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150 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Lachaud, Jean Paul
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1.
Artículo
Nest site selection during colony relocation in Yucatan Peninsula populations of the ponerine ants Neoponera villosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Rocha, Franklin H. (autor) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (autor) ; Hénaut, Yann (autor) ; Pozo, Carmen (autora) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Insects Volumen 11, número 3, 200 (March 2020), páginas 1-15 ISSN: 2075-4450
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In the Yucatan Peninsula, the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa nests almost exclusively in tank bromeliads, Aechmea bracteata. In this study, we aimed to determine the factors influencing nest site selection during nest relocation which is regularly promoted by hurricanes in this area. Using ants with and without previous experience of Ae. bracteata, we tested their preference for refuges consisting of Ae. bracteata leaves over two other bromeliads, Ae. bromeliifolia and Ananas comosus. We further evaluated bromeliad-associated traits that could influence nest site selection (form and size). Workers with and without previous contact with Ae. bracteata significantly preferred this species over others, suggesting the existence of an innate attraction to this bromeliad. However, preference was not influenced by previous contact with Ae. bracteata. Workers easily discriminated between shelters of Ae. bracteata and A. comosus, but not those of the closely related Ae. bromeliifolia. In marked contrast, ants discriminated between similar sized Ae. bracteata and Ae. bromeliifolia plants, suggesting that chemical cues and plant structure play an important role. Size was also significant as they selected the largest plant when provided two dissimilar Ae. bracteata plants. Nest site selection by N. villosa workers seems to depend on innate preferences but familiarization with plant stimuli is not excluded.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Ant parasitoidism has been reported in seven of the 26 recognized species of the mite genus Macrodinychus (Machrodynichidae). Macrodynichus sellnicki, previously reported as a parasitoid of the invasive ant Nylanderia fulva in Colombia, is now reported, in the same region, as attacking a native host, Ectatomma sp. 2 (E. ruidum complex). The mite develops within the protective silk cocoon of an Ectatomma pupa and waits for the emergence of the young ant before leaving the cocoon, unmolested. Overall nest prevalence was relatively high (34.6% of the 52 nests containing cocoons) but pupae prevalence was low (4.0%, n=1401 cocoons). Mite life-history (parasite or parasitoid) was context dependent, shifting according to the intensity of the attack on a same host. Contrary to the strictly parasitoidic association of M. sellnicki with N. fulva, single mite attacks against E. ruidum did not result in host killing and solitary M. sellnicki (78.6% of the cases) behaved as parasites. However, in 21.4% of the attacks (0.9% of all available host pupae) more than one mite was involved and behaved as parasitoids, draining the host of its internal fuids and killing it. This is the frst association of a macrodinychid mite with a species of the subfamily Ectatomminae, and the frst ant associated mite for which such a context dependent life-style shift is described.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Fine-tuned intruder discrimination favors ant parasitoidism
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (autora) ; Rocha, Franklin H. (autor) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (autor) ; Hénaut, Yann (autor) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (autor) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: PLoS One Vol. 14, no. 1, art. no. e0210739 (January 2019), p. 1-21 ISSN: 0187-6376
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

diversity of arthropods (myrmecophiles) thrives within ant nests, many of them unmolested though some, such as the specialized Eucharitidae parasitoids, may cause direct damage to their hosts. Ants are known to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates, but whether they recognize the strength of a threat and their capacity to adjust their behavior accordingly have not been fully explored. We aimed to determine whether Ectatomma tuberculatum ants exhibited specific behavioral responses to potential or actual intruders posing different threats to the host colony and to contribute to an understanding of complex ant-eucharitid interactions. Behavioral responses differed significantly according to intruder type. Ants evicted intruders that represented a threat to the colony’s health (dead ants) or were not suitable as prey items (filter paper, eucharitid parasitoid wasps, non myrmecophilous adult weevils), but killed potential prey (weevil larvae, termites). The timing of detection was in accordance with the nature and size of the intruder: corpses (a potential source of contamination) were detected faster than any other intruder and transported to the refuse piles within 15 min. The structure and complexity of behavioral sequences differed among those intruders that were discarded. Workers not only recognized and discriminated between several distinct intruders but also adjusted their behavior to the type of intruder encountered.

Our results confirm the previously documented recognition capabilities of E. tuberculatum workers and reveal a very fine-tuned intruder discrimination response. Colony- level prophylactic and hygienic behavioral responses through effective removal of inedible intruders appears to be the most general and flexible form of defense in ants against a diverse array of intruders. However, this generalized response to both potentially lethal and harmless intruders might have driven the evolution of ant-eucharitid interactions, opening a window for parasitoid attack and allowing adult parasitoid wasps to quickly leave the natal nest unharmed.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Opportunistic predation by leaf-Cutting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a Wounded Baird's Tapir (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in Mexico
Lachaud, Jean Paul (autor) ; Pérez Flores, Jonathan Sechaly (autor) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Florida Entomologist Vol. 102, no. 1 (April 2019), p. 251-253 ISSN: 0015-4040
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

A pesar de su dieta herbívora especializada, las hormigas cortadoras de hojas aprovechan también de manera oportunística fuentes temporales como carcasas de insectos o de vertebrados. Reportamos el primer caso de hormiga atine, Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), forrajeando sobre el tejido cicatricial de un vertebrado vivo, una hembra herida del tapir centroamericano, Tapirus bairdii (Gill) (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Tapiridae). Se proponen 2 hipótesis, no mutuamente exclusivas, para explicar tal comportamiento: (1) el uso por parte de las hormigas cortadoras de hojas de estos tejidos como fuente de nutrientes esenciales escasos; (2) el muestreo oportunístico de comunidades polimicrobianas asociadas con la piel de animales heridos, en búsqueda de nuevas cepas de sus actinobacterias asociadas.

Resumen en inglés

Notwithstanding their specialized herbivorous diet, leaf-cutting ants opportunistically exploit temporary resources such as insect or vertebrate carcasses. We report on the first case of attine workers, Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), foraging on the scar tissues of a living vertebrate, a wounded female Baird’s tapir, Tapirus bairdii (Gill) (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Tapiridae). We put forward 2, not mutually exclusive, hypotheses to explain such behavior: (1) utilization by the leaf-cutting ants of these tissues as a resource that provides rare essential nutrients, and (2) opportunistic sampling of polymicrobial communities associated with the skin of the wounded animal in search of new strains of their associated actinobacteria.


5.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the `El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico), we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico) in 1999. Ants and their brood were revised for the presence of any sign of parasitism. Cocoons were dissected and their content examined under a stereomicroscope. Six N. villosa prepupae had been attacked by the ectoparasitoid syrphid fly Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull (Syrphidae: Microdontinae), to date the only known dipteran species of the Microdontinae with a parasitoid lifestyle. In addition, six male pupae from three colonies contained gregarious endoparasitoid wasps. These were specialized in parasitizing this specific host caste as no gyne or worker pupae displayed signs of having been attacked. Only immature stages (larvae and pupae) of the wasp could be obtained. Due to the long storage period, DNA amplification failed; however, based on biological and morphological data, pupae were placed in the Encyrtidae family.

This is the first record of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing N. villosa, and the second example of an encyrtid as a primary parasitoid of ants. Furthermore, it is also the first record of co-occurrence of a dipteran ectoparasitoid and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid living in sympatry within the same population of host ants. Our findings highlight the importance of biological collections as reservoirs of hidden biodiversity, not only at the taxonomic level, but also at the behavioral level, revealing complex living networks. They also highlight the need for funding in order to carry out biodiversity inventories and manage existing collections.


6.
Artículo
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The myrmecophile larva of the dipteran taxon Nothomicrodon Wheeler is rediscovered, almost a century after its original description and unique report. The systematic position of this dipteran has remained enigmatic due to the absence of reared imagos to confirm indentity. We also failed to rear imagos, but we scrutinized entire nests of the Brazilian arboreal dolichoderine ant Azteca chartifex which, combined with morphological and molecular studies, enabled us to establish beyond doubt that Nothomicrodon belongs to the Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera), not the Syrphidae where it was first placed, and that the species we studied is an endoparasitoid of the larvae of A. chartifex, exclusively attacking sexual female (gyne) larvae. Northomicrodon parasitism can exert high fitness costs to a host colony. Our discovery adds one more case to the growing number of phorid taxa known to parasitize ant larvae and suggests that many others remain to be discovered. Our findings and literature review confirm that the Phoridae is the only taxon known that parasitizes both adults and the immature stages of different castes of ants, thus threatening ants on all fronts.


7.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Macrodinychus mites as parasitoids of invasive ants: an overlooked parasitic association
Lachaud, Jean Paul ; Klompen, Hans (coaut.) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Scientific Reports Vol. 6, no. 29995 (2016), p. 1-10 ISSN: 2045-2322
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Mites are frequent ant symbionts, yet the exact nature of their interactions with their hosts is poorly known. Generally, myrmecophilous mites show adaptations for dispersal through phoresis, but species that lack such an adaptation may have evolved unusual specialized relationships with their hosts. The immature stages of Macrodinychus multispinosus develop as ectoparasitoids of pupae of the invasive ant Paratrechina longicornis. Feeding stages show regressed locomotor appendages. These mites complete their development on a single host, sucking all of its body content and therefore killing it. Locally high proportions of parasitized host pupae suggest that M. multispinosus could serve as a biological control agent. This is the ninth species of Macrodinychus reported as ant parasite, and the third known as parasitoid of invasive ants, confirming a unique habit in the evolution of mite feeding strategies and suggesting that the entire genus might be parasitic on ants. Several mites’ characteristics, such as their protective morphology, possible viviparity, lack of a specialized stage for phoretic dispersal, and low host specificity, combined with both the general low aggressiveness of invasive P. longicornis towards other ants and its possible susceptibility to generalist ectoparasites would account for the host shift in native macrodinychid mites.


8.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Uncovering species boundaries in the Neotropical ant complex Ectatomma ruidum (Ectatomminae) under the presence of nuclear mitochondrial paralogues
Aguilar Velasco, Reina Gabriela ; Poteaux, Chantal (coaut.) ; Meza Lázaro, Rubí (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ; Dubovikoff, Dmitry A. (coaut.) ; Zaldívar Riverón, Alejandro (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Vol. 178, no. 2 (October 2016), p. 226–240 ISSN: 1096-3642
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Nuclear mitochondrial (mt) paralogues (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA integrated into the nuclear genome that can overestimate the number of species in analyses based on mtDNA sequences. As numts have relatively slow mutation rates, they can pass undetected by conventional procedures such as inspecting for internal stop codons, indels or apparent polymorphism in chromatograms. Species boundaries based on mtDNA markers therefore require a thorough assessment of numts, especially in insects, where this phenomenon appears to be relatively frequent. Ectatomma ruidum is a widely distributed Neotropical ant species that is distributed from northern Mexico to northern Brazil. Previous behavioural and molecular evidence suggests that this species actually represents a composite taxon. Here we assessed the species boundaries in E. ruidum based on two mt (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (H3) marker, as well as on external morphology. Ancient and recent mt paralogues were detected in several specimens, although pre-PCR dilution of DNA template helped to recover most of the mt orthologues. Based on the congruence found between our species delineation obtained from the mt genealogies and the discriminated morphospecies, we propose that E. ruidum is actually composed of at least three species. Two of these species have a wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics, whereas the remaining one was restricted to localities situated near the Pacific coast in south-east Mexico. We also found extensive intra- and interspecific variation in the barcoding locus. Moreover, the nuclear evidence suggests the existence of hybrids between two of these species in Oaxaca, south-east Mexico. This study agrees with previous studies of other closely related animal taxa, which have revealed a complex evolutionary history and overlooked species diversity in the latter region.


9.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Biogeography, cryptic diversity, and queen dimorphism evolution of the Neotropical ant genus Ectatomma Smith, 1958 (Formicidae, Ectatomminae)
Nettel Hernanz, Alejandro ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ; Fresneau, Dominique (coaut.) ; López Muñoz, Román A. (coaut.) ; Poteaux, Chantal (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Organisms Diversity & Evolution Vol. 15, no. 3 (September 2015), p. 543-553 ISSN: 1439-6092
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Due to its high biodiversity and its complex climatic and geological history, the Neotropical region has caught the attention of evolutionary and conservation biologists. The Neotropics have an understudied and probably extensive cryptic diversity, stemming from old lineages that have persisted through time with highly similar morphology or from new morphologically undifferentiated sibling species. The wide-ranging Neotropical ant genus Ectatomma currently has only 15 described species, some of which present limited distribution. These ants provide an excellent system for the study of diversification and cryptic diversity in the Neotropics. Ectatomma also displays queen-size dimorphism in some northern populations of its two most common species: a case of true microgyny and a recently described parasitic species. We performed a phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of Ectatomma species using two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. We also explored the relationship between the history of the genus and the appearance of miniaturized queens. Our analysis recovered a monophyletic Ectatomma that originated in the Parana region of South America. We recorded three likely events of colonization of the Caribbean–Mesoamerican region. We also detected ample evidence of cryptic divergence that deserves a full taxonomic revision of the genus. Miniature queens—microgynes and parasites—represent two independent evolutionary events that appeared in the recent history of the genus.


10.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
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Diversidade genética e fenotípica no gênero Ectatomma
Poteaux, C. ; Prada Achiardi, F. C. (coaut.) ; Fernández, F. (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: As formigas poneromorfas do Brasil Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil : Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Editora Editus, 2015 p. 127-144 ISBN:978-85-7455-398-6
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Resumen en inglés

Ectatomma is a genus of ants belonging to Ectatomminae, currently located in the Formicoid group. With 15 recognized species, the genus includes relatively large ants endemic to the Neotropical Region. These species are relatively common in diverse areas such as wet forest, savannah, and dry forest habitats below 1500 m in altitude. Most of them are generalist predators but they also consume fruit pulp, honey and plant nectars. The wide variation in their environmental performance, foraging strategies and diet explains their abundance in the Neotropics. The first review of this genus was done by William Brown Jr. in 1958, who recognized the difficulties in delimiting some Ectatomma species. Some of these problems were partly solved by Kugler and Brown, who suggested some synonymies and recognized 12 species. Arias-Penna re-described E. confine; Almeida described two species from Brazil, E. vizotoi and E. suzanae, and Feitosa et al. described the first social parasitic Ectatomma, E. parasiticum from Mexico. While there are currently 15 Ectatomma described species, recent studies have shown that this variability is underestimated due to cryptic species or insufficient sampling. In this chapter, we synthesize from the literature and our own experience data on phenotypic variation, ecological and life traits and genetics. Morphological variation is known for E. tuberculatum, E. goninion and E. ruidum over their geographic distribution. As in other ants, this kind of variation has been the principal source of taxonomic inflation. The challenge with this taxon is to find a correct delimitation of the species, using several sources of data, including morphology, chemistry, genetics and biology. Phenotypic variation can also be expressed by differences in behaviours or life history traits between species, and we here present some features common to or, by contrast, specific to some Ectatomma.

The nests of all the species of the genus Ectatomma are terricolous, even those of species exhibiting arboricolous habits. Generally, they exhibit the same pattern; a simple architecture with a single entrance hole opening directly on the ground surface and leading to a gallery, which connects with successive chambers (4-12 according to the species) deeper in the ground (0.68-3.60 m according to the species). The structure of the nests seems to vary depending on the environment and probably with the season, colony size and the structure of the soil. The patterns of nest distribution appear to vary according to the species (overdispersion; random distribution; aggregated pattern; patchy distribution). Polydomy occurs in E. tuberculatum and possibly in E. brunneum and E. opaciventre. Polygynous colonies have been detected in seven of the 15 Ectatomma species (E. ruidum, E. tuberculatum, E. parasiticum, E. brunneum, E. permagnum, E. planidens (referred to as E. edentatum), and E. vizottoi). However, data based on genetic markers to investigate details of the socio-genetic structure of the colonies have only been obtained in E. tuberculatum and E. ruidum, for which we developed specific microsatellite loci. Although Ectatomma is a widespread and common genus in the Neotropics, their taxonomy is surprisingly poorly known, with several issues unanswered, such as: the delimitation of some species or cryptic species complexes (as in E. tuberculatum and E. ruidum); the interpretation of infra- vs inter-specific variation (as in E. goninion); the problem of paraphyly (as in the E. tuberculatum / E. parasiticum pair); and also the status of species described by Almeida in (E. vizotoi and E. suzanae). Hopefully work in progress, including the molecular phylogeny of the genus, will throw light on species delimitation, biogeography, and evolution of some biological traits such as microgyny and parasitism.

Resumen en portugués

O gênero de formigas Ectatomma (Ectatomminae) está atualmente situado no clado Formicoide. Este gênero possui 15 espécies reconhecidas e inclui formigas relativamente grandes e endêmicas da Região Neotropical. Estas espécies são relativamente comuns em diversas áreas (habitats como florestas secas, florestas úmidas e savanas) abaixo de 1500m de altitude. A maioria dessas formigas é predadora generalista, mas também podem se alimentar de polpa de frutas, mel e néctar. A ampla variação de seu desempenho ambiental, estratégias de forrageio e dieta justificam a sua abundância na Região Neotropical. A primeira revisão do gênero foi realizada por William Brown Jr. em 1958, que enfrentou dificuldades em delimitar algumas espécies de Ectatomma. Alguns destes problemas foram parcialmente resolvidos por Kugler; Brown, que sugeriram algumas sinonímias e reconheceram 12 espécies. Arias-Penna redescreveu E. confine; Almeida descreveu duas espécies do Brasil, E. vizottoi e E. suzanae. Feitosa et al. descreveram E. parasiticum, a primeira Ectatomma parasita social, originária do México. Embora existam atualmente 15 espécies de Ectatomma descritas, estudos recentes mostraram que esta diversidade é subestimada devido a espécies crípticas ou amostragem insuficiente. Neste capítulo, sintetizamos da literatura e de nossa própria experiência dados de variação fenotípica a partir de características morfológicas, ecológicas, características de vida e genéticas (citogenética e estrutura populacional). A variação morfológica foi registrada em E. tuberculatum, E. goninion e E. ruidum ao longo de sua distribuição geográfica. Porém, assim como em outras formigas, este tipo de variação foi a principal fonte de inflação taxonômica, com muitos nomes desnecessários propostos anteriormente na história do gênero.

O desafio neste táxon é encontrar uma delimitação correta das espécies, usando várias fontes de dados como morfologia, química, genética e biologia (e.g. comportamento de nidificação). A existência de espécies crípticas em E. tuberculatum e E. ruidum, por exemplo, foi recentemente observada a partir de um estudo de filogenia molecular. A variação fenotípica também pode ser expressa baseada em alterações comportamentais ou em características da história de vida das espécies. Decidimos apresentar apenas algumas características comuns, ou por outro lado, específicas de algumas espécies de Ectatomma como a arquitetura de ninho, distribuição de ninhos e organização social. Os ninhos de todas as espécies do gênero Ectatomma são terrícolas, mesmo aqueles de espécies que demonstram hábitos arborícolas como E. tuberculatum. Geralmente os ninhos apresentam o mesmo padrão: uma arquitetura simples com um único orifício de entrada e uma abertura direta na superfície do solo, conduzindo a uma galeria que se aprofunda conectando-se a consecutivas câmaras (de quatro a 12, de acordo com a espécie) variando de 0.68 a 3.60m, de acordo com a espécie. A estrutura dos ninhos parece variar dependendo do ambiente e provavelmente da estação. No entanto, a variação também pode ocorrer de acordo com o tamanho da colônia (ou estado de desenvolvimento) e estrutura do solo. O padrão de distribuição de ninhos também parece variar de acordo com a espécie (sobreposição, distribuição aleatória, padrão agregado, distribuição em manchas). Além disso, a polidomia, que é a formação de ninhos múltiplos e separados que permitem intercâmbio entre eles, de operárias e da prole ocorre em E. tuberculatum e foi sugerida para E. brunneum e E. opaciventre.

A organização social foi estudada em diferentes espécies de Ectatomma e colônias poligínicas foram identificadas em sete das 15 espécies (E. ruidum, E. tuberculatum, E. parasiticum, E. brunneum, E. permagnum, E. planidens (referida como E. edentatum), e E. vizottoi). Entretanto, dados baseados em marcadores genéticos usados para investigar em detalhes a estrutura sociogenética das colônias foram realizados apenas com E. tuberculatum e E. ruidum, as quais desenvolvemos loci microssatélites específicos. Embora Ectatomma seja um gênero muito difundido e comum na Região Neotropical, sua taxonomia é pouco conhecida, com várias questões não respondidas, como a delimitação de algumas espécies ou complexos de espécies crípticas (como em E. tuberculatum e E. ruidum), a interpretação da variação intra vs interespecífica (como em E. goninion), o problema da parafilia (como no par E. tuberculatum / E. parasiticum) e também o status de espécie descrito por Almeida (E. vizottoi e E. suzanae). Esperamos que estudos em andamento, incluindo a filogenia molecular do gênero, possam elucidar a delimitação de espécies, biogeografia e evolução de algumas características biológicas como microginia, parasitismo e preferência de habitats.


11.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Ectaheteromorph ants also host highly diverse parasitic communities: a review of parasitoids of the Neotropical genus Ectatomma
Lachaud, Jean Paul ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Insectes Sociaux Vol. 62, no. 2 (May 2015), p. 121-132 ISSN: 0020-1812
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Despite the diversity of ant-myrmecophile associations, there are few examples of primary parasitism of ants and these are poorly documented, particularly in genera with only a few species such as the genus Ectatomma. We identified 18 associations that involve at least 16 taxa of primary parasitoids distributed in three families belonging to two invertebrate classes, and five of the 15 valid Ectatomma species. Among these, we report for the first time an endoparasitoid fly (probably a phorid) that attacks E. ruidum larvae and constitutes the second record of ant-larva endoparasitism by a dipteran. We provide a brief account of the interactions of these organisms with their hosts and their possible impact at the colonial or population level. Ectatomma ants, though being a small group, serve as a remarkable resource for the evolution of a wide variety of parasitoid organisms which, comparatively, are much more important than those associated with better-studied ant genera such as Myrmica or Formica. Considering the lack of studies dedicated to their parasites and parasitoids, the available information (almost limited to the three most studied Ectatomma species) suggests that, in spite of both their carnivorous diet and the aggressiveness typical of their workers, the diversity of these associations with Ectatomma might be much more important than previously expected. We stress the urgency of performing detailed inventories focused on these associations, not only for the genus Ectatomma, but for all the poorly studied ant communities (ectaheteromorphs, poneromorphs, arboreal ants) and endangered species.


12.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Communication in ants is based to a great extent on chemical compounds. Recognition of intruders is primarily based on cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile matching but is prone to being cheated. Eucharitid wasps are specific parasitoids of the brood of ants; the immature stages are either well integrated within the colony or are protected within the host cocoons, whereas adult wasps at emergence must leave their host nest to reproduce and need to circumvent the ant recognition system to escape unscathed. The behavioral interactions between eucharitid wasps and workers of their host, the Neotropical ant Ectatomma tuberculatum, are characterized. In experimental bioassays, newly emerged parasitoids were not violently aggressed. They remained still and were grabbed by ants upon contact and transported outside the nest; host workers were even observed struggling to reject them. Parasitoids were removed from the nest within five minutes, and most were unharmed, although two wasps (out of 30) were killed during the interaction with the ants. We analyzed the CHCs of the ant and its two parasitoids, Dilocantha lachaudii and Isomerala coronata, and found that although wasps shared all of their compounds with the ants, each wasp species had typical blends and hydrocarbon abundance was also species specific. Furthermore, the wasps had relatively few CHCs compared to E. tuberculatum (22–44% of the host components), and these were present in low amounts. Wasps, only partially mimicking the host CHC profile, were immediately recognized as alien and actively removed from the nest by the ants. Hexane-washed wasps were also transported to the refuse piles, but only after being thoroughly inspected and after most of the workers had initially ignored them.

Being recognized as intruder may be to the parasitoids’ advantage, allowing them to quickly leave the natal nest, and therefore enhancing the fitness of these very short lived parasitoids. We suggest that eucharitids take advantage of the hygienic behavior of ants to quickly escape from their host nests.


13.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Influence of task switching costs on colony homeostasis
Jeanson, Raphaël ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: The Science of Nature Vol. 102, no. 36 (June 2015) ISSN: 0028-1042
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In social insects, division of labour allows colonies to optimise the allocation of workers across all available tasks to satisfy colony requirements. The maintenance of stable conditions within colonies (homeostasis) requires that some individuals move inside the nest to monitor colony needs and execute unattended tasks. We developed a simple theoretical model to explore how worker mobility inside the nest and task switching costs influence the maintenance of stable levels of task-associated stimuli. Our results indicate that worker mobility in large colonies generates important task switching costs and is detrimental to colony homeostasis. Our study suggests that the balance between benefits and costs associated with the mobility of workers patrolling inside the nest depends on colony size. We propose that several species of ants with diverse life-history traits should be appropriate to test the prediction that the proportion of mobile workers should vary during colony ontogeny.


14.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Local and Landscape Drivers of Ant Parasitism in a Coffee Landscape
De la Mora, Aldo ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Environmental Entomology Vol. 44, no. 4 (Aug. 2015), p. 939-950 ISSN: 0046-225X
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Parasitism of ants that nest in rotting wood by eucharitid wasps was studied in order to examine whether habitat and season influence ant parasitism, vegetation complexity and agrochemical use correlate with ant parasitism, and whether specific local and landscape features of agricultural landscapes correlate with changes in ant parasitism. In a coffee landscape, 30 coffee and 10 forest sites were selected in which local management (e.g., vegetation, agrochemical use) and landscape features (e.g., distance to forest, percent of rustic coffee nearby) were characterized. Rotten logs were sampled and ant cocoons were collected from logs and cocoons were monitored for parasitoid emergence. Sixteen ant morphospecies in three ant subfamilies (Ectatomminae, Ponerinae, and Formicinae) were found. Seven ant species parasitized by two genera of Eucharitidae parasitoids (Kapala and Obeza) were reported and some ant–eucharitid associations were new. According to evaluated metrics, parasitism did not differ with habitat (forest, high-shade coffee, low-shade coffee), but did increase in the dry season for Gnamptogenys ants. Parasitism increased with vegetation complexity for Gnamptogenys and Pachycondyla and was high in sites with both high and low agrochemical use. Two landscape variables and two local factors positively correlated with parasitism for some ant genera and species. Thus, differences in vegetation complexity at the local and landscape scale and agrochemical use in coffee landscapes alter ecological interactions between parasitoids and their ant hosts.


15.
- Artículo con arbitraje
An unusual, but not unexpected, evolutionary step taken by Syrphid flies: the first record of true primary parasitoidism of ants by Microdontinae
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela ; Jervis, Mark A. (coaut.) ; Reemer, Menno (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society Vol. 111, no. 2 (February 2014), p. 462-472 ISSN: 1095-8312
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Parasitoidism of ants by flies is known only for Phoridae and Tachinidae. We report the first record of a hoverfly (Syrphidae, Microdontinae, Hypselosyrphus) acting as a true primary parasitoid of ants. Previously, larvae of Microdontinae were known only as obligate predators of ant brood. This is also the first host record for any Hypselosyrphus species, the first reliable record of an association between a syrphid fly and a ponerine ant, and the first record of a dipteran parasitoid developing upon the immature stages of ants. We reared adults of Hypselosyrphus trigonus from cocoons of the arboreal ponerine ant, Pachycondyla villosa, nesting in Aechmea bracteata bromeliads in southern Quintana Roo, Mexico, and we succeeded in determining various aspects of the parasitoid’s life history. The findings obtained in the present study provide novel insights into the evolutionary transformation and diversification of the feeding habits of microdontine syrphid larvae, from an obligatory, specific predatory association with the ant brood, to parasitoidism of ant prepupae. We also highlight the need for more detailed studies of the interactions of arboreal ants and their parasites. We conclude with an overview of the evolutionary transitions and diversification of larval feeding habits that have taken place within the family Syrphidae.


16.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Arboreal ant colonies as hot-points of cryptic diversity for myrmecophiles: the weaver ant camponotus sp. aff. textor and its interaction network with its associates
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: PLoS ONE Vol. 9, no. 6, e100155 (June 2014), p. 1-8 ISSN: 1932-6203
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Introduction: Systematic surveys of macrofaunal diversity within ant colonies are lacking, particularly for ants nesting in microhabitats that are difficult to sample. Species associated with ants are generally small and rarely collected organisms, which makes them more likely to be unnoticed. We assumed that this tendency is greater for arthropod communities in microhabitats with low accessibility, such as those found in the nests of arboreal ants that may constitute a source of cryptic biodiversity. Materials and Methods: We investigated the invertebrate diversity associated with an undescribed, but already threatened, Neotropical Camponotus weaver ant. As most of the common sampling methods used in studies of ant diversity are not suited for evaluating myrmecophile diversity within ant nests, we evaluated the macrofauna within ant nests through exhaustive colony sampling of three nests and examination of more than 80,000 individuals. Results: We identified invertebrates from three classes belonging to 18 taxa, some of which were new to science, and recorded the first instance of the co-occurrence of two brood parasitoid wasp families attacking the same ant host colony. This diversity of ant associates corresponded to a highly complex interaction network. Agonistic interactions prevailed, but the prevalence of myrmecophiles was remarkably low.

Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis of the evolution of low virulence in a variety of symbionts associated with large insect societies. Because most myrmecophiles found in this work are rare, strictly specific, and exhibit highly specialized biology, the risk of extinction for these hitherto unknown invertebrates and their natural enemies is high. The cryptic, far unappreciated diversity within arboreal ant nests in areas at high risk of habitat loss qualifies these nests as ‘hotpoints’ of biodiversity that urgently require special attention as a component of conservation and management programs.


17.
Tesis - Maestría
Comportamiento de transporte de eucarítidos u otros objetos y especialización en Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae, Formicidae) / Franklin Humberto Rocha Vela
Rocha Vela, Franklin Humberto ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (tutora) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (asesor) ; Hénaut, Yann (asesor) ;
Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2014
Clasificación: TE/595.7960451 / R6
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SIBE Campeche
ECO040005247 (Disponible)
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SIBE Chetumal
ECO030007929 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010017493 (Disponible)
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SIBE Tapachula
ECO020012709 (Disponible)
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SIBE Villahermosa
ECO050005543 (Disponible)
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Índice | Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

Las larvas y pupas de la hormiga Ectatomma tuberculatum son parasitadas por dos especies de avispas de la familia Eucharitidae. Las avispas adultas emergen dentro de los nidos de hormigas pero se reproducen afuera. A pesar de que las hormigas son agresivas, transportan a los eucarítidos hacia el exterior, indemnes. Diversas hipótesis como el mimetismo químico (olor semejante), la insignificancia química (ausencia de olor), la necroforesis y la profilaxis social (transporte de cadáveres y/o de desechos potencialmente patógenos) u otras estrategias comportamentales podrían explicar el rechazo sin agresión de los eucarítidos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue contribuir a la determinación de los estímulos que intervienen en el comportamiento de transporte de los eucarítidos, explorando algunas de estas hipótesis, e investigar la existencia de una posible especialización de las obreras en el rechazo de los intrusos. Para inferir sobre los posibles estímulos que determinan el comportamiento de rechazo se efectuaron bioensayos en laboratorio usando 4 nidos experimentales de tamaño controlado, y se determinó el comportamiento de las obreras ante diversos elementos (organismos/objetos) introducidos individualmente en el nido (parasitoides muertos lavados con pentano, adultos de curculiónidos, dos tipos de presas, obreras conespecíficas muertas y bolitas de papel filtro). Se efectuaron 15 observaciones de 15 min. por nido y por tratamiento. Se cuantificó el rechazo o no de los diferentes elementos, la latencia y la duración del manejo/transporte, y se caracterizó y comparó el comportamiento de las obreras ante los diferentes elementos usando diagramas de flujo. El comportamiento de las obreras fue específico según el tipo de intruso. Las presas potenciales (larvas del curculionido Caulophilus oryzae y obreros de termitas Nasutitermes sp.) fueron trituradas y utilizadas como alimento.

A excepción de las presas, los intrusos de los demás tratamientos no fueron dañados, aunque en algunos casos las obreras intentaron picarlos. Las secuencias comportamentales difirieron de acuerdo con el tipo de intruso. La secuencia típica de las obreras ante el eucarítido vivo (Dilocantha lachaudii) presentó mayor semejanza con la del adulto vivo de C. oryzae, que con la de los otros intrusos. Es posible que la estructura cuticular rígida de los eucarítidos impida el ataque de las obreras de E. tuberculatum. Las obreras de esta hormiga exhibieron una flexibilidad en cuanto a su repertorio comportamental y al número de transiciones entre los actos comportamentales. Por ejemplo, comportamientos como el golpe mandibular y la tentativa de picadura fueron empleados con mayor frecuencia ante las presas e intrusos con movimiento. Por el contrario, ante objetos inertes y organismos muertos (con y sin olor), se presentó con mayor frecuencia la exploración por anteneo. Se observó una posible partición del trabajo relacionado con el rechazo de los intrusos, es decir, el transporte de un intruso por más de una obrera. Por otro lado, para evaluar la posible existencia de especialización en actividades de rechazo de intrusos se utilizaron 2 nidos diferentes, con obreras marcadas individualmente con pintura. Se utilizó como modelo a Caulophilus oryzae, debido a que los adultos presentan estructura y tamaño semejantes a los de los eucarítidos y también adultos muertos lavados con pentano del eucarítido Dilocantha lachaudii. Se efectuaron 20 observaciones por intruso y por nido. Se documentaron todos los encuentros y comportamientos de las obreras hasta que se eliminó el intruso.

Todos los intrusos fueron retirados del nido, sin daño aparente y en general, las obreras retiraron a los intrusos en menos de 20 min. Algunas obreras retiraron al intruso con más frecuencia de lo esperado al azar lo que indica una fuerte especialización de estas obreras en esta tarea. El número de encuentros se correlacionó positivamente con el número de rechazos que realizó cada obrera. Un grupo de 7 obreras/por nido fue identificado como especialistas en el rechazo de intrusos. Además, un subconjunto de especialistas en cada nido llevó a cabo más del 60% de la tarea (hiper-especialistas). Es la primera vez que se demuestra una especialización en este contexto.

Índice

1. Introducción
2. Objetivos
2.1. Objetivo General
2.2. Objetivos Particulares
3. Hipótesis
4. Materiales y Métodos
4.1 Material biológico
4.2 Mantenimiento de las hormigas en laboratorio y observaciones preliminares
4.3 Estudio del rechazo de diferentes elementos ajenos a la colonia
4.4 Estudio de la especialización comportamental en obreras de E. tuberculatum
4.5 Análisis de datos
4.5.1 Rechazo de diferentes elementos ajenos a la colonia
4.5.2 Estudio del comportamiento de especialización
5. RESULTADOS
5.1 Estudio del rechazo de diferentes elementos ajenos a la colonia
5.1.1 Respuesta de las obreras ante los diferentes intrusos
5.1.2 Latencia y tiempo de manipulación y transporte
5.1.3 Repertorio comportamental
5.1.4 Descripción del comportamiento de las obreras de E. tuberculatum frente a los diferentes intrusos
5.1.4.1 Comportamiento de E. tuberculatum frente al eucarítido adulto vivo D. lachaudii
5.1.4.2 Comportamiento de E. tuberculatum frente a eucarítidos sin olor
5.1.4.3 Comportamiento de E. tuberculatum frente a intrusos no comestibles
5.1.4.4 Comportamiento de E. tuberculatum frente a presas potenciales
5.1.4.5 Comportamiento de E. tuberculatum frente a obreras muertas (necroforesis)
5.1.4.6 Comportamiento de E. tuberculatum frente a objetos inertes (insignificancia química)
5.2 Estudio del comportamiento de especialización
6. Discusión General
6.1 Estudio del rechazo de diferentes elementos ajenos a la colonia
6.2 Estudio del comportamiento de especialización
7. Conclusiones
8. Literatura Citada
9. Anexos
Anexo 1. Características de los nidos de E. tuberculatum colectados para este estudio. Número de individuos por casta y por estado de desarrollo
Anexo 2. Manuscrito individual sometido para su publicación a la revista Ethology


18.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Fine individual specialization and elitism among workers of the ant ectatomma tuberculatum for a highly specific task: intruder removal
Rocha, Franklin H. ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ; Valle Mora, Javier Francisco (coaut.) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Ethology Vol. 120, no. 12 (December 2014), p. 1185–1198 ISSN: 1439-0310
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Insect societies are characterized by a relatively sophisticated division of labor; they form tightly knit groups that must effectively exclude non-members from the colony. However, the Neotropical predatory ant Ectatomma tuberculatum can harbor several specific myrmecophiles and, in particular, various eucharitid parasitoid wasp species. Adult wasps eclose in the host nests and are removed by worker ants without harm. Previous observations suggest that only a few workers perform this task. To test this hypothesis, we introduced different types of intruders, live and dead, pentane-washed broad-nosed grain weevil individuals (Caulophilus oryzae) and dead, pentane-washed eucharitids (Dilocantha lachaudii), into laboratory colonies containing individually marked workers. We recorded all encounters and behaviors until the intruders were removed. Certain workers removed intruders more frequently than expected by chance. The number of encounters with an intruder was positively correlated with the number of removals performed by the workers. For each nest, a small group of workers was identified as specialized in intruder removal. A subset of very committed workers in the specialists group that performed up to 57% of removals qualified as hyperspecialists or elite workers. The behavioral sequences differed based on the type and condition of the intruder: the sequence was more complex and included numerous aggressive behaviors (mandibular strikes and attempts at stinging) when workers encountered a live weevil. In contrast, the behavioral sequences with dead, pentane-washed insects were characterized by numerous detections through contact that did not lead to rejection and by the intruders simply being seized and removed from the nest. Overall, the data show that the ants discriminated between live and pentane-washed intruders and adjusted their behavior accordingly. This is the first demonstration in ants of both behavior


19.
Tesis - Doctorado
Hormigas en cafetales: estudio sobre la calidad de la matriz en fincas cafetaleras en el Soconusco, Chiapas / Aldo Alejandro de la Mora Rodríguez
De la Mora Rodríguez, Aldo Alejandro ; Ibarra Núñez, Guillermo (director) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (codirectora) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (asesor) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (asesora) ; Soto Pinto, Lorena (asesora) (1958-) ;
Tapachula, Chiapas, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2014
Clasificación: TE/595.796097275 / M67
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040005482 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
ECO030008232 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010017601 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013100 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
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SIBE Villahermosa
ECO050005678 (Disponible)
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Resumen en español

La intensificación de agroecosistemas afecta la diversidad de la flora y fauna. Los objetivos fueron: conocer los efectos de la intensificación agronómica de cafetales y de los remanentes de bosque sobre la diversidad de hormigas, la relación entre la diversidad de hormigas y la remoción de insectos presa por parte de éstas y finalmente, analizar cómo afectan las variables locales y de paisaje a la tasa de parasitismo en las diferentes especies de hormigas en un agroecosistema de café. Se establecieron 40 sitios experimentales (400 m² cada uno) en siete fincas de café y en fragmentos de bosque en el Soconusco, Chiapas. Se calculó un índice de complejidad de vegetación (IVC), y mediante encuestas al personal de las fincas sobre el uso y frecuencia de aplicación de agroquímicos se elaboró un índice de agroquímicos (IA). Con los datos de la vegetación se clasificaron los 40 sitios experimentales en diferentes manejos del área de estudio en: monocultivos (17 sitios), policultivos (13 sitios) y bosques (10 sitios). Con los programas ArcView, y ArcMap se calcularon las siguientes variables de paisaje: distancia de cada sitio al borde del bosque, áreas con radios de 50, 200 y 500 m para sitios de bosques y de café de tipo rústico. En cada sitio, en las temporadas de secas y lluvias, se colectaron las hormigas del suelo, cafetos y arboles con diversos métodos de muestreo.

Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que los factores de manejo agronómico y la influencia de fragmentos de bosque afectan la diversidad y abundancia de hormigas e indirectamente influyen positivamente en los servicios ecosistémicos que las hormigas ofrecen. Sin embargo, la intensidad de parasitismo sufrido por las hormigas es afectada principalmente por factores del paisaje, la cantidad de humus y numero de pupas para ciertos grupos de hormigas. Se propone realizar acciones de diversificación de las zonas de café empleando diferentes especies de árboles para sombra (preferentemente nativos) o plantar diversas especies de Inga, con el fin de proveer refugio y alimentación para los diferentes organismos que existen y así favorecer las interacciones ecológicas entre ellos, favoreciendo una mejor calidad de la matriz agrícola que promovería sustentabilidad, economía y salud de los productores en la región.

Índice

Resumen
Capítulo I
1.1. Introducción General
1.1.1. Contexto global de la biodiversidad
1.1.2. Agroecosistemas de café: Factores de intensificación y de paisaje que inciden en la funcionalidad del agroecosistema
1.1.3. Hormigas como indicadoras de diversidad y su importancia ecológica
1.2 Hipótesis y Objetivos
1.2.1. Hipótesis general e hipótesis particulares
1.2.2 Objetivo general y objetivos particulares
1.3. Metodología General
1.3.1. Caracterización del área de estudio y técnicas de muestreo utilizadas
1.3.2. Análisis estadísticos
Capítulo II. Factores locales y de paisaje promueven la biodiversidad de cuatro grupos de hormigas en paisajes cafetaleros (Local and landscape drivers of biodiversity of four guilds of ants in coffee landscapes. Biodiversity Conservation, 22:871-888)
Capítulo III. Factores locales, del paisaje y de diversidad promueven los servicios ecosistemicos de depredación por hormigas en cafetales (Local, landscape, and diversity drivers of predation services provided by ants in coffee landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Manuscript re-submitted
Number : AGEE10440)
Capítulo IV. Factores locales y de paisaje promueven el parasitismo en un paisaje de café (Local and landscape drivers of ant parasitism in a coffee landscape. Environmental Entomology, Manuscrito sometido)
Capítulo V. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones
Capítulo VI.- Literatura Citada
Anexo 1
Acuse de artículo aceptado: Local and landscape drivers of biodiversity of four guilds of ants in coffee landscapes. Biodiversity Conservation, 22:871-888
Anexo 2
Normas editoriales de Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment


20.
- Capítulo de libro sin arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Determinación del ritmo de actividad y especialización comportamental en la hormiga Odontomachus opaciventris Forel
De la Mora, Aldo ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Formicidae de México México : Cuerpo Académico de Zoología UDG-CA-51, 2013 p. 123-130 ISBN:978-607-8113-16-3
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a

21.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Editorial: ants and their parasites
Lachaud, Jean Paul ; Lenoir, Alain (coaut.) ; Witte, Volker (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Psyche: A Journal of Entomology Vol. 2013, Article ID 264279 (2013), p. 1-5 ISSN: 1039-723X
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22.
Artículo - Nota científica con arbitraje
Editorial: ants and their parasites 2013
Lachaud, Jean Paul ; Lenoir, Alain (coaut.) ; Hughes, David P. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Psyche: A Journal of Entomology Vol. 2013 (2013), p. 1-5 ISSN: 1039-723X
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23.
- Artículo con arbitraje
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Microdontine syrphid flies are obligate social parasites of ants. Larvae prey on ant brood whereas adults live outside the nests. Knowledge of their interaction with their host is often scarce, as it is information about their natural enemies. Here we report the first case of parasitism of a species of microdontine fly by a myrmecophilous eurytomid wasp.This is also the first host record for Camponotophilus delvarei Gates, a recently described parasitic wasp discovered in Chiapas, Mexico, within the nests of the weaver ant, Camponotus sp. aff. textor Forel. Eleven pupal cases of a microdontine fly were found within a single nest of this ant, five of them being parasitized. Five adult C. delvarei females were reared from a pupariumand 29 female and2male pupaewere obtained fromanother one.The eurytomid is a gregarious, primary ectoparasitoid of larvae and pupae ofMicrodontinae, its immature stages developing within the protective pupariumof the fly.The species is synovigenic.Adult females likely locate and parasitize their hosts within the ant nest. As some species of Microdontinae are considered endangered, their parasitoids are likewise threatened and in need of accurate and urgent surveys in the future.


24.
- Capítulo de libro sin arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Revisión preliminar de las hormigas de Campeche y Quintana Roo, México, con base en la colección de Arthropoda del Colegio de la frontera Sur
Lachaud, Jean Paul ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (caout.) ;
Contenido en: Formicidae de México México : Cuerpo Académico de Zoología UDG-CA-51, 2013 p. 23-32 ISBN:978-607-8113-16-3
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a

25.
- Artículo con arbitraje
The role of learning in risk-avoidance strategies during spider–ant interactions
Hénaut, Yann ; Machkour M'Rabet, Salima (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Animal Cognition Vol. 17, no. 2 (Mar. 2014), p. 185-195 ISSN: 1435-9448
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Cognitive abilities used by arthropods, particularly predators, when interacting in a natural context have been poorly studied. Two neotropical sympatric predators, the golden silk spider Nephila clavipes and the ectatommine ant Ectatomma tuberculatum, were observed in field conditions where their interactions occurred regularly due to the exploitation of the same patches of vegetation. Repeated presentations of E. tuberculatum workers ensnared in their web triggered a progressive decrease in the capture response of N. clavipes. All the spiders that stopped trying to catch the ant on the second and/or third trial were individuals that had been bitten during a previous trial. Behavioural tests in natural field conditions showed that after a single confrontation with ant biting, spiders were able to discriminate this kind of prey more quickly from a defenceless prey (fruit flies) and to selectively and completely suppress their catching response. This one-trial aversive learning was still effective after 24 h. Likewise, E. tuberculatum workers entangled once on a N. clavipes web and having succeeded in escaping, learned to escape more quickly, breaking through the web by preferentially cutting spiral threads (sticky traps) rather than radial threads (stronger structural unsticky components) or pursuing the cutting of radials but doing it more quickly. Both strategies, based on a one-trial learning capability, obviously minimize the number of physical encounters between the two powerful opponents and may enhance their fitness by diminishing the risk of potential injuries resulting from predatory interactions.


26.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Diversity of species and behavior of hymenopteran parasitoids of ants: a review
Lachaud, Jean Paul ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Psyche: A Journal of Entomology Vol. 2012 (2012), p. 1-24 ISSN: 1039-723X
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Reports of hymenopterans associated with ants involve more than 500 species, but only a fraction unambiguously pertain to actual parasitoids. In this paper, we attempt to provide an overview of both the diversity of these parasitoid wasps and the diversity of the types of interactions they have formed with their ant hosts. The reliable list of parasitoid wasps using ants as primary hosts includes at least 138 species, reported between 1852 and 2011, distributed among 9 families from 3 superfamilies. These parasitoids exhibit a wide array of biologies and developmental strategies: ecto- or endoparasitism, solitary or gregarious, and idio- or koinobiosis. All castes of ants and all developmental stages, excepting eggs, are possible targets. Some species parasitize adult worker ants while foraging or performing other activities outside the nest; however, in most cases, parasitoids attack ant larvae either inside or outside their nests. Based on their abundance and success in attacking ants, some parasitoid wasps like diapriids and eucharitids seem excellent potential models to explore how parasitoids impact ant colony demography, population biology, and ant community structure. Despite a significant increase in our knowledge of hymenopteran parasitoids of ants, most of them remain to be discovered.


27.
- Artículo con arbitraje
First record of an encyrtid Wasp (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) as a true primary parasitoid of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela ; Noyes, John S. (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Florida Entomologist Vol. 95, no. 4 (2012), p. 1066-1076 ISSN: 0015-4040
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Numerosos casos de asociaciones con hormigas han sido reportados para avispas de la familia Encyrtidae con anterioridad. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de estos casos, las asociaciones son indirectas (interferencia), a través del parasitismo primario de insectos trofobiontes (Coccoidea) que las hormigas explotan y protegen. Los casos de parasitismo directe sospechados son raros y ningún ataque directo por encírtidos sobre hormigas ha sido demostrado hasta la fecha. Aquí compilamos todos los casos conocidos de asociaciones entre avispas de la familia Encyrtidae y hormigas, y reportamos el primer registro de verdadero parasitismo primario de hormigas para esta familia. De dos colonias de la hormiga ponerina arbórea Pachycondyla goeldii (Forel) de Guyana Francesa que se examinaron, una tenía 3 pupas parasitadas por machos y hembras de un diminuto Encyrtidae gregario, identificado como Blanchardiscus pollux Noyes, y 2 pupas más presentaban señales de pararasitismo. Este primer registro de hospedero conocido para el género Blanchardiscus, el cual siempre ha sido considerado cercano a otros géneros de encírtidos parasitando escamas, tiende a apoyar la hipótesis de una deriva progresiva del parasitismo desde los mirmecófilos hacia las hormigas. Este reporte permite incrementar a 9 el número de familias de avispas parasitoides conocidas por parasitar a hormigas. Es muy probable que el examen cuidadoso de otras especies de hormigas arbóreas, en particular aquellas involucradas en las construcción de jardínes de hormiga o de nidos tejidos, lleve a la detección de nuevas asociaciones entre hormigas y parasitoides.

Resumen en inglés

Numerous cases of associations of encyrtid wasps with ants have already been reported. In the majority of these cases, however, wasps are associated only indirectly with ants (interference associations) through primary parasitism of the trophobionts (Coccoidea), which are exploited and protected by ants. Suspected direct parasitism cases are unusual and no direct attack of encyrtids on ants has ever been demonstrated. Here we provide both a revised list of all known cases of associations between encyrtid wasps and ants, and a report of the first record of a true primary encyrtid parasitoid of ants. Of two colonies of the arboreal ponerine ant, Pachycondyla goeldii (Forel), examined from French Guiana, one had 3 pupae parasitized by males and females of a gregarious, minute encyrtid wasp species, identified as Blanchardiscus pollux Noyes, and 2 other cocoons presented evidence of pararasitism. This first host record for the genus Blanchardiscus, which has always been placed near other genera that parasitize scale-insects, supports a hypothesis of a shift from a myrmecophilous host to an ant host. Our findings increase to 9 the number of parasitoid wasp families known to attack ants as primary hosts. A closer examination of other arboreal ants, particularly those involved in ant-garden building and nest weaving, will certainly yield new ant-parasitoid associations.


28.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Poneromorph ants associated with parasitoid wasps of the genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) in French Guiana
Lachaud, Jean Paul ; Cerdan, Philippe (coaut.) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Psyche DOI: 10.1155/2012/393486 (2012), p. 1-6 ISSN: 1039-723X
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith), Odontomachus haematodus (L.), O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel). Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr.), P. apicalis (Latreille), and P. stigma (Fabr.), already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.


29.
- Artículo con arbitraje
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Three new species of Eulophidae associated, or presumed to be associated with ants are described: two species of Horismenus Walker and one species of Microdonophagus Schauff. Information on the biology is also included. The two Horismenus species are from Chiapas, Mexico. Horismenus myrmecophagus sp. n. is known only from females and is a gregarious endoparasitoid in larvae of the weaver ant Camponotus sp. ca. textor. The parasitoids pupate inside the host larva, and an average of 6.7 individuals develops per host. This is the second time a species of genus Horismenus is found parasitizing the brood of a formicine ant of genus Camponotus. Horismenus microdonophagus sp. n. is described from both males and females, and is a gregarious endoparasitoid attacking the larvae of Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a predator on ant brood found in nests of Camponotus sp. ca. textor. The new species of Microdonophagus, M. tertius, is from Costa Rica, and known only from the female. Nothing is known about its biology but since another species in same genus, M. woodleyi Schauff, is associated with ants through its host, Microdon larva (with same biology as H. microdonophagus), it is possible that also M. tertius has this association. A new distributional record for M. woodleyi is also reported, extending its distribution from Panama and Colombia to Brazil.


30.
Artículo
The hunting behavior of the African ponerine ant Pachycondyla pachyderma
Dejean, Alain ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Behavioural Processes Vol. 86, no. 2 (February 2011), p. 169-173 ISSN: 0376-6357
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The hunting behavior of the African ponerine ant Pachycondyla pachyderma, a semi-specialized centipede predator, appears well adapted to this kind of prey and shows a graded complexity according to the difficulty it has in overwhelming prey. Small prey (5 to 8 mm-long termites) were detected by contact and seized by the thorax while larger prey (≥30 mm-long centipedes) were frequently detected from a distance and seized by the anterior-most part of their body. Termites and 30 mm-long lithobiomorph centipedes were not always stung, whereas stinging and even repeated stinging was needed for 50 mm-long geophilomorphs and scolopendromorphs. Moreover, overwhelming wide and heavy scolopendromorphs, which have better defensive abilities, involved the use of additional behaviors allowing the workers to capture them safely: venom spreading, and a peculiar stinging posture, the "fatal embrace". Here the workers seize scolopendromorphs by an antenna or by one of their first legs, wrap themselves around the prey while maintaining their grip with their mandibles and legs, and slowly inject venom into the prey's ventral surface. Workers retrieve small prey solitarily while, for large geophilomorphs and scolopendromorphs, nestmates can be recruited at short range or even at long range through tandem running.


31.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Is increased resistance to parasitism at the origin of polygyny in a mexican population of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)?
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela ; Valenzuela González, Jorge Ernesto (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Florida Entomologist Vol. 94, no. 3 (September 2011), p. 677-684 ISSN: 0015-4040
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

La hormiga neotropical Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier) presenta una organización social polimorfa, con poblaciones estrictamente monogínicas o bien, poligínicas facultativas a lo largo de su rango de distribución. Los factores responsables de estas variaciones en su organización social se desconocen, pero factores ambientales bióticos y abióticos podrían explicar estas diferencias. En particular, estudios recientes sugieren que parásitos y parasitoides pudieran afectar el fenotipo de las colonias hospederas. Aquí reportamos sobre avispas eucharitidas y nemátodos mermitidos que atacan a la única población poligínica de E. tuberculatum conocida para México, en Veracruz. Se comparan estos resultados con los que se obtuvieron anteriormente de una población monogínica de Chiapas (México), con el objetivo de analizar las influencias ambientales sobre la organización social de las colonias. La prevalencia de parasitismo bastante similar entre ambas poblaciones sugiere que la hipótesis de una mayor resistencia a parásitos y parasitoides como uno de los factores responsables de la aparición de la poligínia en E. tuberculatum no es válida. Parece más probable que otras clases de estrés o limitantes ambientales estén implicadas, tales como limitación en sitios de nidificación, riesgos de dispersión o altas tasas de depredación.

Resumen en inglés

The Neotropical ant Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier) shows a polymorphic social organization with strictly monogynous or facultative polygynous populations along its distribution range. The causative factors of these variations in social organization are unknown but biotic and abiotic environmental factors might explain the differences. In particular, recent studies have suggested that parasites and parasitoids could have an impact on host colony phenotype. Here, we report on eucharitid wasps and mermithid nematodes that attack the only known Mexican polygynous population of E. tuberculatum in Veracruz, Mexico. The results were compared with those previously obtained from a monogynous population in Chiapas, Mexico; the aim being to investigate environmental influences on colony social organization. The rather similar prevalence of parasitism between the 2 populations suggests that the hypothesis of an increased resistance to parasites and parasitoids as one of the factors responsible for the emergence of polygyny in E. tuberculatum populations does not apply. More likely, other kinds of environmental stress or constraints facilitate the development of polygyny, such as nest site limitations, risks of dispersal and/or high rates of predation.


32.
Artículo
The role of microgynes in the reproductive strategy of the neotropical ant Ectatomma ruidum
Lenoir, J. C. ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ; Nettel, A. (coaut.) ; Fresneau, Dominique (coaut.) ; Poteaux, C. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Naturwissenschaften Vol. 98, no. 4 (Apr. 2011), p. 347-56 ISSN: 0028-1042
PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Miniaturized queens, microgynes, are regarded as an alternative reproductive strategy sparsely present through the ant world. The described roles of miniaturized queens include alternative short-distance dispersal morphs, an adaptation to polygyny and inquiline parasites. Some of these inquiline parasite microgynes have been described as a separate species from their host. In the poneromorph group, miniaturized queens are only reported in two Mexican populations of two Ectatomminae: Ectatomma tuberculatum, in which small queens represent an inquiline species (Ectatomma parasiticum) and Ectatomma ruidum. E. ruidum presents apparently facultative polygyny with microgynes. We used mitochondrial DNA markers and newly developed microsatellite loci to investigate the status as well as the role of microgynes in E. ruidum. We confirmed that microgynes and macrogynes are from the same species. This species is almost exclusively monogynous and monoandrous, supernumerary dealate queens of both types being actually daughters of the mother queen. An apparently polygynous nest was more often headed by a macrogyne than a microgyne. We didn't find any inbreeding or isolation by distance in the studied population, indicating that new gynes are inseminated by unrelated males and can establish a new nest far from their natal nest. However, re-adoption of daughter queens seems to be the rule and rate of microgyny appears to be linked to nest density and environmental factors.


33.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en español

Con el objetivo de incrementar y acelerar el proceso de germinación de las semillas y obtener una alta producción y homogeneidad de plántulas de Carica papaya variedad Maradol en vivero, se evaluó el efecto de tres biofertilizantes aplicados solos o en combinación (Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense y Glomus intraradices), y un biorregulador del crecimiento vegetal, el ácido giberélico (AG3), en la germinación y el crecimiento vegetal. Se realizó un experimento bajo un diseño completamente al azar con ocho tratamientos y tres repeticiones. A las semillas se les aplicó un pretratamiento germinativo con alternancia de temperatura para superar la dormancia. Los tratamientos simples con A. chroococcum y A. brasilense, incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación a 90,28 y 88,89% respectivamente. Además, con la aplicación de los biofertilizantes y el AG3, la velocidad de germinación se incrementó y el tiempo medio de germinación se redujo. La doble aplicación en semillas y foliar de los biofertilizantes y el AG3 en plántulas mejoró el crecimiento vegetal. La población de A. chroococcum fue mayor cuando se inoculó en combinación con G. intraradices. La prevalencia de colonización de las plántulas inoculadas con G. intraradices varió de 18,53 a 26,67%, con el mayor valor registrado para el tratamiento combinado con A. brasilense. Finalmente, aplicando esta metodología se logró acelerar la germinación, obteniéndose una mayor homogeneidad en la emergencia de las plántulas, disminuyendo así el tiempo de permanencia en el vivero.

Resumen en inglés

The effect of three biofertilisers applied singly or in combination (Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intraradices) and a plant growth bioregulator (gibberellic acid 3 (AG3)) on papaya seedling germination and subsequent growth was evaluated to increase and accelerate seed germination and obtain high yield and homogeneity for cv. Maradol papaya seedling in nurseries. A completely random experimental design was used, having eight treatments and three replications. A pre-germinal treatment with alternating temperature had to be applied to seeds to overcome dormancy. Single biofertilisation with A. chroococcum and A. brasilense promoted germination percentage to 90.28% and 88.89% respectively. Germination rate was enhanced and mean germination time was reduced by applying biofertiliser and AG3. Both biofertiliser and AG3 application to seeds and leaves had a positive effect on plant growth. The A. chroococcum population was higher in combined inoculation with G. intraradices. Colonisation prevalence for plants inoculated with G. intraradices ranged from 18.53% to 26.67%, the highest values being recorded for the treatment involving combined inoculation with A. brasilense. Applying this methodology improved seed germination rate, obtaining greater homogeneity in plant emergence and thus reducing time spent in the nursery.


34.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
High prevalence but relatively low impact of two eucharitid parasitoids attacking the Neotropical ant Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier)
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ; López Méndez, José Antonio (coaut.) ; Beugnon, Guy (coaut.) ; Winterton, Peter (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biological Control Vol. 52, no. 2 (February 2010) p. 131-139 ISSN: 1049-9644
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
44779-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Composition and dynamics of ant communities may be influenced by highly specialized, specific parasitoids such as eucharitids. Yet, little is known about their prevalence in ant societies. Through systematic monthly excavation of ant nests, we evaluated the impact on the Neotropical ant Ectatomma tuberculatum of two eucharitid parasitoid species, Dilocantha lachaudii and Isomerala coronata, which simultaneously attack the same host populations in southern Mexico. Nearly 90% of all the nests collected through the year were parasitized, with an average of 13% ant pupae and 6.7% ant larvae parasitized by eucharitids, and an annual loss of 17% of the ant brood. Eucharitid prevalence among host nests was, however, very variable, and only some E. tuberculatum nests were severely weakened (100% of ant brood parasitized). Parasitism was highest during the dry season (January–March), just when the production of ant pupae was minimum: up to 50.6% of the ant pupae were destroyed in March. However, production of E. tuberculatum males and females occurred later (June–July), and the reproductive potential of the host colonies did not ultimately seem to be heavily affected by eucharitid parasitism. Differences in the seasonal timing of eucharitid attack and ant reproduction thus have the potential to modulate the impact of eucharitids on ants. Our results are discussed in the context of the impact of eucharitids upon E. tuberculatum colonies and their possible effect on the community structure of this potential biocontrol agent ant.


35.
- Artículo de divulgación de la ciencia publicado en revista
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal
Les fourmis et la division du travail
Lachaud, Jean Paul (autor) ;
Contenido en: Le Courrier de la Nature No. 250 (Spécial fourmis 2010), p. 13-20 ISSN: 0011-0477
Bibliotecas: Chetumal
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
60512-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Le succés adaptatif des sociétés de fourmis dépend, pour une large part, des conséquences dérivées du systéme d´organisation qui caractérise leurs sociétés. Ce systéme repose sur la différenciation des membres de la société en castes distinctes, sur la division du travail entre ces castes et sur la coordination et l´intégration des activités permettant de générer un comportement global qui dépasse la simple résultante de la juxtaposition des comportements individuels.


36.
Artículo

37.
- Artículo de divulgación
Les fourmis et la division du travail
Lachaud, Jean Paul ;
Contenido en: Le Courrier de la Nature. Spécial Fourmis No. 250 (2009), p. 13-20
Resumen en: Frances |
Resumen en frances

Le succès adaptatif des sociétés de fourmis dépend, pour une large part, des conséquences dérivées du système d’organisation qui caractérise leurs sociétés. Ce système repose sur la différenciation des membres de la société en castes distinctes, sur la division du travail entre ces castes et sur la coordination et l’intégration des activités permettant de générer un comportement global qui dépasse la simple résultante de la juxtaposition des comportements individuels.


38.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Impact of natural parasitism by two eucharitid wasps on a potential biocontrol agent ant in southeastern Mexico
Lachaud, Jean Paul ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ;
Clasificación: AR/577.857 / L3
Contenido en: Biological Control Vol. 48, no. 1 (January 2009), p. 92-99 ISSN: 1049-9644
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
32338-30 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Eucharitids are specialized parasitoids of ants. The biology, life cycle and chemical ecology are known for a number of species, but the study of the impact of eucharitid wasps upon their ant hosts has been seldom addressed. Here, we determine the prevalence of the parasitism of two sympatric Kapala species upon a population of the neotropical ant Ectatomma ruidum, along a 12-month sampling period. Adult and immature parasitoids were present in the nests all year round, and several cases of superparasitism were observed. Parasitism varied strongly among the nests for any collecting date and among collecting dates, but the prevalence of Kapala parasitoids increased significantly during the rainy season, and the probability for a nest of being parasitized was positively correlated with colony size, particularly with cocoon number. At the population scale, more than 28% of all E. ruidum pupae produced during the ant reproductive and dispersal period (June) were infested. Our results are discussed from the point of view of the impact of these parasitoids on the colonies of E. ruidum, a potential biocontrol agent in coffee and cocoa plantations in southeastern Mexico.


39.
Artículo
Nest distribution and food preferences of Ectatomma ruidum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in shaded and open cattle pastures of Colombia
Santamaría, Carlos (coaut.) ; Armbrecht, Inge (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Sociobiology Vol. 53, no. 2B, p. 517-541 ISSN: 0361-6525
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
37026-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Ectatomma ruidum is a common ground-dwelling ant species in the Neotropics which has been reported as a potential biocontrol agent in maize and coffee-cocoa agroecosystems in Mexico and Nicaragua. Its spatial distribution and food preferences were evaluated between February and May 2007, both in shaded (with tree cover) and sunny (open) cattle pastures in the Pescador and El Palmar regions of southwestern Colombia. Two sunny and two shaded cattle pasture plots were selected at each region. Twenty consecutive, equilateral 25 m2 parcels were established at each plot. Nest locations were found by following trails from 20 equidistant tuna baits per parcel. The procedure was repeated during the wet and dry seasons with a total of 16 plot records. For determining food preferences, a paper disk providing five live ticks, five honey droplets and five Passiflora ligularis seeds was placed 30 cm away from the nest entrance, at one nest for each of 15 parcels per plot.

Nest distribution was aggregated in shaded pastures, with an average nest density of 568 nests/ha, whereas it was mainly random in sunny pastures, with an average nest density of 1945 nests/ha. Whatever the season, E. ruidum nested preferentially in open places in both regions, apparently avoiding soil surfaces under the tree canopy cover in shaded pastures. This could explain the aggregated pattern recorded in these pastures despite some intraspecific competition. Foragers demonstrated a high capacity as seed dispersers, the myrmecochoric P. ligularis seeds representing 74.7% of the total weight of all food items removed. Comparatively, they were significantly less attracted by honey and ticks which were retrieved in similar quantities (14.3% and 11.0% of the total weight removed, respectively). In the course of this study, individual workers were observed carrying in their mandibles wild, natural ticks, captured in the field. This is the first report of ants naturally preying on ticks in Colombia. Our data confirm the status of E. ruidum as an important natural biocontrol agent which could be properly managed for ecological services in Neotropical agroecosystems.


40.
Tesis - Doctorado
Ecoetología y genética de la conservación de la tarántula de cadera roja Brachypelma vagans / Ariane Liliane Jeanne Dor
Dor Roques, Ariane Liliane Jeanne ; Hénaut, Yann (tutor) ; Islebe, Gerald A. (asesor) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (asesor) ; Legal, Luc (asesor) ;
Tapachula, Chiapas, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2008
Clasificación: TE/595.440972 / D6
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040003599 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
ECO030004925 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010012815 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020012412 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
ECO050003487 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Resumen en español

Las tarántulas mexicanas del genero Brachypelma están enlistadas en el anexo II del CITES en la categoría de amenazadas. Para dar información de su conservación, se planteó estudiar el efecto que tienen las interacciones de los individuos de una especie con su ambiente en su distribución tomando como modelo de estudio a la especie Brachypelma vagans (Ausserer 1875). Esta tarántula presenta una distribución amplia por lo que es una excelente candidata como modelo de estudio. Se estudió su ecoetología para entender las relaciones entre los individuos de la misma especie y con las otras especies. Por otra parte, se empleó la genética de poblaciones, utilizando la técnica de “Repetición de secuencia intergénica simple” (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat en ingles) como herramienta para entender las relaciones entre las poblaciones de B. vagans. A nivel intrapoblacional, se demostró que las tarántulas hembras reconocen químicamente las madrigueras previamente ocupadas por hembras conespecíficas, las señales químicas reconocidas se asocian a la seda. De la misma manera, las hembras reconocen los extractos de seda por el disolvente hexano.

A nivel de la comunidad, se encontró que las tarántulas y las arañas lobo de la especie Lycosa subfusca (F. O. P.-Cambridge 1902) son partes de una interacción de depredación intragremial. Las tarántulas tienen una interacción de depredación clásica con los alacranes de tamaño ligeramente inferior. Al nivel del conjunto de poblaciones, las poblaciones estudiadas de B. vagans de los estados de Quintana Roo y Campeche, son abiertas a los flujos genéticos mientras la población de la isla de Cozumel es más cerrada. En conclusión, a pesar de que B. vagans tiene interacciones intraespecíficas favoreciendo el canibalismo y es presa de la licosa L. subfusca, sus poblaciones en Quintana Roo y Campeche se encuentran en buen estado de conservación, lo que sugiere que esta especie no está amenazada. El caso de la población isleña de Cozumel sugiere un proceso de diferenciación.

Resumen en inglés

Chemically mediated communication is common in spiders but has been poorly studied in burrowing tarantulas. This study aimed to determine whether chemical cues influence the behaviour of females of Brachypelma vagans, a Mexican species of tarantula, during encounters with previously inhabited burrows or with extracts from the silk of conspecific females. In laboratory choice tests, female tarantulas entered a burrow that had previously been inhabited by a conspecific female significantly more frequently than a burrow that had never been inhabited. The identity of the previous inhabitant also affected the number of spiders that chose to enter a burrow. Spiders were quicker to choose and enter a burrow previously inhabited by themselves than a burrow previously inhabited by a conspecific or a burrow that had not been previously inhabited. Hexane, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of conspecific silk elicited different responses from female tarantulas when extracts were placed on filter paper disks at one end of an experimental arena with a control filter paper disk, on to which the corresponding solvent alone had been pipetted, placed on the other end of the arena. Spiders showed the strongest responses to hexane extracts of silk, with a significant preference to move towards the hexane extract and a significantly greater period of time spent in proximity to the hexane extract compared to the control disk. Overall and in contrast to expectations, tarantulas were most strongly attracted to the cues left by other conspecific females. As encounters between B. vagans females usually lead to aggression and mortality of one of the participants, we conclude that chemical cues are not signals that are deliberately released by burrow-inhabiting females but may inadvertently escape and cannot be easily suppressed.

Índice

Agradecimientos
Lista de Figuras
Lista de Cuadros
Resumen
Palabras Claves
Introducción
Justificación
Antecedentes
ж Interacciones intraespecíficas e intrapoblacionales
ж Interacciones interespecíficas
ж Interacciones intraespecíficas e interpoblacionales
Objetivo General
Objetivos Específicos
Hipótesis
Materiales y Métodos
Zona de Estudio
Mantenimiento en Laboratorio
I – Interacciones Intraespecíficas
1- Atracción Por Una Madriguera Previamente Habitada
1-1- Diseño experimental
1-2- Análisis de datos
2- Atracción por un Extracto De Seda
2-1- Diseño experimental
2-2- Análisis de datos
II – Interacciones Interespecíficas
1- Observaciones Preliminares de la Comunidad Ecológica de B. Vagans
Ж Análisis de Datos
2- Interacciones Entre B. Vagans y los Artrópodos de su Entorno Natural en Condiciones Controladas
2-1- Observaciones previas de campo entre B. vagans y L. subfusca
2-2- Observación en condiciones controladas
ж Objetivos
ж Mantenimiento en laboratorio
ж Interacciones entre B. vagans y L. subfusca
ж Interacciones entre B. vagans y alacranes
ж Interacciones entre las arañas e insectos
ж Comportamiento antidepredador de las arañas
2-3- Análisis de datos
III – Interacciones entre las Poblaciones de B. Vagans
1- Muestreo de Campo no Invasivo
2- Trabajo de Laboratorio
Amplificación de marcadores ISSR
ж Extracción de ADN
ж PCR o Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa
ж Electroforesis
3- Análisis de Datos
3-1- Variación genética y índices estadísticos
ж Variabilidad intrapoblacional
ж Variabilidad interpoblacional
ж Distancia genética
ж Flujo genético (Nm)
ж Aislamiento por la distancia
3-2- Programas usados
4- Métodos de Clasificación
4-1- Principio y Método de un análisis clásico
ж Método cladístico
ж Construcción del cladograma
ж Bootstrap

ж Programas usados
4-2- Principio y Método del Mapa Auto-organizado (SOM)
ж Principio
ж Programas usados
Resultados
I – Interacciones Interespecíficas
1- Atracción por una Madriguera Previamente Habitada
ж Frecuencias de elección de cada madriguera
ж Trayectoria directa e indirecta
ж Tiempo de llegada a las madrigueras
2- Atracción por un Extracto de Seda
ж Frecuencias de travesía de las líneas entre las zonas del área de observación
ж Intervalos de tiempo pasados en las cuatro zonas del área de observación
II – Interacciones Interespecíficas
1- Composición de la Comunidad Ecológica de B. Vagans
Ж Conclusión
2- Observaciones Previas de Campo Entre B. Vagans y L. Subfusca
3- Observación en Condiciones Controladas
3-1- Interacciones entre B. vagans y L. subfusca
ж Comparación de las interacciones observadas en el campo vs. condiciones controladas
ж Tipo de interacción entre ambas arañas en condiciones controladas
ж Importancia del tamaño en la interacción entre ambas arañas
ж Descripción fina de las interacciones
3-2- Interacciones entre B. vagans y alacranes
3-3- Interacciones entre las arañas y insectos
ж Arañas lobo
ж Tarántulas
ж Conclusión
3-4- Comportamiento antidepredador de las arañas
ж Tarántula como depredador
ж Araña lobo como depredador
III – Interacciones entre las Poblaciones de B. Vagans
1- Muestreo de Campo no Invasivo
2- Trabajo de Laboratorio

3- Parámetros De Diversidad Genética
3-1- Análisis de variancia molecular (AMOVA)
3-2- Variabilidad intrapoblacional
ж Riqueza Alélica (N)
ж Porcentaje de los loci polimórfos (P)
ж Diversidad genética total de Nei (H)
ж Índice de Shannon para evaluar la diversidad genética (i)
3-2- Variabilidad ínterpoblacional
3-3- Distancia genética
3-4- Flujo genético (NM)
3-5- Aislamiento genético por la distancia geográfica
4- Métodos de Clasificación
4-1- Análisis cladístico
4-2- SOM, Mapa auto-organizado
Discusión
I – Interacciones Intraespecíficas
II – Interacciones Interespecíficas
ж Depredación de los alacranes por B. vagans
ж Depredación intragremial entre B. vagans y L. subfusca
III – Interacciones Entre las Poblaciones de B. Vagans
1- Diversidad Genética a Nivel Intrapoblacional
2- Diferenciación Genética Como Índice de Variabilidad Interpoblacional
3- Relación Entre la Distancia Genética y la Distancia Geográfica
4- Dinámica de Poblaciones, Barreras y Corredores
ж Cozumel - barrera marina
ж Raudales - barrera lagunera
ж Conhuas - barrera selvática
ж Zoh Laguna como población fuente de las poblaciones peninsulares
5- Conclusión
Conclusión General
Literatura Citada
Anexos


41.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Effect of high nest density on spatial relationships in two dominant ectatommine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Schatz, Bertrand ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Sociobiology Vol. 51, no, 3 (2008), p. 623-643 ISSN: 0361-6525
Bibliotecas: Chetumal
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
46673-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
PDF PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Regular dispersion patterns in the spatial distribution of ant nests are linked to both defense of foraging areas and competition for food. They are frequently observed amongst colonies of conspecifics when the availability of colony foundation sites is homogeneous. In order to evaluate the degree of intraspecific competition in the dominant Neotropical ectatommine ant Ectatomma ruidum and the importance of interactions with another dominant sympatric ectatommine ant, E. tuberculatum, we examined the spatial relationships among colonies of these two species in an area with a naturally very high nest density (up to 11500 and 1500 nests/ha, respectively). Data were analyzed by calculation of the Clark and Evans nearest neighbor index and by statistical comparison of the observed mean distance to the nearest neighbor and a theoretical value obtained by Monte-Carlo simulation. The latter procedure allowed analysis of spatial relationships despite the non-haphazard location of E. tuberculatum nests, which were always found at the base of a tree. Whatever the nest density, the mean distance between nearest neighbor nests ofE. ruidum was always higher than that expected for random distribution. This regular dispersion pattern strongly supports the hypothesis that E. ruidum colonies are monodomous. In the three quadrats where they co-occurred, E. ruidum and E. tuberculatum were independently distributed, suggesting a low level of interaction between them. Even at high colony densities, the dominant character of each of these species does not appear to be incompatible with their co-existence, due to the low degree of niche overlap between them.


42.
Artículo
Mandible strike: the lethal weapon of Odontomachus opaciventris against small prey
De la Mora, Aldo ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (0376-6357) ;
Contenido en: Behavioural Processes Vol. 78, no. 1 (May 2008), p. 64-75 ISSN: 0376-6357
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

In order to study both the hunting efficiency and the flexibility of their predatory behavior, solitary hunters of the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus opaciventris were offered small prey (termites, fruit flies and tenebrionid larvae), presenting different morphological or defensive characteristics. The monomorphic hunters showed a moderately flexible predatory behavior characterized by short capture sequences and a noteworthy efficiency of their mandible strike (76.7–100% of prey retrievals), even when presented with Nasutitermes soldiers. Contrary to most poneromorph ants, antennal palpation of the prey before the attack was always missing, no particular targeted region of the prey's body was preferred, and no ‘prudent’ posture was ever exhibited. Moreover, stinging was regularly performed on bulky, fast moving fruit flies, very scarcely with sclerotized tenebrionid larvae, but never occurred with Nasutitermes workers or soldiers despite their noxious chemical defense. These results suggest that, whatever the risk linked to potentially dangerous prey, O. opaciventris predatory strategy optimizes venom use giving top priority to the swiftness and strength of the lethal trap-jaw system used by hunters as first strike weapon to subdue rapidly a variety of small prey, ranging from 0.3 to 2 times their own body size and from 0.1 to 2 times their weight. Such risk-prone predatory behavior is likely to be related to the large size of O. opaciventris colonies where the death of a forager might be of lesser vital outcome than in small colony-size species.


43.
Artículo
Resumen en español

Se efectuaron pruebas comportamentales y electrofisiológicas para evaluar las respuestas de obreras de Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) de diferentes tamaños a extractos de la glándula de Dufour. Se usaron medidas del ancho de la cabeza para determinar el tamaño de las obreras. Se evualuó la respuesta de seguimiento de ruta de obreras de diferentes tamaños a extractos de la glándula de Dufour proveniente de obreras de diferentes tamaños. Para cada grupo de obrera de determinado tamaño se le determinó la respuesta olfatoria por medio de electroantenografía (EAG). Se utilizó Cromatografía de Gases acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (GC-EM) para determinar el perfil cromatográfico de la secreción de la glándula de Dufour para cada grupo de obreras. Las medidas morfométricas permitieron clasificar a las obreras de acuerdo a su tamaño en grandes, medianas y pequeñas. Las obreras medianas de S. geminata exhibieron una respuesta comportamental alta a los extractos glandulares de hormigas medianas. Las obreras medianas mostraron también una alta respuesta antenal a los extractos de obreras medianas. El perfil cromatográfico de la secreción de la glándula de Dufour producida por obreras muestra que cada tamaño exhibió un perfil característico de los tres componentes potenciales como feromona de ruta. Concluimos que las obreras de tamaño mediano exhibieron altas respuestas tanto comportamentales como olfatorias a la secreción de la glándula de Dufour. Lo anterior y el hecho de que sean las más abundantes en el área de forrajeo sugieren que este grupo de obreras está especializado en actividades de forrajeo.

Resumen en inglés

Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities.


44.
Artículo
Prey weight and overwhelming difficulty impact the choice of retrieval strategy in the Neotropical ant Gnamptogenys sulcata (F. Smith)
Daly Schveitzer, S. ; Beugnon, Guy (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Insectes Sociaux Vol. 54, no. (2007), p. 319-328 ISSN: 0020-1812
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

By regulating both the choice between solitary or collective retrieval and the level of nestmate investment for heavy prey transport, individual hunters of the ant Gnamptogenys sulcata are able to increase the foraging efficiency of the whole society, despite the extremely small size of this elite group (1 –4 hunters per colony). Their predatory behavior changes according to the static (weight, size, shape) and dynamic (mobility, escape behaviors) characteristics of the prey. The behavioral sequences resemble those of other poneromorph ants, but palpation after the approach phase is absent, probably because of the swiftness of the attack. Hunting is always performed by solitary workers but, independently of prey type and mobility, small, light prey trigger solitary retrieval whereas large, heavy prey trigger collective retrieval. For intermediate prey weights (8.5 to 21 times the hunter s weight), some variability in the strategy choice is encountered. Both static and dynamic factors are involved in assessing the difficulty of handling living prey as shown by the number of stings delivered by the hunter for prey immobilization.

However, the lack of any stinging against already dead prey indicates that these factors must be uncoupled when selecting retrieval strategies. Prey weight has a major role in this choice. For a given prey size always triggering solitary retrieval, a two-fold increase in prey weight is sufficient to trigger collective transport. Conversely, for a given prey size always triggering collective retrieval, a decrease in prey weight can trigger solitary transport. Moreover, presenting hunters with prey of “infinite” weight triggers several waves of recruitment, so that the number of recruited workers compensates for the “apparent” prey weight. Despite the inability to finely match the number of recruits to the weight of retrieved prey, recruitment strategies adopted by G. sulcata may reflect an evolutionary primitive step towards the finely graded recruitment behavior observed in closely related poneromorph species.


45.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Biology and behavior of Kapala (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) attacking Ectatomma, cnamptogenys, and Pachycondyla (Formicidae: Ectatomminae and Ponerinae) in Chiapas, Mexico
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela ; Heraty, John M. (coaut.) ; Carmichael, Andrew (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Annals of the Entomological Society of America Vol. 99, no. 3 (2006), p. 567-576 ISSN: 0013-8746
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
49825-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Kapala (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) are among the most frequently collected chalcidoid wasps from the Neotropics, but general information about their host plants, behavior, and life history is scarce. A new species, Kapala izapa n. sp., parasitizing Ectatomma ruidum Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is described from Chiapas, Mexico, with a general account of its biology. Field observations on the behavior of adults of Kapala iridicolor (Cameron), which also attack E. ruidum, Gnamptogenys regularis Mayr, Gnamptogenys sulcata (Fr. Smith), Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr, and Pachycondyla stigma (F.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are included. Immature stages of Kapala izapa n. sp. follow the general morphology and behavior described for other eucharitids known to attack Ectatomminae and Ponerinae. More than one parasitoid can complete development on a single host larva. K. iridicolor females were observed laying masses of eggs on undeveloped flower buds of Melampodium divaricatum (L.C. Richard) D.C. (Asteraceae). Extrafloral nectaries of this plant are visited by several insects, including predatory foraging worker ants of E. ruidum. Dissection of recently emerged females of K. iridicolor yielded ≈4,500 fully developed eggs.


46.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Eucharitid parasitism of the neotropical ant Ectatomma tuberculatum: parasitoid co-occurrence, seasonal variation, and multiparasitism
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela ; López Méndez, José Antonio (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biotropica Vol. 38, no. 4 (July 2006), p. 574-576 ISSN: 0006-3606
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
39015-30 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Resumen en español

Este es el primer reporte de multiparasitismo en Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Dilocantha lachaudii, Isomerala coronata y Kapala sp. fueron encontradas atacando simultáneamente a la misma población de Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ectatomminae) en el sureste de México. En tres ocasiones los adultos de D. lachaudii e I. coronata completaron su desarrollo en el mismo húesped. El género Kapala es reportado por primera vez como parasitoide de E. tuberculatum e I. coronata se reporta por primera vez para México.

Resumen en inglés

Multiparasitism is reported for the first time in Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Dilocantha lachaudii, Isomerala coronata, and Kapala sp. were found simultaneously attacking the same population of Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ectatomminae) in southern Mexico. Adults of D. lachaudii and I. coronata completed development on the same individual host on three occasions. The genus Kapala is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of E. tuberculatum, and I. coronata is reported in Mexico for the first time.


47.
Tesis - Maestría
Flexibilidad en el comportamiento de depredación de la hormiga Odontomachus opaciventris Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) / Aldo Alejandro de la Mora Rodríguez
De la Mora Rodríguez, Aldo Alejandro ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (tutor) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (asesor) ; Rojas, Julio C. (asesor) ;
Tapachula, Chiapas, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2006
Clasificación: TE/595.796097275 / M6
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040002876 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
ECO030006275 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010007255 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013034 (Disponible) , ECO020011398 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 2
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
ECO050003008 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Resumen en español

Se estudió en condiciones controladas, el comportamiento de depredación de la hormiga Odontomachus opaciventris ante termitas del genero Nasutitermes, ambas especies presentes en plantaciones de cacao en la zona del Soconusco, Chiapas, México, y ante presas diversas de tamaño pequeño (soldados de termita, moscas de la fruta y larvas de Tenebrio molitor L.). La secuencia típica ante obreros de termitas consistió en: búsqueda, detección, antenación, golpe mandibular, levantar presa, transporte al nido y entrar al nido. Frente a presas con características diferentes, las obreras de esta hormiga exhibieron una moderada flexibilidad en cuanto a su repertorio comportamental y al número de transiciones entre los actos comportamentales. Por ejemplo, comportamientos como el contorneo o picar a la presa permiten aumentar el éxito frente a presas potencialmente peligrosas o de manejo dificultoso. Sin embargo, es esencialmente la combinación entre una estrategia basada en la velocidad y la potencia del sistema de mandíbulas trampa o “trap-jaw”, principal arma ofensiva de esta especie, que asegura el éxito en la captura de una gama amplia de presas con características diversas. En nuestras condiciones, las obreras de O. opaciventris forrajearon esencialmente durante la noche, con 11.8% de las obreras del nido estudiado dedicadas a las actividades de forrajeo. Además, en el grupo de hormigas dedicadas al forrajeo, se encontró una subespecialización en las labores de aprovisionamiento, existiendo tres grupos claramente distintos: un primer grupo de dedicadas esencialmente a recolectar carbohidratos, un segundo grupo relacionadas con el aprovisionamiento en fuentes proteicas, y un tercer grupo de obreras, aparentemente no especializadas, que realizan diversas tareas por igual. En el estudio de cinética de depredación en función de la densidad de presas, se encontró que O. opaciventris

presenta un reclutamiento poco evolucionado, aunque las obreras cazan esencialmente en solitario. Este reclutamiento consiste en la incitación de las compañeras a salir a forrajear (activación selectiva), mediante anteneos y movimientos rápidos de la hormiga que transporta una presa al nido y se encuentra con otras obreras. Este reclutamiento se realiza en ausencia de mareaje químico que indicara una dirección. Los resultados de este trabajo dan un indicio del éxito de depredación que esta hormiga puede tener en condiciones naturales, así como de la flexibilidad del comportamiento de depredación y de las estrategias de forrajeo. Todo ello hace de O. opaciventris una especie interesante para continuar explorando la capacidad de estas hormigas a atacar presas de mucho mayor peso, por ejemplo, que representan una fuente sustancial de proteínas para la colonia pero que incrementan el riesgo inherente a la depredación.

Índice

Índice de figuras
Índice de cuadros
Resumen
Capitulo 1. Características generales
1.1 Introducción General
1.2 Objetivos
1.3 Materiales y métodos generales
Capitulo 2. Determinación del ritmo de actividad y especialización comportamental en la hormiga Odontomachus opaciventris
2.1 Introducción
2.2 Materiales y Métodos
2.3 Ritmo de actividad y politeísmo en O. opaciventris
2.3.1 Análisis de datos
2.3.2 Resultados
2.3.2.1 Ritmo de actividad
2.3.2.2 Politeísmo en el grupo de las forrajeras
2.3.3 Discusión
Capitulo 3. Comportamiento de depredación de Odontomachus opaciventris (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
3.1 Introducción
3.2 Materiales y Métodos
3.2.1 Material biológico
3.2.1.1 Características de las presas
3.2.2 Categorías comportamentales y etograma
3.2.2.1 Observación y análisis de videograbaciones
3.3 Análisis estadísticos
3.4 Resultados
3.4.1 Categorías comportamentales
3.4.2 Comportamiento de depredación de O. opaciventris frente a obreros del genero Nasutitermes
3.4.3 Comportamiento de depredación de O. opaciventris frente a presas alternativas
3.4.4 Comparación del tiempo de captura
3.5 Discusión
Capitulo 4. Cinética de la depredación en función de la densidad de presas (obreros del género Nasutitermes)
4.1 Introducción
4.2 Materiales y Métodos
4.2.1 Determinación de la cinética de depredación
4.2.2. Análisis estadísticos
4.3 Resultados
4.4 Discusión
Capitulo 5. Discusión General
Literatura citada


48.
Artículo
Recent and fossil nematode parasites (Nematoda: Mermithidae) of neotropical ants
Poinar Jr., George ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ; Castillo Vera, Alfredo (coaut.) ; Infante, Francisco (coaut.) ;
Clasificación: AR/595.796 / R4
Contenido en: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology Vol. 91. no. 1 (January 2006), p. 19–26 ISSN: 0022-2011
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010015494 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The following new recent species of mermithid (Nematoda) parasites of Neotropical ants are described: Meximermis ectatommi n.gen., n. sp. from workers of Ectatomma ruidum Roger in Southern Mexico, Agamomermis cephaloti n. sp. from a worker of Cephalotes minutus (Fab.) collected in Brazil, Agamomermis ecitoni n. sp. from a worker of Eciton burchellii Westwood collected in Venezuela and Agamomermis costaricensis n. sp. from a worker of Odontomachus hastatus (Fab.) collected in Costa Rica. In addition, a fossil mermithid parasite of a worker of Linepithema sp. from Dominican amber is described as Heydenius myrmecophila n. sp. These parasites represent the first descriptions of Neotropical ant mermithids and together with previous records listed here, show that ant infection by mermithids in the Neotropics is widespread and has occurred for at least 20–30 million years.


49.
Capítulo de libro - Memoria en extenso sin arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Estructura de las colonias y poliginia en la hormiga neotropical Gnamptogenys sulcata F. Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ectatomminae)
Lachaud, Jean Paul (autor) ; Daly-Schveitzaer, Sebastien (autor) ; Cadena Carrión, Alex (autor) ; Beugnon, Guy (autor) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (autora) ;
Clasificación: AR/595.796097275 / E8
Contenido en: Entomología Mexicana, 2005 / editores: Alberto Morales Moreno, Angélica Mendoza Estrada, Marcela P. Ibarra González, Sergio Stanford Camargo Distrito Federal, México : Colegio de Posgraduados : Sociedad Mexicana de Entomología, 2005 Vol. 4, p. 176-179 ISBN:968-839-453-X (v. 4)
Bibliotecas: Campeche , San Cristóbal , Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
53630-30 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010018287 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
53630-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a

50.
Capítulo de libro - Memoria en extenso sin arbitraje
*Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a
Parasitoides Eucharitidae asociados a Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier) en el soconusco, Chiapas, México
Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (autora) ; López Méndez, José Antonio (autor) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (autor) ;
Contenido en: Entomología Mexicana, 2005 / editores: Alberto Morales Moreno, Angélica Mendoza Estrada, Marcela P. Ibarra González, Sergio Stanford Camargo Distrito Federal, México : Colegio de Posgraduados : Sociedad Mexicana de Entomología, 2005 Vol. 4 p. 376-381 ISBN:968-839-453-X (v. 4)
Bibliotecas: Campeche , San Cristóbal , Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
53632-40 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
53632-20 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
53632-30 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: Solicítelo con su bibliotecario/a