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28 resultados encontrados para: AUTOR: Philpott, Stacy M.
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1.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Beyond reserves: a research agenda for conserving biodiversity in human-modified tropical landscapes
Chazdon, Robin L. ; Harvey, Celia Alice (coaut.) ; Komar, Oliver (coaut.) ; Griffith, Daniel M. (coaut.) ; Ferguson, Bruce G. (coaut.) (1967-) ; Martínez Ramos, Miguel (coaut.) ; Morales, H. (coaut.) ; Soto Pinto, Lorena (coaut.) (1958-) ; van Breugel, Michiel (coaut.) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biotropica Vol. 41, No. 2 (March 2009), p. 142-153 ISSN: 0006-3606
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
47231-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

To truly understand the current status of tropical diversity and to forecast future trends, we need to increase emphasis on the study of biodiversity in rural landscapes that are actively managed or modified by people. We present an integrated landscape approach to promote research in human-modified landscapes that includes the effects of landscape structure and dynamics on conservation of biodiversity, provision of ecosystem services, and sustainability of rural livelihoods. We propose research priorities encompassing three major areas: biodiversity, human-environment interactions, and restoration ecology. We highlight key areas where we lack knowledge and where additional understanding is most urgent for promoting conservation and sustaining rural livelihoods. Finally, we recommend participatory and multidisciplinary approaches in research and management. Lasting conservation efforts demand new alliances among conservation biologists, agroecologists, agronomists, farmers, indigenous peoples, rural social movements, foresters, social scientists, and land managers to collaborate in research, co-design conservation programs and policies, and manage human-modified landscapes in ways that enhance biodiversity conservation and promote sustainable livelihoods.


2.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Local and Landscape Drivers of Ant Parasitism in a Coffee Landscape
De la Mora, Aldo ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (coaut.) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (coaut.) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Environmental Entomology Vol. 44, no. 4 (Aug. 2015), p. 939-950 ISSN: 0046-225X
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Parasitism of ants that nest in rotting wood by eucharitid wasps was studied in order to examine whether habitat and season influence ant parasitism, vegetation complexity and agrochemical use correlate with ant parasitism, and whether specific local and landscape features of agricultural landscapes correlate with changes in ant parasitism. In a coffee landscape, 30 coffee and 10 forest sites were selected in which local management (e.g., vegetation, agrochemical use) and landscape features (e.g., distance to forest, percent of rustic coffee nearby) were characterized. Rotten logs were sampled and ant cocoons were collected from logs and cocoons were monitored for parasitoid emergence. Sixteen ant morphospecies in three ant subfamilies (Ectatomminae, Ponerinae, and Formicinae) were found. Seven ant species parasitized by two genera of Eucharitidae parasitoids (Kapala and Obeza) were reported and some ant–eucharitid associations were new. According to evaluated metrics, parasitism did not differ with habitat (forest, high-shade coffee, low-shade coffee), but did increase in the dry season for Gnamptogenys ants. Parasitism increased with vegetation complexity for Gnamptogenys and Pachycondyla and was high in sites with both high and low agrochemical use. Two landscape variables and two local factors positively correlated with parasitism for some ant genera and species. Thus, differences in vegetation complexity at the local and landscape scale and agrochemical use in coffee landscapes alter ecological interactions between parasitoids and their ant hosts.


3.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Local and landscape drivers of biodiversity of four groups of ants in coffee landscapes
De la Mora, Aldo ; Murnen, C. J. (coaut.) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biodiversity and Conservation Vol. 22, no. 4 (2013), p. 871–888 ISSN: 0960-3115
PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Agriculture of varying management intensity dominates fragmented tropical areas and differentially impacts organisms across and within taxa. We examined impacts of local and landscape characteristics on four groups of ants in an agricultural landscape in Chiapas, Mexico comprised of forest fragments and coffee agroecosystems varying in habitat quality. We sampled ground ants found in leaf litter and rotten logs and arboreal ants found in hollow coffee twigs and on tree trunks. Then using vegetation and agro- chemical indices and conditional inference trees, we examined the relative importance of local (e.g. vegetation, elevation, agrochemical) and landscape variables (e.g. distance to and amount of nearby forest and rustic coffee) for predicting richness and abundance of ants. Leaf litter ant abundance increased with vegetation complexity; richness and abun- dance of ants from rotten logs, twig-nests, and tree trunks were not affected by vegetation complexity. Agrochemical use did not affect species richness or abundance of any ant group. Several local factors (including humus mass, degree of decay of logs, number of hollow twigs, tree circumference, and absence of fertilizers) were significant positive predictors of abundance and richness of some ant groups. Two landscape factors (forest within 200 m, and distance from forest) predicted richness and abundance of twig-nesting and leaf litter ants. Thus, different ant groups were influenced by different characteristics of agricultural landscapes, but all responded primarily to local characteristics. Given that ants provide ecosystem services (e.g. pest control) in coffee farms, understanding ant responses to local and landscape characteristics will likely inform farm management decisions.


4.
- Artículo con arbitraje
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Wood-nesting ants and their parasites in forests and coffee agroecosystems
De la Mora, Aldo ; Philpott, Stacy M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Environmental Entomology Vol. 39, no. 5 (October 2010), p. 1473-1481 ISSN: 0046-225X
Bibliotecas: Tapachula
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
27180-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-Tapachula
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Agricultural intensification is linked to reduced species richness and may limit the effectiveness of predators in agricultural systems. We studied the abundance, diversity, and species composition of wood-nesting ants and frequency of parasitism of poneromorph ants in coffee agroecosystems and a forest fragment in Chiapas, Mexico. In three farms differing in shade management and in a nearby forest fragment, we surveyed ants nesting in rotten wood. We collected pupae of all poneromorph ants encountered, and incubated pupae for 15 d to recover emerging ant parasites. If no parasites emerged, we dissected pupae to examine for parasitism. Overall, we found 63 ant morphospecies, 29 genera, and 7 subfamilies from 520 colonies. There were no significant differences in ant richness or abundance between the different sites. However, there were significant differences in the species composition of ants sampled in the four different sites. The parasitism rates of ants differed according to site; in the forest 77.7% of species were parasitized, and this number declined with increasing intensification in traditional polyculture (40%), commercial polyculture (25%), and shade monoculture (16.6%). For three of four poneromorph species found in >1 habitat, parasitism rates were higher in the more vegetatively complex sites. The result that both ant species composition and ant parasitism differed among by site indicates that coffee management intensification affects wood-nesting ant communities. Further, coffee intensification may significantly alter interactions between ants and their parasites, with possible implications for biological control in coffee agroecosystems.


5.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Arboreal ant abundance and leaf miner damage in coffee agroecosystems in Mexico
De la Mora, Aldo ; Livingston, George A. (coaut.) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Biotropica Vol. 40, no. 6 (November 2008), p. 742-746 ISSN: 0006-3606
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
46895-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
PDF
Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Agroecosistemas de café con sombra tradicionalmente tienen pocos problemas de plagas debido potencialmente a la alta abundancia y diversidad de depredadores. Sin embargo, con la intensificación de cafetales (e.g. remoción o poda de la sombra), algunos problemas de plagas aumentan. Por ejemplo, erupciones del minador de la hoja del café están vinculadas con manejo de sombra más intensivo e aumentos en el uso de agroquímicos. Evidencia demuestra que avispas parasitoides controlan al minador de la hoja del café, pero pocos estudios han examinado la función de los depredadores, como las hormigas, que son abundantes y diversas en cafetales. Acá, examinamos vinculaciones entre comunidades de hormigas arbóreas e incidencia del minador de la hoja del café en cafetales en el sur de México. Examinamos la relación entre incidencia y severidad de ataque del minador y (1) variabilidad en cobertura del dosel, densidad de árboles, diversidad de árboles, abundancia relativa de árboles de Inga spp., (2) presencia de Azteca instabilis, una hormiga arbórea y dominante, y (3) el numero de especies y de nidos de hormigas arbóreas que habitan en las ramas de café. Encontramos que diferencias en vegetación entre parcelas no correlacionaron con daño del minador. Además, presencia de A. instabilis no influyó en la presencia o severidad de daño del minador. La proporción de hojas con daño del minador bajó significativamente en áreas en donde la abundancia de hormigas que habitan en las ramas de café era mayor pero no en donde la riqueza era mayor. Estos resultados indican que la abundancia de hormigas que habitan en las ramas de café en cafetales de sombra quizás contribuye en mantener bajas las poblaciones del minador, además que hormigas proveen servicios al ecosistema importantes en agroecosistemas del café.

Resumen en inglés

Shaded coffee agroecosystems traditionally have few pest problems potentially due to higher abundance and diversity of predators of herbivores. However, with coffee intensification (e.g., shade tree removal or pruning), some pest problems increase. For example, coffee leaf miner outbreaks have been linked to more intensive management and increased use of agrochemicals. Parasitic wasps control the coffee leaf miner, but few studies have examined the role of predators, such as ants, that are abundant and diverse in coffee plantations. Here, we examine linkages between arboreal ant communities and coffee leaf miner incidence in a coffee plantation in Mexico. We examined relationships between incidence and severity of leaf miner attack and: (1) variation in canopy cover, tree density, tree diversity, and relative abundance of Inga spp. shade trees; (2) presence of Azteca instabilis, an arboreal canopy dominant ant; and (3) the number of arboreal twig-nesting ant species and nests in coffee plants. Differences in vegetation characteristics in study plots did not correlate with leaf miner damage perhaps because environmental factors act on pest populations at a larger spatial scale. Further, presence of A. instabilis did not influence presence or severity of leaf miner damage. The proportion of leaves with leaf miner damage was significantly lower where abundance of twig-nesting ants was higher but not where twig-nesting ant richness was higher. These results indicate that abundance of twig-nesting ants in shaded coffee plantations may contribute to maintenance of low leaf miner populations and that ants provide important ecosystem services in coffee agroecosystems.


6.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Local, landscape, and diversity drivers of predation services provided by ants in a coffee landscape in Chiapas, Mexico
De la Mora Rodríguez, Aldo Alejandro ; García Ballinas, José Álvaro (coaut.) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment Vol. 201, (March 2015), p. 83–91 ISSN: 0167-8809
PDF
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Agricultural management and the landscape surrounding farms impact biological diversity and ecosystem services, such as predation, in agroecosystems. Diversified coffee agroecosystems harbor biodiversity, and maintain ecosystem services, especially when in complex landscapes, and when diversity of organisms providing services is maintained. But few have examined whether biological diversity, per se, or the local and landscape habitat features are stronger drivers of the services provided. We studied the relationships between local characteristics associated with agricultural management (vegetation complexity and agrochemical use), landscape surroundings of farms, abundance and richness of ants, and predation services provided by ants in a tropical coffee landscape. Specifically, we tested whether: (1) ants remove prey items and prey removal differs in the wet and dry season, (2) ant prey removal differs in farms that vary in vegetation complexity and agrochemical use, (3) ant prey removal differs with changes in ant abundance and species richness, and (4) ant prey removal differs with changes in local and landscape characteristics. We established sites across a range of coffee management systems, at varying distances to forest fragments, and in forest fragments and examined prey removal by ants on the ground, coffee branches, and shade tree trunks in the wet and dry season. Prey removal did not differ with season. Prey removal on the ground increased within increases in ant abundance and richness, and number of hollow coffee twigs.

Prey removal on coffee plants decreased with vegetation complexity, but increased with ant abundance and richness, coffee density (a local factor), and rustic coffee within 200 m (a landscape factor). Prey removal on trees declined with vegetation complexity, but increased with abundance and richness of ants. Characteristics of the ant community were consistent predictors of prey removal, whereas local and landscape habitat features were less important, and only three habitat features correlated with prey removal. Our results demonstrate the positive effects of ant diversity for predatory function, and that promoting pest control services within coffee agroecosystems may be best accomplished by manipulating ant abundance and richness, or vegetation factors that correlate with ants.


7.
Tesis - Doctorado
Hormigas en cafetales: estudio sobre la calidad de la matriz en fincas cafetaleras en el Soconusco, Chiapas / Aldo Alejandro de la Mora Rodríguez
De la Mora Rodríguez, Aldo Alejandro ; Ibarra Núñez, Guillermo (director) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (codirectora) ; Lachaud, Jean Paul (asesor) ; Pérez Lachaud, Gabriela (asesora) ; Soto Pinto, Lorena (asesora) (1958-) ;
Tapachula, Chiapas, México : El Colegio de la Frontera Sur , 2014
Clasificación: TE/595.796097275 / M67
Cerrar
SIBE Campeche
ECO040005482 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Chetumal
ECO030008232 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
ECO010017601 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Tapachula
ECO020013100 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Cerrar
SIBE Villahermosa
ECO050005678 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Resumen en español

La intensificación de agroecosistemas afecta la diversidad de la flora y fauna. Los objetivos fueron: conocer los efectos de la intensificación agronómica de cafetales y de los remanentes de bosque sobre la diversidad de hormigas, la relación entre la diversidad de hormigas y la remoción de insectos presa por parte de éstas y finalmente, analizar cómo afectan las variables locales y de paisaje a la tasa de parasitismo en las diferentes especies de hormigas en un agroecosistema de café. Se establecieron 40 sitios experimentales (400 m² cada uno) en siete fincas de café y en fragmentos de bosque en el Soconusco, Chiapas. Se calculó un índice de complejidad de vegetación (IVC), y mediante encuestas al personal de las fincas sobre el uso y frecuencia de aplicación de agroquímicos se elaboró un índice de agroquímicos (IA). Con los datos de la vegetación se clasificaron los 40 sitios experimentales en diferentes manejos del área de estudio en: monocultivos (17 sitios), policultivos (13 sitios) y bosques (10 sitios). Con los programas ArcView, y ArcMap se calcularon las siguientes variables de paisaje: distancia de cada sitio al borde del bosque, áreas con radios de 50, 200 y 500 m para sitios de bosques y de café de tipo rústico. En cada sitio, en las temporadas de secas y lluvias, se colectaron las hormigas del suelo, cafetos y arboles con diversos métodos de muestreo.

Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que los factores de manejo agronómico y la influencia de fragmentos de bosque afectan la diversidad y abundancia de hormigas e indirectamente influyen positivamente en los servicios ecosistémicos que las hormigas ofrecen. Sin embargo, la intensidad de parasitismo sufrido por las hormigas es afectada principalmente por factores del paisaje, la cantidad de humus y numero de pupas para ciertos grupos de hormigas. Se propone realizar acciones de diversificación de las zonas de café empleando diferentes especies de árboles para sombra (preferentemente nativos) o plantar diversas especies de Inga, con el fin de proveer refugio y alimentación para los diferentes organismos que existen y así favorecer las interacciones ecológicas entre ellos, favoreciendo una mejor calidad de la matriz agrícola que promovería sustentabilidad, economía y salud de los productores en la región.

Índice

Resumen
Capítulo I
1.1. Introducción General
1.1.1. Contexto global de la biodiversidad
1.1.2. Agroecosistemas de café: Factores de intensificación y de paisaje que inciden en la funcionalidad del agroecosistema
1.1.3. Hormigas como indicadoras de diversidad y su importancia ecológica
1.2 Hipótesis y Objetivos
1.2.1. Hipótesis general e hipótesis particulares
1.2.2 Objetivo general y objetivos particulares
1.3. Metodología General
1.3.1. Caracterización del área de estudio y técnicas de muestreo utilizadas
1.3.2. Análisis estadísticos
Capítulo II. Factores locales y de paisaje promueven la biodiversidad de cuatro grupos de hormigas en paisajes cafetaleros (Local and landscape drivers of biodiversity of four guilds of ants in coffee landscapes. Biodiversity Conservation, 22:871-888)
Capítulo III. Factores locales, del paisaje y de diversidad promueven los servicios ecosistemicos de depredación por hormigas en cafetales (Local, landscape, and diversity drivers of predation services provided by ants in coffee landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Manuscript re-submitted
Number : AGEE10440)
Capítulo IV. Factores locales y de paisaje promueven el parasitismo en un paisaje de café (Local and landscape drivers of ant parasitism in a coffee landscape. Environmental Entomology, Manuscrito sometido)
Capítulo V. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones
Capítulo VI.- Literatura Citada
Anexo 1
Acuse de artículo aceptado: Local and landscape drivers of biodiversity of four guilds of ants in coffee landscapes. Biodiversity Conservation, 22:871-888
Anexo 2
Normas editoriales de Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment



PDF
Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

En junio de 2008 convocamos un foro-taller en Chiapas, México para potencializar alianzas entre organizaciones campesinas, conservacionistas y académicos. Los ponentes trazaron la evolución de las relaciones entre sistemas productivos, bosques y biodiversidad desde la época prehispánica hasta la actual crisis de la economía neoliberal y la agricultura industrial. También delinearon un nuevo paradigma para la conservación en donde los campesinos son protagonistas. En grupos de trabajo, elaboramos propuestas para cimentar una agenda común entre los distintos sectores representados. Las redes de cooperación emergieron como estructuras para coordinar acción y facilitar el intercambio de información y apoyo a distintas escalas geográficas. Los mercados solidarios son la confluencia de diversos intereses en dónde se pueden constituir dichas redes. También identificamos algunos temas específicos de trabajo, entre ellos: los agrocombustibles y la soberanía energética, los servicios ambientales y la educación para el campo. La biodiversidad y la soberanía alimentaria y territorial son los ejes de esta agenda de cooperación, que forma parte de una lucha internacional para reconstruir nuestros sistemas alimenticios.

Resumen en inglés

In June, 2008, we convoked a forum and workshop in Chiapas, Mexico to strengthen alliances among farmers’ organizations, conservationists and academics. Speakers outlined the evolution of the relations among production systems, forests and biodiversity from the prehispanic era through the current crisis in the neoliberal economic model and industrial agriculture. They also framed a new conservation paradigm that prioritizes the role of farmers. We formed working groups that elaborated proposals for collaboration among the participating sectors. Cooperative networks emerged as appropriate structures for coordinating action and facilitating the exchange of information and support at various geographic scales. Solidarity-based markets are a venue where diverse interests converge, favoring the formation of such networks. We also identified some specific issues for collaboration, including: agrofuels and energy sovereignty, environmental services and rural education. Biodiversity and food sovereignty are the two axes of this agenda for cooperation that forms part of an international struggle to reconstruct our food systems.


10.
Artículo
*En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Azteca instabilis ants and the defence of a coffee shade tree: an ant-plant association without mutual rewards in Chiapas, México
Gonthier, David J. ; Pardee, Gabriella L. (coaut.) ; Philpott, Stacy M. (coaut.) ;
Contenido en: Journal of Tropical Ecology Vol. 26, part 3 (January 2010), p. 343-346 ISSN: 0266-4674
Bibliotecas: San Cristóbal
Cerrar
SIBE San Cristóbal
49288-10 (Disponible)
Disponibles para prestamo: 1
Nota: En hemeroteca, SIBE-San Cristóbal
Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are important predators of herbivorous insects on plants (Rosumek et al. 2009). Ant removal or absence may result in negative indirect effects on plants, as herbivore abundance and herbivory increase and plant growth and reproduction decline (Rosumek et al. 2009, Schmitz et al. 2000). Ant presence on plants often results from a mutualistic interaction. For example, strong highly coevolved ant–plant mutualisms are found on myrmecophytic plants that house ants in domatia (specialized nesting sites). Weaker mutualistic associations are found with myrmecophilic plants that only offer extra-floral nectaries (EFNs) or food bodies to attract ants, or on other plants hosting honeydew-producing hemipterans (indirect ant–plant interactions) that mediate ant abundance (Hölldobler & Wilson 1990). However, in most cases, plants and arboreal ants form more passive associations, where ants nest in the natural cavities of branches or bark, or construct carton nests on plant substrates (Hölldobler & Wilson 1990) and the only reward plants offer these ants is the use of their substrates. In these situations the indirect effect of ants on plants is merely by chance, a byproduct of ant presence (byproduct association).