to an uninfested node on the same branch, 2) from infested berries to uninfested berries within the nodes, 3) from branches to other branches. We also found that CBB dispersal between nodes of the same branches never occurred by walking but by flying. Thus, in this context of coffee berry development and ripening, and unlike the phenological situation of the inter-harvest period, CBB continuously travels very short distances, thus limiting its control.


20.
Artículo
Sweeter than a rose, at least to Triatoma phyllosoma complex males (Triatominae: Reduviidae)
May Concha, Irving Jesús ; Cruz López, Leopoldo Caridad (coaut.) ; Rojas, Julio C. (coaut.) ; Ramsey Willoquet, Janine M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Parasites & Vectors Vol, 11, no. 95 (February 2018), p. 1-12 ISSN: 1756-3305
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Background: The Triatoma phyllosoma complex of Trypanosoma cruzi vectors (Triatominae: Reduviidae) is distributed in both Neotropical and Nearctic bioregions of Mexico. Methods: Volatile organic compounds emitted by disturbed Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma pallidipennis and Triatoma phyllosoma, and from their Brindley’s and metasternal glands, were identified using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Disturbed bugs and the metasternal glands from T. phyllosoma released or had significantly fewer compounds than T. longipennis and T. pallidipennis. Isobutyric acid was the most abundant compound secreted by disturbed bugs of the three species, while Brindley’s glands of all species produced another four compounds: propanoic acid, isobutyric acid, pentyl butanoate, and 2-methyl hexanoic acid. Two novel compounds, both rose oxide isomers, were produced in MGs and released only by disturbed females of all three species, making this the first report in Triatominae of these monoterpenes. The principal compound in MGs of both sexes of T. longipennis and T. phyllosoma was 3-methyl-2-hexanone, while cis-rose oxide was the principal compound in T. pallidipennis females. The major components in male effluvia of T. pallidipennis were 2-decanol and 3-methyl-2-hexanone. Conclusion: Discriminant analysis of volatile organic compounds was significant, separating the three species and was consistent with morphological and genetic evidence for species distinctions within the complex.