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12 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Ilizaliturri Hernández, César Arturo
11.
Artículo
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Mining is one of the most important industrial activities globally; however, mining processes have critical environmental impacts, as mining is a major source of metals and metalloids that contribute significantly to the pollution of soil, sediment, water and air. Heavy metals can impact the health of exposed human populations and nonhuman receptors. This study focused on arsenic because its genotoxicity is well-known. Previously, we proposed a methodology to evaluate and integrate risk from a single source affecting different biologic receptors. Here, we propose an alternative approach estimating arsenic exposure in children and kangaroo rats using probabilistic simulation with Monte Carlo modeling. The estimates are then associated to measured DNA damage and compared to both populations of children and rodents living in contaminated and in reference areas. Finally, based on the integrated analysis of the generated information, we evaluate the potential use of wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) as a biomonitor at mining sites. Results indicate that the variation of genotoxicity in children of the reference site is approximately 2 units when compared to the children of the contaminated site. In the rodents we observed a variation of approximately 4 units between those of the reference site when compared to those living on the contaminated site. We propose that D. merriami can be used as a biomonitor organism in sites with mining activity, and that a non-lethal test can be used to evaluate risk from metal exposure.


12.
Artículo
PDF
Resumen en: Español | Inglés | Portugués |
Resumen en español

Los métodos para evaluar el riesgo en salud se basan, en general, en el monitoreo ambiental y en la estimación de la exposición a través de modelos matemáticos. La incertidumbre de tal estrategia es grande. En consecuencia, para incrementar la certidumbre sobre la evaluación de la exposición a los contaminantes, se ha propuesto el empleo de biomarcadores. No obstante, la complejidad de los nuevos escenarios de riesgo obliga a evaluar no solamente a las poblaciones humanas sino también al resto de la biota. Asimismo, factores ambientales, sociales y de salud, al afectar la vulnerabilidad, también deben ser considerados para la caracterización del riesgo. Estos factores de vulnerabilidad pueden evaluarse a través de indicadores. Al final, con los análisis ambientales, el uso de biomarcadores y el manejo de indicadores ambientales, sociales y de salud, puede evaluarse el riesgo de manera integrada (humanos y biota). En esta revisión se presentan las diversas estrategias empleadas por este grupo de trabajo para evaluar el riesgo en sitios contaminados, comunidades marginadas y en áreas afectadas por el cambio global climático.

Resumen en inglés

The most commonly used methods for risk assessment are based on environmental analysis and the use of mathematical models for the estimation of exposure. However, the uncertainty of this approach is high, as the models are based on scenarios that may be not the correct ones. In order to decrease the uncertainty, the use of biomarkers has been proposed. Furthermore, considering the complexity of pollution in some sites, these biomarkers can be used both in humans and biota in order to obtain better information for the definition of risks at those sites. In addition to biomarkers, social, health and environmental indicators have to be applied for risk characterization, as different factors of vulnerability can modify the extent of health risks in some communities. At the end, with environmental monitoring and the use of biomarkers and indicators of vulnerability, health risks in humans and biota (integrated risk assessment) can be assessed in different scenarios. In this paper we present the strategies that our group developed for the study of hazardous waste sites, vulnerable communities and areas impacted by climate change.

Resumen en portugués

Os métodos para avaliar o risco na saúde se baseiam, em geral, no monitoramento ambiental e na estimação da exposição através de modelos matemáticos. A incerteza de tal estratégia é grande. Em consequência, para incrementar a certeza sobre a avaliação da exposição aos contaminantes, tem sido proposta a utilização de biomarcadores. No entanto, a complexidade dos novos cenários de risco obriga a avaliar não somente as populações humanas mas também ao resto da biota. Da mesma forma, fatôres ambientais, sociais e de saúde, ao afetar a vulnerabilidade, também devem ser considerados para a caracterização do risco. Estes fatôres de vulnerabilidade podem avaliar-se através de indicadores. Finalmente, com as análises ambientais, o uso de biomarcadores e o manejo de indicadores ambientais, sociais e de saúde, pode-se avaliar o risco de maneira integrada (humanos e biota). Nesta revisão se apresentam as diversas estratégias empregadas por este grupo de trabalho para avaliar o risco em lugares contaminados, comunidades marginalizadas e em áreas afetadas pela mudança global climática.