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34 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl
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- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation in arid zones: the case of the Tehuacán Valley, Central México
Moreno Calles, A. ; Casas, A. (coaut.) ; Blancas, J. (coaut.) ; Torres, I. (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ; Caballero, J. (coaut.) ; García Barrios, Luis Enrique (coaut.) ; Pérez Negrón, E. (coaut.) ; Rangel Landa, S. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agroforestry Systems Vol. 80, no. 3 (September 2010), p. 315-331 ISSN: 0167-4366
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The role of agroforestry systems in biodiversity conservation was investigated in the semiarid Tehuacán Valley, Central México. Richness and diversity of native plant species were compared between agroforestry systems (6 sampling sites) and the following forests (6 sampling sites) dominated by columnar cacti: (i) ‘‘chichipera’’ dominated by Polaskia chichipe; (ii) ‘‘jiotillal’’ dominated by Escontria chiotilla; and (iii) ‘‘garambullal’’ dominated by Myrtillocactus schenckii. Our information on genetic variation of dominant arboreal species in the study sites was reviewed and included in the analysis. Factors influencing household’s decisions to maintain vegetation cover were compiled through a survey and interviews and analyzed. All the samples of the agroforestry systems studied maintained on average nearly 59% plant species and 94% genetic variation of dominant cacti occurring in the forests, although their ability to preserve endemic rare species is limited. Social factors favoring maintenance of perennial species in agricultural plots include collective rules, households traditions, use of the plants maintained in the systems, and the environmental information gathered from NGOs, the local Biosphere Reserve, and researchers.However, agroforestry systems are losing their capability to maintain vegetation cover, mainly because of (i) decreasing amount of land managed by households, determined by a progressive fragmentation of the land area given to new families, (ii) adoption of technologies to intensify agriculture, and (iii) governmental programs penalizing the presence of vegetation patches within agricultural lands since they are considered ‘‘useless’’ areas. Necessary policies to stop degradation of the agroforestry systems and to improve their conservation capacity are discussed.

Sustainable rural development in Latin America: building from the bottom up
Altieri, Miguel Ángel ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ;
Clasificación: AV/00035
Contenido en: Ecological Economics Vol. 7 (1993), p. 93-121 ISSN: 0921-8009
Bibliotecas: Campeche
SIBE Campeche
ECO040001787 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1

- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche
Almacenamiento de carbono en un bosque de Pinus pseudostrobus en Nuevo San Juan, Michoacán
Ordoñez Díaz, José Antonio Benjamín ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Madera y Bosques Vol. 7, no. 2 (otoño 2001), p. 27-47 ISSN: 1405-0471
Bibliotecas: Campeche
SIBE Campeche
46162-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Campeche
Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

En el presente trabajo se utilizó el modelo dinámico CO2Fix para Windows Ver. 1.2., para obtener la captura potencial de carbono en la comunidad de Nuevo San Juan (NSJ). El carbono total estimado en el largo plazo (250 años) fue de 217 tC/ha; la biomasa (aérea y subterránea) con 74 tC/ha, los productos con 49 tC/ha y el suelo con 94 tC/ha. Se estimó que en el mismo plazo se tiene un potencial de captura de carbono en el bosque de la comunidad de 1.9 MtC en sus 8,870 ha. Así mismo se realizaron análisis de sensibilidad de tres parámetros, para identificar la diferencia potencial en la captura de carbono (tiempo de vida de los productos, tasas de humificación y descomposición ±30% del valor original). Por último, se describe la importancia del uso del modelo CO2Fix como una herramienta en el manejo forestal, especialmente para las plantaciones forestales. La simulación se basó, en lo posible, en datos disponibles localmente: (a) superficie del área de estudio; (b) manejo forestal: ciclos de aclareos, corta de regeneración y corta de liberación; existencias reales (E.R.), y volumen de madera extraído; (c) crecimiento del árbol: incremento corriente anual (ICA), diámetro, altura, edad e incremento medio anual (IMA); y (d) productos derivados como: papel, cajas de empaque, madera para construcción, madera para muebles, madera para energía y madera muerta.

Resumen en inglés

In this work, the CO2Fix dynamic model for Windows Ver. 1.2 was utilized to obtain the potential carbon sequestering in the community Nuevo San Juan. Total carbon estimated in the long run (250 years) was 217 tC/ha; the biomass (aerial and subterranean) with 74 tC/ha, products with 49 tC/ha and soil with 94 tC/ha. It was estimated that in the same time span, there is a potential for carbon sequestering in the community forest of 1.9 MtC in tis 8,870 ha. At the same time, sensitivity analyses were carried out with three parameters to identify the potential difference in carbon sequestering (life time of the wood products, humification and decaying rates ±30 % of the original value). Finally, the importance of using the CO 2 Fix model as a tool for forest management is highlighted especially for forest plantations. The simulation was based, as feasible, in data available locally: (a) area surface in study; (b) forest management: thinning cycles, regeneration and liberation cuttings ; actual standing volume and volume extracted; (c) tree growth: current annual increment, diameter, height, age and annual average increment and, (d) manufactured products as: paper, packaging, construction lumber, wood for furniture, fire wood and dead wood.

- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal
Assessing implications of land-use and land-cover change dynamics for conservation of a highly diverse tropical rain forest
Flamenco Sandoval, Alejandro Fidel ; Martínez Ramos, Miguel (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ;
Clasificación: AR/333.75137 / F5
Contenido en: Biological conservation Vol. 138, nos. 1-2 (August 2007), p. 131-145 ISSN: 0006-3207
Bibliotecas: Chetumal
SIBE Chetumal
44179-20 (Disponible) , ECO030004802 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 2
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Chetumal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The Selva El Ocote Biosphere Reserve is located within the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot for global conservation. The area, poorly known relative to other humid tropical areas within Mexico, shows a mosaic of several types of forests, contains over 2000 species of vascular plants and 97 species of mammals, and plays a key role within Mexican tropical forests. We analyze the process of land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) within a 5755 km2 area which includes the reserve. Viability of conservation of the area was assessed by an integrated multi-temporal analysis of the LUCC process. Three cartographical data bases – from 1986, 1995 and 2000 – were used to assess rates and trends in LUCC for seven land cover types: agriculture/pasture (A/P); four types of second-growth forest (SGF); and two types of mature forest (tropical and temperate). Even when taking into account pathways of regeneration, results show a fast net loss of primary and secondary forests, primarily due to the establishment of A/P.

For the entire area of study, the annual deforestation rate of tropical mature forests was 1.2% during the period 1986–1995, increasing to 6.8% for the period 1995–2000. For both periods, the annual deforestation rate was appreciably lower within the reserve (0.21% and 2.54%) than outside it (2.15% and 12.4%). The annual rate of conversion of tropical SGF to A/P was 1% during the first period and increased sixfold for the second period. Three future scenarios on forest cover were constructed using a Markovian model and annualizing LUCC transition matrices. Results show that between 29% and 86% of remaining forest may be lost within the next 23 years. Urgent action is necessary to reduce loss of biodiversity within this region. Particular attention must be paid to tropical SGF, which are rapidly being deforested.

- Artículo con arbitraje
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Sustainability assessment oriented to improve current systems and practices is urgently needed, particularly in the context of small farmer natural resource management systems (NRMS). Unfortunately, social-ecological systems (SES) theory, sustainability evaluation frameworks, and assessment methods are still foreign not only to farmers but to many researchers, students, NGOs, policy makers/operators, and other interested groups. In this paper we examine the main achievements and challenges of the MESMIS Program (Spanish acronym for Indicator-based Sustainability Assessment Framework), a 15-year ongoing effort with impact in 60 case studies and 20 undergraduate and graduate programs mainly in Ibero-America that is attempting to cope with the stated challenges. The MESMIS experience shows that it is possible to conduct sustainability assessments in the context of small farmers through a long-term, participatory, interdisciplinary, and multi-institutional approach that integrates a solid theoretical background, a field-tested operational framework, learning tools specifically devised to facilitate the understanding of sustainability as a multidimensional and dynamic concept, and a growing set of case studies to apply to and get feedback from users.

Specifically, through the dissemination of the MESMIS assessment framework in a large set of case studies in a contrasting set of social-ecological contexts, we have been able to: (a) characterize the NRMS, their subsystems, and their main interactions; (b) link attributes, i.e., general systemic properties, with sustainability indicators to assess critical socioeconomic and environmental aspects of the NRMS; (c) integrate indicators through multicriteria tools and to expose the multidimensional aspects of sustainability; (d) propose an initial multiscale assessment to articulate processes and actors at different spatial scales; (e) develop multimedia learning tools, i.e., Interactive-MESMIS, to help users understand dynamic concepts, trade-offs, and counter-intuitive behavior; and (f) promote participatory processes through role-playing games and agent-based simulation models. Key challenges are related to the need to conduct long-term longitudinal studies that fully capture system dynamic properties while at the same time actively involving relevant stakeholders through creative and lasting participative processes. We outline an improved assessment framework that should help move the program in this direction.

Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Although forest conservation activities, particularly in the tropics, offer significant potential for mitigating carbon (C) emissions, these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena caused by the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle, particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has two main components: the projected land-use change and the corresponding carbon stocks in applicable pools in vegetation and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult to address analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparing three models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of past trends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth to more complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicit models of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomic factors.

The three models used for making baseline projections of tropical deforestation at the regional scale are: the Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use and Carbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD) model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropical regions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions, population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) Santa Cruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana´ State, Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico; (5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoaca´n, Mexico.A comparison of all model outputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quite different deforestation baselines. In general, the simplest FAC model, applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highest amount of forest loss (four out of six regions) and the LUCS model the least amount of loss (four out of five regions).

Based on simulations of GEOMOD, we found that readily observable physical and biological factors as well as distance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as important as either sociological/ demographic or economic/infrastructure factors (less observable) in explaining empirical land-use patterns.We propose from the lessons learned, a methodology comprised of three main steps and six tasks can be used to begin developing credible baselines. We also propose that the baselines be projected over a 10-year period because, although projections beyond 10 years are feasible, they are likely to be unrealistic for policy purposes. In the first step, an historic land-use change and deforestation estimate is made by determining the analytic domain (size of the region relative to the size of proposed project), obtaining historic data, analyzing candidate baseline drivers, and identifying three to four major drivers. In the second step, a baseline of where deforestation is likely to occur–a potential land-use change (PLUC) map—is produced using a spatial model such as GEOMOD that uses the key drivers from step one.

Then rates of deforestation are projected over a 10-year baseline period based on one of the three models. Using the PLUC maps, projected rates of deforestation, and carbon stock estimates, baseline projections are developed that can be used for project GHG accounting and crediting purposes: The final step proposes that, at agreed interval (e.g., about 10 years), the baseline assumptions about baseline drivers be re-assessed. This step reviews the viability of the 10-year baseline in light of changes in one or more key baseline drivers (e.g., new roads, new communities, new protected area, etc.). The potential land-use change map and estimates of rates of deforestation could be re-done at the agreed interval, allowing the deforestation rates and changes in spatial drivers to be incorporated into a defense of the existing baseline, or the derivation of a new baseline projection.

La bioenergía en México: un catalizador del desarrollo sustentable / Omar Masera Cerutti (coordinador)
Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coord.) ;
Distrito Federal, México : Red Mexicana de Bioenergía :: Mundi-Prensa México :: Comisión Nacional Forestal , 2006
Clasificación: 662.60972 / B56
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010019270 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Índice | Resumen en: Español |
Resumen en español

El mundo enfrenta actualmente el gran reto de la transición de las energías fósiles a los recursos energéticos renovables. La bioenergía es una fuente de energía renovable, versátil, abundante y con un gran potencial para impulsar el desarrollo sustentable en nuestro país. Internacionalmente está teniendo un gran desarrollo y se le reconoce un rol fundamental en esta transición energética. Desafortunadamente, en México existe un conocimiento muy limitado de este recurso, su potencial energético, los sistemas y tecnologías para su aprovechamiento, así como las barreras y opciones de política para Impulsar su uso sustentable. Estas carencias repercuten en la toma de decisiones políticas que deberían potenciar su utilización a gran escala. Para comenzar a resolver esta situación, la Red Mexicana de Bioenergía (REMBIO) presenta en este documento una síntesis de la problemática actual y el potencial futuro de la bioenergía en México, así como una primera agenda o plan de acción para Impulsar su uso más Intensivo y sustentable. Preparado por un grupo amplio de expertos, el volumen analiza a la bioenergía desde una perspectiva sistémica y multidimensional, que Integra aspectos tecnológicos, sociales, ambientales, económicos y de política pública. Se brinda de este modo un Instrumento valioso para entender de manera Integral los retos y posibilidades que ofrece el desarrollo de esta fuente energética en nuestro país.


Resumen ejecutivo
Información sobre los autores
1. Introducción
1.1 El contexto internacional
1.2 Potencial a largo plazo: La transición hacia las fuentes renovables de energía
1.3 Retos e impactos de la bioenergía
2. Estado actual de la bioenergía en México
2.1. Problemática actual de la bioenergía
3. Los recursos bioenergéticos en México
3.1. Existencias, productividad y disponibilidad de biomasa para energía en México
3.1.1. Combustibles de madera Combustibles de madera provenientes de bosques naturales Combustibles de madera provenientes de plantaciones energéticas Subproductos de la extracción forestal y la industria maderera
3.1.2. Agrocombustibles Subproductos agrícolas y agroindustriales Subproductos pecuarios Cultivos energéticos
3.1.3. Subproductos de origen municipal
3.2. Resumen de resultados
4. Aplicaciones de las tecnologías bioenergéticas
4.1. Aplicaciones para el sector urbano e industrial
4.1.1. Combustibles líquidos (plantas de bioetanol y biodiesel) Bioetanol Alternativas tecnológicas Situación mundial Situación en México Biodiesel Alternativas tecnológicas Situación mundial Situación en México
4.1.2. Combustibles gaseosos (digestión anaerobia y gasificación) Biogás Alternativas tecnológicas Situación mundial Situación en México Gas de síntesis y gasifícadores Alternativas tecnológicas Situación mundial Situación en México
4.1.3. Combustión directa para generación de energía térmica y energía eléctrica Energía térmica y energía eléctrica Alternativas tecnológicas Situación mundial Situación en México
4.2. Aplicaciones para el sector rural
4.2.1. Situación internacional
4.2.2. Situación en México La leña Sector doméstico Pequeñas industrias (PI)
4.2.3. Potencial y oportunidades
5. Escenarios de bioenergía en México
5.1. Metodología
5.2. Sector energético
5.2.1. Resultados sector energético e industrial Plantaciones energéticas para generación de servicio eléctrico Generación global de electricidad proveniente de la bioenergía
5.3. Sector transporte
5.3.1. Resultados sector transporte
5.4. Sector residencial
5.4.1. Resultados sector residencial
5.5. Conclusiones
6. Estrategias para la promoción de la bioenergía en México
6.1. Factores que determinan la necesidad de la política pública de fomento de la Bioenergía
6.2. Barreras que afectan el desarrollo de la bioenergía en México
6.2.1. Barreras técnicas
6.2.2. Barreras económicas
6.2.3. Barreras regulatorias e institucionales
6.2.4. Barreras sociales y culturales
6.3. Elementos para una estrategia nacional de fomento de la bioenergía en México
6.3.1. Investigación y desarrollo tecnológico
6.3.2. Desarrollo de mercados
6.3.3. Fortalecimiento institucional
7. Conclusiones
Anexo 1 Directorio de instituciones y personas que trabajan en bioenergía
Anexo 2 Directorio de estudios de caso en México
Anexo 3 Marco jurídico relacionado con la bioenergía en México

*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Carbon mitigation scenarios for mexican forests: methodological considerations and results
Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (autor) ;
Contenido en: Interciencia Vol. 20, no. 6 (Nov.-Dic. 1995), p. 388-395 ISSN: 0378-1844
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
SIBE San Cristóbal
28922-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal

- Artículo con arbitraje
Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation
Skutsch, M. (coaut.) ; Bird, N. (coaut.) ; Trines, E. (coaut.) ; Dutschke, M. (coaut.) ; Frumhoff, P. (coaut.) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (coaut.) ; van Laake, P. (coaut.) ; Masera Cerutti, Omar Raúl (coaut.) ; Murdiyarso, D. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Environmental Science and Policy Vol. 10, no. 4 (June 2007), p. 322-334 ISSN: 1462-9011
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised.

Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

CO FIX modelling framework for quantifying carbon sequestration forest ecosystems Dedication dedicate this document the memory Jos Garza Caligaris better known Pepe Pepe was member the CASFOR project since its inception part the UNAM team was charge programming the first two versions the FIX model also set the basic software structure for the new versions the program Pepe was energetic imaginative incredibly hard working and insightful had critical mind always looking the most efficient path solving complex issues Pepe was full joy and had strong social commitment Above all was wonderful friend and great companion will always miss him Acknowledgements The FIX model was developed the CASFOR project CASFOR was financed through the European Commission INCO programme ICA Additional funding was received from the North South programme the Dutch Ministry Agriculture Nature Management and Food Quality and the Mexican National Council Science and Technology CONACYT under project Alterra rapport FIX modelling framework for quantifying carbon sequestration forest ecosystems Schelhaas van Esch Groen de Jong Kanninen Liski Masera Mohren Nabuurs Palosuo Pedroni Vallejo Vil Alterra rapport Alterra Wageningen ABSTRACT Schelhaas W van Esch Groen de Jong Kanninen Liski Masera Mohren Nabuurs Palosuo Pedroni Vallejo Vil FIX modelling framework for quantifying carbon sequestration forest ecosystems Wageningen Alterra Alterrarapport blz figs tables refs This report describes the conceptual approac.