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617 resultados encontrados para: TEMA: Bosques tropicales
11.
Tesis - Maestría
Resumen en español

El estudio de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal (PGPR) se ha orientado a la interacción de este grupo de bacterias con plantas de interés experimental y agrícola; sin embargo, se conoce poco sobre su efecto en la producción de especies forestales tropicales, como la caoba (Swetenia macrophylla King); cabe mencionar, que esta especie es una de las más utilizadas en lo programas de reforestación con fines de conservación y producción en el sureste mexicano. Su reproducción por lo general se lleva a cabo en viveros y es la calidad de las plantas producidas un factor limitante para el éxito de su establecimiento y sobrevivencia en campo. Se reporta que esta especie presenta lento crecimiento y desarrollo radicular en etapas tempranas de su producción, por lo que en esta investigación se propuso estudiar el efecto de 10 cepas de PGPR en etapas tempranas de desarrollo de caoba. Las cepas de PGPR evaluadas fueron seleccionadas por sus antecedentes de promoción vegetal en especies de interés agrícola y ornamental. El bioensayo se conformó de 10 tratamientos inoculados con cada una cepas bacterianas y un tratamiento control; cada tratamiento contó con 15 plantas en total (5 plantas por repetición) y la duración del experimento fue de tres meses a partir de que se alcanzó el 50% de germinación de las semillas. Las plantas se establecieron bajo el esquema de producción a raíz cubierta, complementándose con una fertilización inicial en ausencia de reguladores de crecimiento, fungicidas y bactericidas. La región 16S del ADNr de las cepas inoculadas se secuenció por el método de Sanger para verificar su identidad y posteriormente su presencia en las raíces se corroboró mediante la secuenciación masiva del 16S del ADNr provenientes de muestras compuesta de dicho tejido.

Los resultados indican que las cepas de PGPR indujeron respuestas distintas en las plantas, principalmente en aumento de biomasa vegetal (expresada en peso seco total); la cepa IPA 47 (Bacillus sp.) presentó un aumento del 39% en la biomasa de hojas, la cepa IPA 38 (B. polyfermenticus) incrementó un 42% en la biomasa de hojas y un 23% tallos, y la cepa IPA 52 (B. siamensis) un 44% en la biomasa de hojas y 30% en la biomasa de raíces. Asimismo, se apreciaron respuestas de sanidad vegetal en los tratamientos inoculados con la IPA 38, IPA 52 e IPA 25 (B. subtilis) debido a que los individuos de los tratamientos no presentaron mortandad. Todas las cepas inoculadas pertenecieron al género Bacillus y su presencia se confirmó en los tratamientos inoculados a excepción del control negativo, donde no se identificaron bacterias de dicho género. Con base en lo anterior, nuestros resultados muestran que algunas cepas de PGPR fueron capaces de inducir incrementos de biomasa aérea y radicular en caoba.

Índice

Dedicatoria y agradecimientos
Índice
Resumen
Capítulo 1. Introducción
1.1 Pregunta de investigación
1.2 Hipótesis
1.3 Objetivo general
1.4 Objetivos particulares
Capítulo 2. Artículo científico
Capítulo 3. Conclusiones
Literatura citada


12.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
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Holocene paleoecology and paleoclimatology of South and Southeastern Mexico: a palynological and geospatial approach
Islebe, Gerald A. (autor) ; Carrillo Bastos, Alicia (autor) ; Aragón Moreno, Alejandro Antonio (autor) ; Valdéz Hernández, Mirna (autor) ; Torrescano Valle, Nuria (autor) ; Cabanillas Terán, Nancy (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: The holocene and anthropocene environmental history of Mexico: a paleoecological approach on Mesoamerica / editors: Nuria Torrescano Valle, Gerald A. Islebe, Priyadarsi D. Roy Cham, Switzerland : Springer International Publishing, 2019 páginas 195-207 ISBN:978-3-030-31718-8
Bibliotecas: Campeche , Chetumal , San Cristóbal
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59784-30 (Disponible)
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SIBE Chetumal
59784-20 (Disponible)
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59784-10 (Disponible)
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Resumen en español

Reconstruction of Holocene paleoecological conditions and paleoclimate of an area with high biological diversity and a variety of climatic conditions like southern and southeastern Mexico is complex. This region is characterized by vegetation types ranging from tropical forest to high mountain vegetation. Additionally, this region was inhabited by the ancient Maya culture, which shaped the landscape for several millennia. Previous paleoecological studies from this region were focused on the Maya culture-environment relationships, to decipher natural and human-induced deforestation. These studies also aimed to understand the effects of climatic regional forcing (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the natural vegetation. In this chapter we review the paleoecological results and present a new geospatial approach to analyze past precipitation and tropical forest distribution of the Yucatán Peninsula from 1 AD to 1700 AD in 100-year intervals. The geospatial analysis revealed heterogeneity in spatial patterns of precipitation and tropical forest extension during the Late Preclassic, Terminal Classic, and Medieval Warm Period to Little Ice Age transition. The dry periods of the Middle and Late Holocene in the Yucatán Peninsula and southern Mexico can be chronologically placed in the following intervals: 4700–3600 cal year BP, 3400–2500 cal year BP, 2300–2100 cal year BP, 1900–1700 cal year BP, 1400–1300 cal year BP, 730 cal year BP, and 560 cal year BP. We conclude that this region requires additional studies with strong chronological framework due to its heterogeneous environmental conditions.


13.
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Insights of the movements of the jaguar in the tropical forests of southern Mexico
De la Torre, José Antonio (autor) ; Rivero Hernández, Crysia Marina (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Movement ecology of neotropical forest mammals: focus on social animals / Rafael Reyna-Hurtado, Colin A. Chapman, editors Switzerland, Suiza : Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2019 páginas 217-241
Bibliotecas: Campeche
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10933-20 (Disponible)
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Movement is a critical animal behavior which reflects animal response to its current biological needs and to its environment. Comprehending how and why the animals use the available space and the underlying drivers of animal movements is essential to the management and conservation for both species and ecosystems. This chapter aims to understand and describe the movements of the largest felid of the Neotropics, the jaguar (Panthera onca), through different approaches with the purpose to contribute to the existing knowledge of the spatial ecology of this species and to design strong conservation actions for the jaguar in the tropical forest of Central America. We described the movement ecology of jaguars in tropical forests using the information of five individuals fitted with satellite GPS collars in the Greater Lacandona Ecosystem, Chiapas, Mexico. We estimate the home range of jaguars through the autocorrelated kernel density estimation and compare it with different studies implemented throughout the species range. Using the movement-based kernel approach analyzed under the biased random bridge model, we identify the areas that were intensively used and repeatedly visited by the jaguars inside their home range.

The biased random bridge allowed having a more dynamic and realistic approach to describe the space use and habitat selection by jaguars which complement the information about the movements of the species for the region. Finally, we evaluate the movement decisions of jaguars by the step selection function to identify which landscape variables influence the movement behavior of the species in the Greater Lacandona Ecosystem. The development of new movement models and analytical tools have allowed to make more precise inferences regarding the space use and movements of secretive tropical species such as the jaguar which should translate in better conservation strategies to ensure their long-term conservation.


14.
Libro
Movement ecology of neotropical forest mammals: focus on social animals / Rafael Reyna-Hurtado, Colin A. Chapman, editors
Disponible en línea: Movement ecology of neotropical forest mammals: focus on social animals.
Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (editor) ; Chapman, Colin A. (editor) ;
Geneva, Switzerland : Springer Nature Switzerland AG , 2019
Clasificación: EE/599.098 / M6
Bibliotecas: Campeche
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SIBE Campeche
ECO040006971 (Disponible)
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Índice | Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

This book brings a unique perspective to animal movement studies because all cases came from tropical environments where the great diversity, either biological and structurally (trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes), presents the animal with several options to fulfill its live requirements. These conditions have forced the evolution of unique movement patterns and ecological strategies. Movement is an essential process in the life of all organisms. Animals move because they are hungry, thirsty, to avoid being eaten, or because they want to find mates. Understanding the causes and consequences of animal movement is not an easy task for behavioural ecologists. Many animals are shy, move in secretive ways and are very sensible to human presence, therefore, studying the movements of mammals in tropical environments present logistical and methodological challenges that have recently started to be solved by ecologist around the world. In this book we are compiling a set of extraordinary cases where researchers have used some of the modern technology and the strongest methodological approaches to understand movement patterns in wild tropical mammals. We hope this book will inspire and encourage young researchers to investigate wild mammal´s movements in some of the amazing tropical environments of the world.

Índice

1 Why Movement Ecology Matters
2 The Impact of Hurricane Otto on Baird’s Tapir Movement in Nicaragua’s Indio Maíz Biological Reserve
3 White-Lipped Peccary Home-Range Size in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and México
4 White-Lipped Peccary Movement and Range in Agricultural Lands of Central Brazil
5 Movements of White-Lipped Peccary in French Guiana
6 Spatial Ecology of a Large and Endangered Tropical Mammal: The White-Lipped Peccary in Darién, Panama
7 Movements of Neotropical Forest Deer: What Do We Know?
8 Daily Traveled Distances by the White-Tailed Deer in Relation to Seasonality and Reproductive Phenology in a Tropical Lowland of Southeastern Mexico
9 Terrestrial Locomotion and Other Adaptive Behaviors in Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra) Living in Forest Fragments
10 Variation in Space Use and Social Cohesion Within and Between Four Groups of Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii) in Relation to Fruit Availability and Mating Opportunities at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Ecuador
11 Home Range and Daily Traveled Distances of Highland Colombian Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha lugens): Comparing Spatial Data from GPS Collars and Direct Follows
12 Ranging Responses to Fruit and Arthropod Availability by a Tufted Capuchin Group (Sapajus apella) in the Colombian Amazon
13 Insights of the Movements of the Jaguar in the Tropical Forests of Southern Mexico
14 Movements and Home Range of Jaguars (Panthera onca) and Mountain Lions (Puma concolor) in a Tropical Dry Forest of Western Mexico
15 Next Moves: The Future of Neotropical Mammal Movement Ecology
Index


15.
- Capítulo de libro con arbitraje
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Next moves: the future of neotropical mammal movement ecology
Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (autor) ; Chapman, Colin A. (autor) ;
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Contenido en: Movement ecology of neotropical forest mammals: focus on social animals / Rafael Reyna-Hurtado, Colin A. Chapman, editors Switzerland, Suiza : Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2019 página 263-267 ISBN:978-3-030-03462-7
Bibliotecas: Campeche
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10934-20 (Disponible)
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

This book compiles a remarkable array of studies dealing with Neotropical mammal movement patterns and therefore presents a unique opportunity to analyze the state of the art of movement ecology of some of the rarest and secretive species that are top predators, important prey to those predators, and/or critical to maintaining the ecosystem services of the forest ecosystems they inhabit. In this last chapter, we attempt to summarize lessons learned from all chapters and advance the field with respect to our understanding of the causes and consequences of animal movements in tropical forests.


16.
- Artículo con arbitraje
Rebrote arbóreo en la regeneración del bosque tropical de Calakmul, Campeche, México
Haas Ek, María Alejandra (autora) ; González Valdivia, Noel Antonio (autor) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (autor) ; Ochoa Gaona, Susana (autora) ; Aryal, Deb Raj (coaut.) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Revista de Biologia Tropical Vol. 67, no. 1 (March 2019), p. 164-181 ISSN: 0034-7744
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Resumen en: Español | Inglés |
Resumen en español

Los estudios detallados para comprender como los bosques neotropicales se reestablecen en el tiempo, a través de la sucesión secundaria aún resultan necesarios. Entre los mecanismos de regeneración que actúan en los bosques tropicales, el rebrote de árboles predomina en especies leñosas, con la ventaja de reiniciar el crecimiento de raíces establecidas, que permiten restituir el dosel forestal. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar y cuantificar las especies arbóreas con capacidad de rebrote en distintas etapas de la sucesión secundaria (barbecho) después del sistema agrícola tradicional de milpa, comparadas con las comunidades del bosque tropical predominante en la Reserva de la Biósfera de Calakmul, y cómo influyen estas especies en la recuperación de la composición de este ecosistema. Se calculó el porcentaje de especies con y sin rebrote para cada etapa sucesional. Se registraron 13 972 individuos (32 % con rebrote y 68 % sin rebrote) y 168 especies (79 % con rebrote y 21 % sin rebrote), el porcentaje de individuos con rebrote va disminuyendo conforme avanza la edad de la sucesión. El número de individuos con rebrote y la composición de especies fueron significativamente diferentes entre etapas. Se puede concluir que la mayoría de especies arbóreas del bosque en Calakmul, presentan la capacidad de rebrotar, lo cual tiene influencia en el rápido proceso sucesional del bosque después de la roza-tumba y quema, restituyendo la cobertura y estructura forestal, así como la composición de las especies originales.

Resumen en inglés

Detailed studies to understand recovering of Neotropical forests over time, through secondary succession, are still necessaries. Between acting mechanisms of regeneration in the tropical forests, the arboreal resprout predominates in woody species, with the advantage of restart the growth from still rooting plants, allowing the restoring of forest canopy. The study aim was to identify and quantify the tree species with resprouting capacity in different stages of secondary succession (tree-fallow) after the traditional milpa agricultural system, compared with tropical forest communities in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve and, enlightening how these species influences the recovery of the composition of this ecosystem. Was calculated the proportions of species with or without resprouting by successional stage. There were 13972 individuals (32 % resprouting and 68 % not resprouting) and 168 species (79 % resprouting and 21 % not resprouting), the percentage of individuals regrowing decreases as the successional stage progresses. The number of individuals resprouting and species composition were significantly different between successional stages. In conclusion, mostly arboreal species in the region of Calakmul, can regrow, which influences the successional development of the forest after slash-and-burn, helping to restore the coverage, structure, as well as species composition original.


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Resumen en inglés

The role of invasive species in ecosystem functioning represents one of the mainchallenges in ecology.Pteridium aquilinumis a successful cosmopolitan invasive specieswith negative effects on the ecological mechanisms that allow secondary succession. Inthis study, we evaluated the influence of P. aquilinumon secondary succession underdifferent disturbances in a seasonal dry forest of the Yucatán Peninsula. We determined species richness, composition and the relative importance value in four sampling units. Fabaceae followed by Asteraceae, Meliaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Verbenaceaewere the most species rich families. A dissimilarity analysis determined significant differences in beta diversity between sampling units. With a generalized linear model wefound that species richness was best explained by site conditions, followed by calciumand soil organic matter. Also, the generalized linear model showed that abundanceresulted in a strong correlation with site conditions and soil characteristics. Specific soil conditions related to phosphoro and calcium were also detected as beneficiary tothe successional processes. Our results suggest that applying fire restriction and periodiccutting of the bracken fern, this can increase a higher diversity of species.


18.
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Succession and the relationship between vegetation and soil in the Marl Quarries of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
Valdéz Hernández, Mirna (autora) ; Gil Medina, Rossana (autora) ; López Martínez, Jorge Omar (autor) ; Torrescano Valle, Nuria (autora) ; Cabanillas Terán, Nancy (autora) ; Islebe, Gerald A. (autor) ;
Contenido en: Forests Vol. 10, no. 116 (2019), p. 1-13 ISSN: 1999-4907
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19.
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Wet and dry tropical forests show opposite successional pathways in wood density but converge over time
Poorter, Lourens (autor) ; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A. (autora) ; Bongers, Frans (autor) ; Almeida Cortez, Jarcilene Silva (autora) ; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica María (autora) ; Álvarez, Francisco S. (autor) ; Andrade, José Luis (autor) ; Arreola Villa, Luis Felipe (autor) ; Balvanera, Patricia (autora) ; Becknell, Justin M. (autor) ; Bentos, Tony V. (autor) ; Bhaskar, Radika (autora) ; Boukili, Vanessa (autora) ; Brancalion, Pedro H. S. (autor) ; Broadbent, Eben North (autor) ; César, Ricardo G. (autor) ; Chave, Jerome (autor) ; Chazdon, Robin L. (autor) ; Dalla Colletta, Gabriel (autor) ; Craven, Dylan (autor) ; De Jong, Bernardus Hendricus Jozeph (autor) ; Denslow, Julie Sloan (autora) ; Dent, Daisy H. (autora) ; DeWalt, Saara J. (autora) ; Díaz García, Elisa (autora) ; Dupuy Rada, Juan Manuel (autor) ; Durán, Sandra M. (autora) ; Espírito Santo, Mario M. (autor) ; Fandiño, María C. (autora) ; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson (autor) ; Finegan, Bryan (autor) ; Granda Moser, Vanessa (autora) ; Hall, Jefferson S. (autor) ; Hernández Stefanoni, José Luis (autor) ; Jakovac, Catarina C. (autora) ; Junqueira, André B. (autor) ; Kennard, Deborah (autra) ; Lebrija Trejos, Edwin (autor) ; Letcher, Susan G. (autora) ; Lohbeck, Madelon (autora) ; López, Omar R. (autor) ; Marín Spiotta, Erika (autora) ; Martínez Ramos, Miguel (autor) ; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio (autor) ; Massoca, Paulo E. S. (autor) ; Meave, Jorge A. (autor) ; Mesquita, Rita C. G (autora) ; Mora Ardila, Francisco (autor) ; Moreno, Vanessa de Souza (autora) ; Müller, Sandra C. (autora) ; Muñoz, Rodrigo (autor) ; Muscarella, Robert (autor) ; Nolasco de Oliveira Neto, Silvio (autor) ; Nunes, Yule R. F. (autor) ; Ochoa Gaona, Susana (autora) ; Paz, Horacio (autor) ; Peña Claros, Marielos (autor) ; Piotto, Daniel (autor) ; Ruíz, Jorge (autor) ; Sanaphre Villanueva, Lucía (autora) ; Sánchez Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo (autor) ; Schwartz, Naomi B. (autora) ; Steininger, Marc K. (autor) ; Thomas, William Wayt (autor) ; Toledo, Marisol (autora) ; Uriarte, María (autora) ; Utrera, Luis P. (autor) ; van Breugel, Michiel (autor) ; van der Sande, Masha T. (coaut.) ; Van Der Wal, Hans (coaut.) ; Veloso, María D. M. (autora) ; Vester, Henricus F. M. (autor) ; Vieira, Ima Celia G. (autora) ; Villa, Pedro Manuel (autor) ; Williamson, G. Bruce (autor) ; Wright, S. Joseph (autor) ; Zanini, Kátia J. (autora) ; Zimmerman, Jess K. (autor) ; Westoby, Mark (autor) ;
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Contenido en: Nature Ecology & Evolution Vol. 3, no. 6 (Jun 2019), p. 928–934 ISSN: 2397-334X
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

Tropical forests are converted at an alarming rate for agricultural use and pastureland, but also regrow naturally through secondary succession. For successful forest restoration, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of secondary succession. These mechanisms may vary across forest types, but analyses across broad spatial scales are lacking. Here, we analyse forest recovery using 1,403 plots that differ in age since agricultural abandonment from 50 sites across the Neotropics. We analyse changes in community composition using species-specific stem wood density (WD), which is a key trait for plant growth, survival and forest carbon storage. In wet forest, succession proceeds from low towards high community WD (acquisitive towards conservative trait values), in line with standard successional theory. However, in dry forest, succession proceeds from high towards low community WD (conservative towards acquisitive trait values), probably because high WD reflects drought tolerance in harsh early successional environments. Dry season intensity drives WD recovery by influencing the start and trajectory of succession, resulting in convergence of the community WD over time as vegetation cover builds up. These ecological insights can be used to improve species selection for reforestation. Reforestation species selected to establish a first protective canopy layer should, among other criteria, ideally have a similar WD to the early successional communities that dominate under the prevailing macroclimatic conditions.


20.
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White-lipped peccary home-range size in the maya forest of Guatemala and México
Moreira Ramírez, José Fernando (autor) ; Reyna Hurtado, Rafael Ángel (autor) ; Hidalgo Mihart, Mircea Gabriel (autor) ; Naranjo Piñera, Eduardo Jorge (autor) (1963-) ; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar (autor) ; García Anleu, Rony (autor) ; McNab, Roan (autor) ; Radachowsky, Jeremy (autor) ; Mérida, Melvin (autor) ; Briceño Méndez, Marcos Alberto (autor) ; Ponce Santizo, Gabriela (autora) ;
Disponible en línea
Contenido en: Movement ecology of neotropical forest mammals: focus on social animals / Rafael Reyna-Hurtado, Colin A. Chapman, editors Switzerland, Suiza : Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2019 página 21-37 ISBN:978-3-030-03462-7
Bibliotecas: Campeche
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9787-30 (Disponible)
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Resumen en: Inglés |
Resumen en inglés

The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, Link 1795) is a social ungulate that lives in large groups and performs large movements across tropical forest searching for food and water. White-lipped peccaries are an important food source among rural communities. Nevertheless, excessive hunting has caused the extirpation of this species from several areas in the Neotropics where it was previously common. Throughout its range it is considered vulnerable according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, but the Mesoamerican population has decreased in the last 20 years at alarming rates. Using satellite GPS collars, kernel density estimate (KDE), minimum convex polygon (MCP), and the autocorrelated kernel density estimation (AKDE), we estimated the spatial requirements of four white-lipped peccary groups in three sites with different levels of hunting pressure in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and México. Our results showed that the home range estimated in non-hunted sites were smaller than in hunted sites. The 95% KDE home range for non-hunted areas ranged between 40 and 99 km2, substantially smaller than that of the hunted area at 140 km2. Similarly, the 95% AKDE area estimates for non-hunted sites ranged from 62 to 156 km2, while for the hunted site, the 95% AKDE estimate was 312 km2. In non-hunted sites, dry season home ranges were constrained to the close vicinity of water ponds, whereas during the rainy season white-lipped peccary groups were more mobile.

In contrast, the home range was larger in the hunted site during the dry season compared with rainy season. Our results suggest that hunting pressure in the Maya Forest is probably affecting the behavior and ecology of the peccary group, causing them to move through larger areas with lower group size in hunted areas compared to non-hunted areas. We hope that these results encourage more studies focused on estimating white-lipped peccary home-range size in areas with hunting pressure and human activities.